En poursuivant votre navigation sur ce site, vous acceptez l'utilisation de cookies. Ces derniers assurent le bon fonctionnement de nos services. En savoir plus.

jeudi, 06 octobre 2011

The Fascists of Peru

The Fascists of Peru

Ex: http://xtremerightcorporate.blogspot.com/
One of the most prominent Peruvian leaders, often regarded as a fascist whether justly or not, was Raúl Ferrero Rebagliati. He was born on September 20, 1911 to an Italian father and Peruvian mother in Lima; Alfredo (a native of Turin, Italy) and Amelia (Rebagliati) Ferrero and was the fourth of six children. An academic and lawyer by trade he served as Dean of the Faculty of Law at the Catholic University of Peru, Dean of the College of Abogados de Lima and as a member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration of la Haya. He became known as an admirer of European fascism, not surprising considering his half-Italian roots and a supporter of Peruvian nationalism and broader national mobilization. Rebagliati was an early member of the ‘Revolutionary Union’ which was a political party founded in 1931 by Luis Miguel Sánchez Cerro to support his presidential dictatorship.

When Sánchez Cerro was assassinated in 1933 Rebagliati took over leadership of the Revolutionary Union and began to move it in a more recognizably fascist direction. He worked to mobilize mass support for the movement, adopting populist nationalist oratory, the Roman salute and even organized a paramilitary force of Blackshirts such as had brought Mussolini to power in Italy. However, electoral defeat in 1936 caused public confidence in the Revolutionary Union to drop and the movement soon faded away though Rebagliati himself remained a political presence of some note, serving as Prime Minister from 1966 to 1967, during the presidency of Fernando Belaúnde Terry and later as Minister of Foreign Affairs. Shortly after his movement began to dissolve he married Yolanda Costa, daughter of Carlo and Livia (Elice) Costa, in 1937 and by whom he had three children; Maria Elena, Raul Enrique and Augusto Ferrero. He died in Lima on April 22, 1977.

The only other Peruvian fascist of note was José de la Riva-Agüero y Osma who was born on February 26, 1885. He was the descendant of one of the early revolutionary leaders of Peru who, after seizing power, was the first to use the title of “President”. He studied at the National University of San Marcos and the University of Lima where he earned a PhD and then worked as Professor of History at San Marcos. History had always fascinated him, particularly the stories of dynamic national leaders like the Holy Roman Emperors and Napoleon Bonaparte. His entry into politics came in 1915 when he helped to found the moderate Democratic National Party. In 1919 he went to Europe for a time where he met many members of the rising Catholic radical right and read the works of right-wing Catholic nationalists like Jacques Bainville and Charles Maurras. He became convinced that their ideas where the proper basis on which the country should be organized and when he returned to his homeland he endeavored to put them into effect.

In 1930 Riva-Agüero returned to Peru and in 1933 was appointed Prime Minister, Minister of Justice and Minister of Public Education during the presidency of General Oscar R. Benavides; a former Peruvian field marshal, moderate conservative and enemy of communism. This gave him some political credentials but it was still insufficiently right-wing for Riva-Agüero and so he organized his own hard-line, far-right Catholic national movement called ‘Patriotic Action’ in imitation of the movement of Charles Maurras, ‘French Action’. Delving deeper into the social-political roots of Catholic corporatism he soon changed the name of his organization to the Peruvian Fascist Brotherhood. He probably had a more broadly recognized national image than any other figure advocating for the Catholic far-right and voicing support for the fascist regimes in Europe, namely Mussolini in Italy and General Franco in Spain. Although not as imitative of these regimes as some, his was a more traditionally based fascism suited to the place of Peru in the world.

For example, Riva-Agüero was a strong supporter of Hispanidad or the community of Spanish-speaking nations that had once made up the Spanish colonial empire. The inspiring success of General Franco and the Falange in Spain had caused a new vision to arise across Latin America which imagined the formation of strong, Catholic, nationalist (call it fascist/falangist as you like) across the nations of the former Spanish Empire to form a powerful economic and political Hispanic bloc that could be a major force in the world. It was a grand and praiseworthy vision but one, alas, not destined to get very far in the realm of reality. Riva-Agüero himself, after reaching a considerable degree of support and public notoriety began, like so many other fascists, to follow more the rising star of Nazi Germany and adopt strange and extreme ideas that seemed to have nothing to do with the situation in Peru which naturally began to turn people off.

In due time Riva-Agüero became increasingly anti-Semitic in his speeches and writings, something that had never been much of an issue in Peru where most people had never seen a Jew and had no idea who or what they were; as well as becoming an outspoken supporter and defender of Adolf Hitler. Not surprisingly, most of what Peru heard about Hitler they were not inclined to like. His exaltation of Germany meant nothing to them and his praise of racial purity was not likely to attract widespread support in a country dominated by a racially mixed population. Yet, Riva-Agüero was never a real Nazi and differed with Hitler on a number of points. For instance, whereas Hitler had stated his wish to abolish all class distinctions, Riva-Agüero supported the idea of the aristocracy and revived the use of the title of Marquis de Aulestia for himself, an old Spanish title of nobility that had long since fallen into disuse in his family. Rumors of increasingly odd behavior also put people off and his support soon faded away. The fascist career of Riva-Agüero officially came to an end in 1942 when Peru nominally entered World War II on the side of the Allies though he continued to defend his support for Hitler and the Axis nations until his death on October 26, 1944.