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jeudi, 17 septembre 2020

Immobile Warriors: Evola’s Post-War Career from the Perspective of Neville’s New Thought

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Immobile Warriors:
Evola’s Post-War Career from the Perspective of Neville’s New Thought

What has got to be gotten over is the false idea that a hallucination is a private matter.

— P. K. Dick [1] [1]

There is no fiction. What is fiction today will be a fact tomorrow. A book written as a fictional story today comes out of the imagination of the one who wrote it, and will become a fact in the tomorrows.

— Neville [2] [2]

4127dlLdp6L._SX331_BO1,204,203,200_.jpgGianfranco de Turris’ newly translated book on Julius Evola’s war years [3] [3] is a veritable secret archive of obscure and obscured information on Evola’s activities in the last two years of the Second World War and the immediate aftermath, all of which is used by the author to throw light on many occurrences that have remained poorly documented and, inevitably, subject to more or less informed speculation, if not outright gossip.

One of these is the injury Evola received in Vienna, which left him an invalid for the remainder of his life. Collin Cleary, in his review [4], gives a nice summary:

On January 21, 1945, Evola decided to take a walk through the streets of Vienna during an aerial bombardment by the Americans (and not the Soviets, as has been erroneously claimed). While he was in the vicinity of Schwarzenbergplatz, a bomb fell nearby, throwing Evola several feet and knocking him unconscious. He was found and taken to a military hospital. When the philosopher awoke hours later, the first thing he did was to ask what had become of his monocle. Once the doctors had finished looking him over, the news was not good. Evola was found to have a contusion of the spinal cord which left him with complete paralysis from the waist down. As Mircea Eliade notoriously said, the injury was roughly at the level of “the third chakra.” It resulted in Evola being categorized as a “100-percent war invalid,” which afforded him the small pension he received for the rest of his life.

An all-too-common tragedy of wartime. Yet with Evola, nothing is so simple. Speculation and rumor have swirled around this incident. If this is how Evola was injured, why was he engaged in such an apparently suicidal act (and indeed, “taking a walk . . . during an aerial bombardment” was actually a habit with him)? And if it wasn’t the cause, what was? As in the title of de Turris’ book, Evola is known as not only a philosopher but a magician: surely something spookier was involved? And indeed, since Evola was apparently in Vienna to examine Masonic documents, including rituals, the latter of which he intended to “rectify” and purify of anti-traditional elements, the idea of his being injured by an esoteric ritual gone wrong becomes possible (if one takes such things seriously).

De Turris deals with all these issues magisterially and has surely produced a definitive account (unless more documents turn up; he is a scrupulous scholar who admits when something is still unclear, and corrects his own earlier accounts when new information has appeared).

One amazing bit of information de Turris provides concerns novelizations of Evola’s situation, which inevitably take the Dan Brown path of giving magical accounts; no less than three, and two of them by Mircea Eliade! Both Il segerto del Graal by Paolo Virio (1955) and Diciannove rose by Eliade (1978) appeared after the incident (and in Eliade’s case after Evola’s death). The third novel, the first of Eliade’s two, is the most interesting; here is de Turris’ description:

It is also necessary to make reference to another novel by the Romanian author that is a most bewildering coincidence if not a real prophecy. Upon his return from his stay in India in 1931, Mircea Eliade would write some novels and short stories within that setting with its appropriate allusions; among this literary output is Il Segreto del Dottor Honigberger, published in 1940. The protagonist was a Saxon physician in the 1800s who had really existed. It first appeared in two parts in a magazine and a few months later, slightly but significantly expanded, in the form of a book accompanied by Notti a Serampore. The author makes reference to an inexperienced disciple who has remained paralyzed for having not known to thoroughly master the knowledge of his own discoveries on the spiritual plane when seeking to perfect a “yoga initiation.” The stupefying fact is that the name of this tragic character is J. E.! The young Mircea Eliade had known Julius Evola in Rome during his travels to Italy in the years 1927 to 1928, which was at the time of the Ur Group, and maintained a correspondence with him when he was in India. Is it perhaps possible that he just might have named the unfortunate spiritual researcher with the abbreviation J. E., since he was impressed by his personality and by his “occult” interests? Whatever it might be, the paralysis is described five years before the bombardment of Vienna, and the antecedents ascribed to it are the very rumors that surrounded Evola once he returned to Italy in 1951. Eliade probably had only learned of it on the occasion of another journey to the Italian Peninsula, where in 1952 he had another encounter with Evola. Or perhaps even after having only read Il cammino del cinabro [Evola gifted him a copy of the first edition in 1963]. Hence he consciously and deliberately made use of this for Diciannove rose. But to write of it before it had ever occurred in 1940. . . . [Author’s ellipsis, for spooky effect?]

So the stunning aspect in these novels is that both the authors, Paolo Virio and Mircea Eliade, knew what they were talking about. Both could boast of having sufficient experiences with initiatic methodologies, and both had long-lasting personal friendships with Julius Evola. . . . Had they deemed as insufficient the explanation of the bombing, considering it to be too prosaic, too banal for someone like him? And so they dreamed up in an equally effective and powerful evocation to describe the protagonist in their works.

EldritchEvola-KindleCoverB-200x300.jpgYou can buy James O’Meara’s book The Eldritch Evola here. [5]

Perhaps, but we should note again that this novel was published in 1940, “five years before the bombardment of Vienna, and the antecedents ascribed to [his injury] are the very rumors that surrounded Evola once he returned to Italy in 1951.” Surely a coincidence, says the man of common sense. Yet of course, Evola himself was not such a dreary man of sense, and as we’ll see he was certainly open to such esoteric interpretations.

Consider this [6]: Futility is a novella written by Morgan Robertson and published as Futility in 1898, and revised as The Wreck of the Titan in 1912.

It features a fictional British ocean liner Titan that sinks in the North Atlantic after striking an iceberg. Titan and its sinking are famous for similarities to the passenger ship RMS Titanic and its sinking fourteen years later. After the sinking of Titanic, the novel was reissued with some changes, particularly in the ship’s gross tonnage.

Although the novel was written before RMS Titanic was even conceptualized, there are some uncanny similarities between the fictional and real-life versions. Like Titanic, the fictional ship sank in April in the North Atlantic, and there were not enough lifeboats for all the passengers. There are also similarities in size (800 ft [244 m] long for Titan versus 882 ft 9 in [269 m] long for the Titanic), speed, and life-saving equipment. After the Titanic’s sinking, some people credited Robertson with precognition and clairvoyance, which he denied. Scholars attribute the similarities to Robertson’s extensive knowledge of shipbuilding and maritime trends.

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As it happens, I was alerted to this historical oddity a while ago as a result of reading one of Neville’s lectures, “Seedtime and Harvest,” which articulates the principle that “there is no fiction [7].”

14 years before the actual harvest or that frightful event of the sinking of the Titanic a man in England wrote a book. He conceived this fabulous Atlantic liner and there he built her just like the Titanic, (only the Titanic was not built for 14 years) but he, in his imagination, conceived the liner of 800-ft. She was triple screw, she carried 3000 passengers, she carried few lifeboats because she was unsinkable; she could make 24 knots; and then one night he filled her to the brim with rich and complacent people, and on a cold winter night he sunk her on an iceberg in the Atlantic. 14 years later the White Star Line builds a ship. She is 800 ft., she is a triple screw, she can make 24 knots, she can carry 3000 passengers, she has not enough lifeboats for passengers but she, too, is labeled unsinkable. She is filled to capacity with the rich, if not complacent, but the rich, because her passenger list was worth in that day, when the dollar was one hundred cents, two hundred and fifty million dollars was the worth of the passenger list. Today [1956] it would be a billion dollars. All the wealth of Europe and the wealth of this country was sailing on that maiden voyage out of Southampton. Five nights at sea in this wonderful glorious ship and she went down on a cold April night on an iceberg.

Now that man wrote a book either to get something off his chest because he disliked the rich and the complacent, or he thought it might sell or he thought this is the means of bringing him a dollar as a writer. But, whatever was the motive behind his book which, by the way, he called Futility to show the utter futility of accumulated wealth, but the identical ship was built 14 years later and carried the same kind of a passenger list and went down in the same manner as the fictional ship.

Is there any fiction? There is no fiction! Tomorrow’s world is today’s fiction. Today’s world was yesteryear’s fiction — the dreams of men of yesteryear. Wouldn’t it be wonderful if I could talk with someone across space and just use a wire? And I couldn’t see that one: it would be a mile away beyond the range of my voice — then maybe five miles and maybe a thousand miles — fantastic dreams — then they came true. When they came true, suppose I could do it without the means of a wire. And it came true; suppose now I could do it not just in an audio sense but in a video sense. Suppose I could be seen? And that came true, but when they were conceived, they were all fictional, all unreal.

And how can this be [8]?

Now, am I responsible for others in my world? I certainly am! When I take my little mind, my little imagination and think because it’s mine — my Father gave it to me, that I can simply misuse it, it isn’t going to hurt another. I tell you you do have to use more control for the simple reason I am rooted in you and you are rooted in everyone and all of us are rooted in God. There is no separate individual detached being in my Father’s Kingdom. We are one. I am completely responsible for the use or misuse of my imagination.

Now, I’m sure all this just sticks in the craw of those self-styled “rationalists” or “materialists” out there (including many who idolize the political Evola and wish everyone would forget about all that magical stuff). I won’t try to gainsay that here, but as I said above, Evola certainly agreed with this basic idea (without going the full “we are all one” New Age route politically), [4] [9] and I think it’s worthwhile to put our rationalism “in parentheses,” as the phenomenologists would say [10], and explore some of the ramifications.

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What Neville’s talking about is an extension of the notion of magical combat into the realm of the involuntary or accidental — as if you gave a monkey a machine gun. [5] [11] Guénon believed he himself had been paralyzed for six months due to such a magical attack in 1939, recovering only when an “evil influence” was deported from Egypt. On this basis, he suggested Evola “reflect upon it” and “see if something similar could not have been around you.” [6] [12] As Evola later recalled,

I told Guénon that a similar attack would be an unlikely cause in my case, not least because an extraordinarily powerful spell would have been necessary to cause such damage; for the spell would have had to determine a whole series of objective events, including the occurrence of the bombing raid, and the time and place in which the bombs were dropped. [7] [13]

Evola’s reasoning here is interesting, because Neville addresses exactly this point, and denies it; in fact, rejecting it is a key part of his “method for changing the future.” [8] [14] One is to imagine the end, being in the state of the desire satisfied; not the means. To dwell on the means is unnecessary and even counterproductive, as thereby one remains in the state of lack; [9] [15] instead, when the future state is imagined so clearly as to feel real, the larger world itself will arrange things in ways you could never have imagined. A “bridge of incidents” will be constructed for you to cross; your materialist friends will point to this sequence of “objective” events and call it “coincidence,” and claim it would have happened anyway. Indeed, since most of us have little control over our thoughts, we may have no recollection of the idle thought in the past that led to a current situation. [10] [16]

The more careful one is with what thoughts we allow ourselves to entertain, and the more outlandish the apparent means used to bring about a desired outcome, the more likely one is to make the leap from mere coincidence to meaningful coincidence — i.e. synchronicity.

Thus, Neville’s stories tend to involve improbable means; in his most famous story, “How Abdullah Taught Neville the Law [17],” Neville’s hoped-for escape from a New York City winter occurs when his brother “decides” to have to whole family together for Christmas, and sends him a ticket and expenses for a voyage back to Barbados. [11] [18] The family business — today’s massive Caribbean conglomerate, Goddard Enterprises [19] — is founded when, after his brother spends two years of lunch hours gazing at a business rival’s building, imagining his family name on the side, a stranger, “looking for a better return on his savings,” walks up with an offer to buy him the building [20]. His two brothers visit New York and want to see a sold-out production of Aida; Neville goes to the Met box office, foils a con man (because Neville’s tall enough to look over the man’s shoulder and recognize the short change scam he’s “attempting”), and is rewarded with VIP tickets [21].

I’ve used scare quotes because in each case a third party — brother, stranger, con man — thinks he is just going about his business, exercising his free will, when actually they are essential parts in the bridge of incidents invoked by Neville himself.

On the other hand, the lack of specific means — “a way you could never imagine” — leaves open the possibility of foul play. Neville consoles a follower who had wished to be rid of neighbor — who (consequently?) dies. [12] [22] Another listener asks point-blank if one can wish for someone’s death, and Neville sort of side steps in his answer: no one really wants someone to die, just to go away, which could involve a change of jobs or retirement to Florida. [13] [23] In general, one should only wish for the best, not only for oneself but for others — who, after all, are us as well. [14] [24]

In any event, there is no need to try to determine if someone, perhaps Eliade, launched a magical attack on Evola, perhaps inadvertently; Evola himself attributed a different, though related, supervening cause. Perhaps the best way to shift gears here is to again aver to our skeptical readers, who have no doubt already asked themselves: well, if Evola was such a great magician, why didn’t he just heal himself?

Remarkably, De Turris presents evidence that Evola simply didn’t want to. [15] [25] He quotes the recollections of a distinguished Orientalist:

“One day, probably in 1952, Colazza, Scaligero, and I had been to see Evola in his apartment in Corso Vittorio. I had noticed that Evola could move his legs, despite the paralysis that we knew he had. After visiting, we left Evola’s house. As we went down the stairs, I heard Scaligero saying to Colazza: ‘But Evola could not. . . .’ As he was talking about certain practices, a certain subtle operation, a kind of exercise to which Colazza answered suddenly, in an almost clipped tone: ‘Of course he could! But he doesn’t! He does not want to do it.’”

The professor was convinced that Evola could have resolved his partial invalidity, if he were willing to practice some exercises on the etheric or subtle body that were most definitely known by Colazza, Scaligero, and Evola himself. The reason why Evola did not want to operate in this direction remains a mystery and, for Professor Filippani, even this fact goes back to Evola’s “peculiar bad character.”

The abrupt but anguished response from the anthroposophist, Dr. Colazza, who the philosopher had asked for advice and explanations about his disability, makes it clear Evola possessed psychospiritual resources and an immeasurable inner being on the subtle plane to the point that he could “self-heal.” But he did not want to do it. One must ask why?

edb21aa27bdc8120f66092847c81f7ec--fantasy-weapons-vampire-armor.jpgIndeed, we must; surely the only thing stranger than someone walking around during an aerial bombardment is that same person refusing to “self-heal.” What the professor calls Evola’s “bad character” was his stubborn refusal to take an interest in anything, however important, that, in fact, did not currently interest him; a character flaw he no doubt considered part of his prerogative as either an aristocrat or a genius. In particular, the three Anthroposophists who visited him may have tried to have him accept their assistance through what Evola’s UR group would have called a “magical chain,” [16] [26] exactly the sort of outside cause we have seen Neville discuss. [17] [27]

De Turris, however, suggests a more developed reason, which also brings us back to Neville. In a letter from 1947, Evola writes:

What is not clear to me is the purpose of the whole thing: I had in fact the idea — the belief if you want to call it, naive — that [when testing fate] one either dies or reawakens. The meaning of what has happened to me is one of confusion: neither one nor the other motive.

Evola will expand on this in The Path of Cinnabar:

What happened to me constitutes an answer that however wasn’t at all easy to interpret. Nothing changed, everything was reduced to a purely physical impediment that, aside from the practical annoying concerns and certain limitations of profane life, it neither affected nor effected me at all, my spiritual and intellectual activity not being in any way whatever altered or undermined. The traditional doctrine that in my writings I have often had the opportunity to expound — the one according to which there is no significant event in existence that was not wanted by us before birth — is also that of which I am intimately convinced, and such a doctrine I cannot but apply it also to the contingency now referred to. In reminding myself why I had wanted it is to however grasp its deepest meaning for the whole of my existence: this would have been, therefore, the only important thing, much more important than my recovery, to which I haven’t given any special weight. . . . But in this regard the fog has not yet lifted. Meanwhile, I have calmly adjusted myself to the situation, thinking humorously sometimes that perhaps this has to do with gods who have made the weight of their hands felt a little too heavy for my having joked around with them. [18] [28]

For some reason de Turris elides the following passage after “weight,” which seems to state the whole issue in a nutshell:

Besides, as I saw it, had I been capable of grasping the “memory” of such a wish by the light of knowledge, I would no doubt also have been capable of removing the physical handicap itself — if I had wished to.

The idea of our making a choice before birth – which Evola contrasts to mere amor fati, a la Nietzsche – can be found at least as far back as Plato’s Myth of Er [29]. [19] [30] And here again we can find a parallel with Neville’s teachings.

Unlike most New Thought teachers, who either rely on an accepted Christian terminology, or else posit a vague sort of Original Substance, Formless Substance, Formless Stuff, Thinking Substance, or Thinking Stuff, [20] [31] Neville offered something of an explanation, principally in the previously cited Out of This World: Thinking Fourth-Dimensionally [32]:

At every moment of our lives we have before us the choice of which of several futures we will choose. [21] [33]

How on Earth is that supposed to happen? Well, speaking of “Earth,” Neville posits a four-dimensional universe. [22] [34] The fourth dimension of course is time, and each of us — like everything in this three-dimensional world — is a sort of cross-section of a higher, fourth-dimensional being. Through the faculty of imagination — by a kind of controlled dreaming — one can rise to a level at which the whole time-line is laid out before us; we can both see the already determined future, and, by concentrated thought, enter it, and alter it.

918YDe-tmfL.jpgRemember when we were talking about not worrying about the means? It’s the fourth-dimensional self that takes care of them, having means available we know not of.

The method works, because it is, in fact, “the mechanism used in the production of the visible world.” Mitch Horowitz uses quantum physics to explain this:

Neville likewise taught that the mind creates multiple and coexistent realities. Everything already exists in potential, he said, and through our thoughts and feelings we select which outcome we ultimately experience. Indeed, Neville saw man as some quantum theorists see the observer taking measurements in the particle lab, effectively determining where a subatomic particle will actually appear as a localized object. Moreover, Neville wrote that everything and everyone that we experience is rooted in us, as we are ultimately rooted in God. Man exists in an infinite cosmic interweaving of endless dreams of reality — until the ultimate realization of one’s identity as Christ.

In an almost prophetic observation in 1948, he told listeners: “Scientists will one day explain why there is a serial universe. But in practice, how you use this serial universe to change the future is more important.” More than any other spiritual teacher, Neville created a mystical correlate to quantum physics. [23] [35]

Neville has taken Evola’s “naïve idea” and projected it beyond a single, prenatal moment and onto every moment of our subsequent life. [24] [36] Evola believed “this truth should be sufficient to render all events that appear tragic and obscure less dramatic; for — as the Eastern saying goes — ‘life on Earth is but a journey in the hours of the night’: as such life is merely one episode set in a far broader framework that extends before and beyond life.” [25] [37] And for Neville, “This world, which we think so solidly real, is a shadow out of which and beyond which we may at any time pass.” [26] [38]

What, then, was the meaning of Evola’s injury, what he calls “the purpose of the whole thing”? De Turris admits this “has always remained a personal, private mystery, clearly and definitely one that is internal,” but tries to essay an “external response” based on “what happened after the end of the war.”

This man, immobilized in bed, wrote letters and articles with a copying pencil on a lectern placed leaning in front of him or at the typewriter seated at the desk in front of the window. After having been an “active” personality in every sense of the word, culturally and worldly, a mountaineer and traveler about the whole of Europe, he now engaged his intellectual and spiritual forces for those who, starting in the late forties, thought of reconstructing something. He used his symbolic vision, present since his first letters to friends back in 1946, “among the ruins” in Europe and Italy. He used a political movement of the right that kept in mind not only the negative but also the positive lessons of Fascism and National Socialism, in the way Evola and others had envisioned it to be after July 25 and September 8. An “immobile warrior,” as he was defined by his French biographer in an effective and suggestive image, and which — not without equivocations and misunderstandings — was an example for everyone. [27] [39]

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You can buy James O’Meara’s book Green Nazis in Space! here. [40]

In short, Evola turned from direct engagement with the world to an attempt to influence and, moreover, inspire the next generation of European youth, the “men among the ruins,” still standing; or Spengler’s Roman soldier buried under the ashes of Pompeii because he was never ordered to leave.

Indeed, such was his influence that “he was tried by the Italian democracy for ‘defending Fascism,’ ‘attempting to reconstitute the dissolved Fascist Party’ and being the ‘“master’ and ‘inspirer’ of young Neo-Fascists. Like Socrates, he was accused of not worshipping the gods of the democracy and corrupting youth.” [28] [41] As John Morgan says, he became “something of a guru to the various Right-wing and neo-fascist groups which emerged in Italy in the first three decades after the war.” [29] [42]

In a previous essay, I briefly compared Evola’s last years to the dénouement of Hesse’s novel The Glass Bead Game. [30] [43] Joseph Knecht, the Game Master, disillusioned with an institution he finds to be intellectually sterile and doomed by its political naivety, resigns to become a tutor to the son of an old friend, Designori, who had already left for the “real” world, hoping to thereby provide some influence on the next generation. On their first morning stroll together, however, Knecht — unwilling to seem shy or cowardly — dives into a nearby lake and, overcome by cold and fatigue, drowns.

It seems anticlimactic as a novel, and futile and senseless as an act; as senseless, perhaps, as “questioning fate” by taking a walk during an aerial bombardment. The fact that Knecht dies in this effort, however, does not constitute failure. Hesse makes it clear from his portrait of Designori’s highly physical, yet still malleable and spiritually pure son Tito, that the incomplete work of Knecht and Designori might come to full fruition in him. A child of the world, Tito yet seems to sense the spiritual duty laid upon him by Knecht’s sacrifice, and the text suggests he will rise to meet it:

And since in spite of all rational objections he felt responsible for the Master’s death, there came over him, with a premonitory shudder of awe, a sense that this guilt would utterly change him and his life, and would demand much greater things of him than he had ever before demanded of himself. [31] [44]

91kbe+gMmxL.jpgNeville, of course, was no kshatriya. In fact, I have described him as a member of the haute bourgeoise — and that’s a good thing! The merchant is a legitimate class, very populous, especially today. [32] [45] Neville is an excellent model for the average man in today’s world; [33] [46] really the perfect mid-century American life, exactly what Mad Men’s Don Draper would have had if Matthew Weiner didn’t have an axe to grind. [34] [47]

His early first marriage, with a son, and second, lifelong marriage with a daughter [48], are a social idea, and compares favorably with many “alt-right” figures. He traveled between furnished, upscale residential hotels in New York City (Washington Square) and Los Angles (Beverly Hills), as he alludes to in his lectures, and the “success stories” he tells come from the same upper-middle-class milieus of nice houses, restaurants, and vacations. [35] [49] He was from a family of merchants, and mostly lived on various stipends from his family, as well as the high dividends paid out by the family-held corporation, even during the Depression. [36] [50] This enabled him to lecture with minimal admission costs to cover the rental of the hall, self-publish about ten small books, and allow — and encourage — his lectures to be taped without charge. [37] [51]

So much not a kshatriya that another of his most famous stories is how he imagined himself out of the Army! Despite being a middle-aged father of two and a non-citizen, Neville — perhaps due to the ex-dancer’s superb physical condition — was drafted in November 1942; effectively shanghaied into the fight against the forces Evola was willingly supporting as a noncombatant. [38] [52] How he extricated himself is one of his most interesting stories:

In 1942 in the month of December, this direction came down from Washington DC, any man over 38 is eligible for discharge, providing his superior officer allows it; if his superior officer, meaning his battalion commander disallows, there is no appeal beyond his battalion commander. You could not take it to say to the divisional commander, it stops with the battalion commander. This came down in 1942 in the month of December. They gave a deadline on it. This will come to an end on March 1st of 1943 so anyone 38 years, before the first of March, 1943 was eligible. All right. That is Caesar’s law. I got my paper, made it out. They had my record, my date. I was born in 1905 on the 19th of February, so I was 38 years old before the 1st of March of 1943 so I was eligible.

My battalion commander was Colonel Theodore Bilbo. His father was a senator from Mississippi. I turned [in my application for discharge], in four hours it came back “disapproved” and signed the colonel’s name. That night I went to sleep in the assumption that I am sleeping in my apartment house in New York City. I didn’t go through the door. I didn’t go through the window. I put myself on the bed. So I slept in that assumption. At 4:00/4:15 in the morning here came before my inner eye a piece of paper not unlike the one that I had signed that day. On the bottom of it was “disapproved.” Then came a hand from here down holding a pen and then the voice said to me “That which I have done I have done. Do nothing.” It scratched out disapproved and wrote in a big bold script “Approved”. And then I woke. I did nothing.

Nine days later that same colonel called me in. He said, “Close the door, Goddard.” “Yes, sir.” He said “Do you still want to get out of the army?” I said “Yes, sir.” He said “You’re the best-dressed man in this country, who wears the uniform of America,” I said, “Yes, sir.” “You still want to get out of the Army?” “Yes, sir.” Yessed him to death as I sat before him. He said, “All right, make out another application and you’ll be out of the Army today.”

I went back to my captain, told him what the colonel had said, made out another application and he signed it and that day I was out of the Army, honorably discharged. That’s all that I did. I went right into my home as a discharged soldier of our army and I’m a civilian. I slept that night in my home in New York City though physically my body was in Camp Polk, Louisiana. That’s how it works!

The colonel, when I went through the door that evening, he came forward and he said “Well, good luck Goddard. I will see you in New York City after we have won this war.” I said “Yes, sir.” And that was it. I share this with you to tell you how it works. This is not good and that is wrong. We are living in a world of infinite possibilities.” [39] [53]

Did this happen? Mitch Horowitz has established the external facts: that the Army discharged Neville in March, 1943 so as to “accept employment in an essential wartime industry”: delivering metaphysical lectures in Greenwich Village. [40] [54]

Remember, Neville was 38 years old, a non-citizen, had a wife and a young daughter; moreover, he fails to add, in the version above, that his son from his previous marriage was already drafted and serving at Guadalcanal. Apparently all that was being ignored now in the name of more cannon fodder for Churchill’s war. [41] [55] The military draft itself is a perfect example of the modern “reign of quantity,” in which all are regarded as interchangeable “individuals,” and I can see no reason why Neville, a true member of the merchant caste, should not have availed himself of a perfectly legal avenue of escape (“Caesar’s law”).

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It’s also interesting to note that his commanding officer was a Col. Theodore Bilbo, son of Sen. Bilbo. [42] [56] One wonders if he shared his father’s interest in the resettlement of America’s negroes, [43] [57] and if Neville revealed to him that his guru, Abdullah, was involved with Marcus Garvey and Ethiopianism, [44] [58] leading him to look with favor on Neville’s application; could Neville have used not Abdullah’s teaching, but his connection with Ethiopianism, to smooth his eventual premature, but honorable, discharge from the Army?

But from our perspective here, the most interesting features of this story are, first, that Neville’s “essential wartime activity” was delivering metaphysical lectures — that is, instructions in his “method of changing the future” — which is not entirely unlike Evola’s wartime activities among the archives of secret societies that had been confiscated by the Germans; has there been any modern war in which magicians — Evola, Neville, Crowley — have played so great a role?

And secondly, this:

I had my 13 weeks’ basic training, and then when I came out, they gave me my citizenship papers. Back in 1922 I could have been an American, but I just didn’t have the time or the urge to get around to become a citizen; so I drifted on and drifted on and drifted on until after this little episode. That’s why I went into the Army, or I would still be drifting through, being a citizen of Britain. But now I’m an American by adoption. And they gave it to me because I did fulfill a 13-week training course in the American Army. So, I tell you, I know from experience how true this statement in [The Epistle of] James is. [45] [59]

Have we found here the key to the whole puzzling incident: the government’s dogged determination to press-gang [60] Neville like Billy Budd, only to then dangle a tantalizing offer of a get out of jail card, complete with citizenship? Once again, we see, perhaps, the unintended consequences of imagination; was the whole draft incident, seemingly absurd, the “bridge of incidents” leading to Neville’s desired naturalization as an American?

And in any event, Neville’s teaching evolved in a way very congruent to Evola’s aristocratic reserve and dedication to doing what has to be done.

51hQWvEIk2L.jpgAfter a mystical experience of being reborn from his own skull (Golgotha) in 1959, Neville’s teaching bifurcated: in addition to The Law (which became Oprah’s “Law of Attraction”), he also began to teach The Promise. The Law was given to enable you to live in the material world; the Promise was that you could then work to obtain union with God; a path suitable to the Dark Age:

One day you will be so saturated with wealth, so saturated with power in the world of Caesar, you will turn your back on it all and go in search of the word of God . . . I do believe that one must completely saturate himself with the things of Caesar before he is hungry for the word of God. [46] [61]

In short, Riding the Tiger. Interestingly, then as now, Neville’s listeners were more interested in The Law than in The Promise; they wanted him to return to stories about how people had obtained new cars and bigger houses. As Horowitz recounts [62] it:

Many listeners, the mystic lamented, “are not at all interested in its framework of faith, a faith leading to the fulfillment of God’s promise,” as experienced in his vision of rebirth. Audiences drifted away. Urged by his speaking agent to abandon this theme, “or you’ll have no audience at all,” a student recalled Neville replying, “Then I’ll tell it to the bare walls.” [47] [63]

Warrior or not, the picture of Neville standing on stage, lecturing to bare walls, recalls again Spengler’s Roman soldier, buried at Pompei because no order to stand down was given. From the start of his career:

He stood very still for an appreciable time, looking straight before him. Then he said, “Let us now go into the silence.” He squared himself on his feet, shut his eyes, flung his head sharply back, and became immobile. [48] [64]

And a few years from the end:

I know my time is short. I have finished the work I have been sent to do and I am now eager to depart. I know I will not appear in this three-dimensional world again for The Promise has been fulfilled in me. [49] [65] As for where I go, I will know you there as I have known you here, for we are all brothers, infinitely in love with each other. [50] [66]

It’s an attitude fully in keeping with New Thought, despite its reputation as encouraging an airy-fairy dreamworld attitude to life. Evola’s own attitude is actually not far from what the apostle of Positive Thinking, Norman Vincent Peale, would counsel:

The tough-minded optimist takes a positive attitude toward a fact. He sees it realistically, just as it is, but he sees something more. He views it as a challenge to his intelligence, to his ingenuity and faith. He seeks insight and guidance in dealing with the hard fact. He keeps on thinking. He knows there is an answer and finally he finds it. Perhaps he changes the fact, maybe he just bypasses it, or perhaps he learns to live with it. But in any case his attitude toward the fact has proved more important than the fact itself. [51] [67]

Or Biblical scholar — and Lovecraft authority — Robert M. Price:

We will never really finish. Our quests will be rudely suspended when the Grim Reaper taps us on the shoulder. “What the hell?” you say. Then why bother in the first place? Because it’s the chase. It’s the hunt. It’s acting without the fruits of action. You needn’t be bitter about it, like the fellow who wrote Ecclesiastes 2:21, “sometimes a man who has toiled with wisdom and knowledge and skill must leave all to be enjoyed by a man who did not toil for it. This also is vanity and a great evil.” No, it isn’t! Better that someone pick up where you left off! Pass the torch! Doing your part is all you can do, and that should be satisfaction enough. It is for me. [52] [68]

bhagavadgita-6s.jpg

Speaking of the Bhagavad Gita — “acting without the fruits of action” — a somewhat similar attitude is demanded of us who would listen to Evola or Neville (just as Knecht’s sacrifice lays a burden on the pupil Tito); as John Morgan said in his speech on Evola:

The fact that we may lose the battle doesn’t mean that we are absolved of the responsibility of fighting it and standing for what is true. The best illustration of this that I know of comes from the Bhagavad Gita. . . .

And that’s how I see those of us here tonight. In spite of the million other things you could have been doing in this enormous and hyperactive city tonight, you decided to come here and meet with a group of some of the most hated people in America to listen to a lecture on Julius Evola. That clearly indicates that there’s something in you that has decided that there are more important things than just doing what everyone else expects you to do. So really, we’re already creating the “order” that Evola called for in order to preserve Tradition in the face of degeneracy. So let’s not despair about the latest headlines, but keep our heads up in the knowledge that, whatever happens, we are the ones who stand for what is timeless, and our day of victory will come, whether it is tomorrow or a thousand years from now. [53] [69]

Arguably, we have an easier time of it today; Neville allowed his lectures to be freely taped and transcribed, and they now live on through the intertubes; the books of both he and Evola are available in electronic formats you can read on the subway without fear of discovery. So ride that technological tiger! And as you do so, spare a thought for those who make them available, such as Counter-Currents, and consider what you can do to keep them standing [70].

If you want to support our work, please send us a donation by going to our Entropy page [71] and selecting “send paid chat.” Entropy allows you to donate any amount from $3 and up. All comments will be read and discussed in the next episode of Counter-Currents Radio, which airs every Friday.

Don’t forget to sign up [72] for the twice-monthly email Counter-Currents Newsletter for exclusive content, offers, and news.

Notes

[1] [73] Exegesis, 15:87 (The Exegesis of Philip K. Dick; edited by Pamela Jackson and Jonathan Letham; Erik Davis, annotations editor (Houghton Mifflin, 2011).

[2] [74]Believe It In [75],” Neville Goddard, 10/06/1969.

[3] [76] Gianfranco de Turris, Julius Evola: The Philosopher and Magician in War: 1943–1945 (Rochester, VT: Inner Traditions, 2020), reviewed by Collin Cleary here [4].

[4] [77] See my Mysticism After Modernism: Crowley, Evola, Neville, Watts, Colin Wilson & Other Populist Gurus [78] (Melbourne, Australia: Manticore Press, 2020), especially the title essay, “Magick for Housewives: The Not So New and Really Quite Traditional Thought of Neville Goddard.”

[5] [79] Evola mocks materialists who think they have acquired “power” because they’ve devised a missile they can launch by pressing a button, while still being psychologically as underdeveloped as a monkey; see “The Nature of Initiatic Knowledge,” reprinted in Introduction to Magic: Rituals and Practical Techniques for the Magus (Rochester, VT: Inner Traditions, 2001); compare: Dr. Ian Malcolm: “If I may. . . Um, I’ll tell you the problem with the scientific power that you’re using here, it didn’t require any discipline to attain it. You read what others had done and you took the next step. You didn’t earn the knowledge for yourselves, so you don’t take any responsibility for it. You stood on the shoulders of geniuses to accomplish something as fast as you could, and before you even knew what you had, you patented it, and packaged it, and slapped it on a plastic lunchbox, and now [bangs on the table] you’re selling it, you wanna sell it.” — Jurassic Park (Spielberg, 1993). Evola brought the original Ur and Krur articles with him to Vienna and was reworking them into the three volumes that would appear in 1955 as Introduction to Magic (and apparently bankrupted his publisher: de Turris, p. 145).

[6] [80] Letter to Evola; see de Turris, p. 148.

[7] [81] De Turris, loc. cit., quoting The Path of Cinnabar (London: Arktos, 2012), p. 184. I have substituted the latter translation by Sergio Knipe, as the one in de Turris seems garbled: “I explained to Guénon that nothing of the sort could be of value for my case and that, on the other hand, he would have had to come up with a most potent spell to cast because it would have had to determine a whole set of objective circumstances: the air strike, the moment, and the point of the bomb release, and so on.”

[8] [82] “The first step in changing the future is desire — that is: define your objective — know definitely what you want. Secondly: construct an event which you believe you would encounter following the fulfillment of your desire — an event which implies fulfillment of your desire — something that will have the action of self predominant. Thirdly: immobilize the physical body and induce a condition akin to sleep — lie on a bed or relax in a chair and imagine that you are sleepy; then, with eyelids closed and your attention focused on the action you intend to experience — in imagination — mentally feel yourself right into the proposed action — imagining all the while that you are actually performing the action here and now. You must always participate in the imaginary action, not merely stand back and look on, but you must feel that you are actually performing the action so that the imaginary sensation is real to you. It is important always to remember that the proposed action must be one which follows the fulfillment of your desire; and, also, you must feel yourself into the action until it has all the vividness and distinctness of reality.” Out of this World: Thinking Fourth-Dimensionally (1949); Chapter 1, “Thinking Fourth Dimensionally”; online here [83].

[9] [84] “The end of your journey is where your journey begins. When you tell me what you want, do not try to tell me the means necessary to get it, because neither you nor I know them. Just tell me what you want that I may hear you tell me that you have it. If you try to tell me how your desire is going to be fulfilled, I must first rub that thought out before I can replace it with what you want to be. Man insists on talking about his problems. He seems to enjoy recounting them and cannot believe that all he needs to do is state his desire clearly. If you believe that imagination creates reality, you will never allow yourself to dwell on your problems, for you will realize that as you do you perpetuate them all the more.” 10/6/1969, “Believe It In [75].”

[10] [85] “All cause is spiritual! Although a natural cause seems to be, it is a delusion of the vanishing vegetable memory. Unable to remember the moment a state was imagined, when it takes form and is seen by the outer eye its harvest is not recognized, and therefore denied.” Neville, “The Spiritual Cause [86],” May 3, 1968.

[11] [87] You can hear him narrate it here [88].

[12] [89] “If Any Two Agree. . . [90]” March 22, 1971. Rather like the classic tale “The Monkey’s Paw,” a woman’s wish to be rid of a disturbing neighbor seemingly results in his death, leaving three orphans. In this context, one might imagine someone fervently wishing “to be rid of this meddlesome Evola” or some such thing; a neighbor, an academic rival, perhaps a landlady?

[13] [91] “Will no one rid me of this turbulent priest [92]?”

[14] [93] On another occasion, Neville’s idle wish to get out New York after a disappointing lecture seems to have sped up his mother’s not entirely unexpected death:

The war in Europe was on. England was at war. No ships were plying the Atlantic. They were going down faster than they could build them, and we were almost at war, and then came the month of August, and I received a cable from my family saying: “We didn’t tell you, because we knew you couldn’t come to Barbados. There aren’t any ships,” (and certainly in those days there were no planes) and they said: “Mother is dying. She’s been dying for two years, but now, this is it, and if you want to see her in this world once more, you’ve got to come now,” I mean, now. I received that cable in the morning, and my wife and I sailed the very next night. But it taught me a lesson: not to use this law idly, not to use it to escape, but to use it deliberately because you cannot escape from it. A series of events will mold themselves, across which you will walk, leading up to the fulfillment of that state. And so here I put myself, just to escape from the cold and the disappointment of the evening, in Barbados of all places. Then something happens, and I am compelled to make the journey, the last place in the world we intended to go. And we sailed at midnight, and got there four and a half days later on this “Argentine” ship. (It was an American ship, but it was called the Argentine.) Mother dies, as they all said she would, and I returned to the States with the knowledge of what I had done and began to teach it.

Faith [94],” 7/22/1968.

[15] [95] “The first step in changing the future is desire — that is: define your objective — know definitely what you want.” Neville, Out of This World, loc. cit.

[16] [96] See Magic, op. cit., especially “Opus Magicum: Chains” by “Luce.”

[17] [97] Evola’s relations with Anthroposophy are a puzzle to me; the UR and KRUR group included disciples of Steiner, and Evola maintained friendly relations with them, as with these three; see Magic, op. cit., “Preface: Julius Evola and the UR Group” by Renato del Ponte. His Sintesi di dottrina della razza even presents two photos of Steiner to illustrate the Aryan “solar” type. Yet officially, as a “traditionalist,” Evola had to treat Anthroposophy as yet another grave “deviation” and “counter-tradition” worthy of extermination, even by the National Socialists. Was he ambivalent to Steiner because of the similarity of their intellectual development — from German Idealism to esotericism? (Both essentially claimed to have completed the system of German Idealism [98]). Was he afraid of being accused of hypocrisy; or of having to admit, if the treatment had succeeded, that Steiner was a legitimate psychic researcher?

[18] [99] De Turris, p. 166; this translation of a passage from Cinnabar would correspond to p. 183 of the abovementioned English translation. Again, this seems garbled; “neither affected nor effected me” is nonsense, but Knipe renders it as simply as “remained unaffected.”

[19] [100]

The end of the Republic is somewhat disconcerting. It ends with a strange myth about the afterlife. In this myth, people have the potential to choose the kind of life that they would like lead in their next incarnation. The dialogue concludes on this oddly apolitical note. But I want to argue that actually the whole purpose of the Republic is to lead up to this issue of choosing one’s life, of what kind of life is most choiceworthy.

The theme of choosing your life appears throughout the Republic. It appears in Book I, Book II, Book VII, Book IX, and Book X. There are different ways of formulating the choice of lives. It’s the choice between the private life and the public life, the philosophical and the political life, the life of justice versus the life of injustice, the contemplation of reality versus the manipulation of appearances.

Greg Johnson, “Introduction to Plato’s Republic [101],” reprinted in his From Plato to Postmodernism [102] (San Francisco: Counter-Currents, 2019).

[20] [103] All terms used at various times by Wallace D. Wattles [104], author of The Science of Getting Rich and various similar books.

[21] [105] Out of This World, op. cit., Chapter One, “Thinking Fourth-Dimensionally.”

[22] [106] This, we’ll see, is the “serial universe” of quantum physics, or the “block-universe” of Michael Hoffman, who posits that the ancient Mystery Religions used psychoactive or “entheogenic” drugs to induce a vision of this state of total determinism and loss of agency, then proposed a liberating Savior, such as Mithras or Christ; see, generally, the research collected at egodeath.com [107]. Neville finds freedom rather than determinism here. If Neville were more than fitfully in a philosophical mood, he might admit that our preference in futures is “determined” as well, but might insist that the only meaningful notion of “freedom” is “free to do what we in fact want, unhindered” rather than “free to choose, include what to want,” the so-called liberum arbitrium. As he says in Feeling is the Secret: “Free will is only freedom of choice.”

[23] [108] “In essence, more than eighty years of laboratory experiments show that atomic-scale particles appear in a given place only when a measurement is made. Quantum theory holds that no measurement means no precise and localized object, at least on the atomic scale. In a challenge to our deepest conceptions of reality, quantum data shows that a subatomic particle literally occupies an infinite number of places (a state called “superposition”) until observation manifests it in one place. In quantum mechanics, an observer’s conscious decision to look or not look actually determines what will be there.” All quotes from Horowitz, “A Cosmic Philosopher,” in At Your Command: The First Classic Work by the Visionary Mystic Neville (New York: Snellgrove Publications, 1939; Tarcher Cornerstone Editions, 2016), reviewed here [109] (and reprinted in Mysticism After Modernism).

[24] [110] Ironically, Neville also insists that “Creation is finished,” meaning that all possibilities are already there, four-dimensionally, and need only be chosen in order to be actualized; no “work” is needed to “bring them about.” See “Faith [111],” where Neville compares his doctrine to Richard Feynman [111], who had recently received the Nobel Prize: “I didn’t know it as a scientist. I knew it as a mystic.” Feynman states in a paper from 1949 that “We must now conclude that the entire concept that man held of the universe is false. We always believed that the future developed slowly out of the past. Now, with this concept which we have seen and photographed, we must now conclude that the entire space-time history of the world is laid out, and we only become aware of increasing portions of it successively.”

[25] [112] Path of Cinnabar, p. 230.

[26] [113] Out of This World, loc. cit. Cf. Blake, as frequently quoted by Neville: “All that you behold, though it appears without, it is within, in your imagination of which this world of mortality is but a shadow.” If all this seems opaque, maybe you should see Nolan’s new film, Tenet; a commenter on Trevor Lynch’s review [114] says “Tenet is about belief. The main character is not conscious in what he does, yet his deeper self is looking out for him. Time doesn’t exist to his deeper self, only the present. There’s no point in trying to rationalise or moralise it all, what happens is what happens and that is that; much like life. Be in touch with your spirit, act in accordance with it, possess plentitude and be the true protagonist of your own world. You are complete, a part of existence and exactly where you need to be. Such is freedom. Surrender.”

[27] [115] De Turris, 167-68; he also refers the reader to his Elogio e difesa di Julius Evola: Il barone e it terrroristi (Rome: Edizioni Mediterrranee, 1997).

[28] [116] E. Christian Kopff, “Julius Evola, An Introduction” in Julius Evola, A Traditionalist Confronts Fascism: Selected Essays(London: Arktos, 2015).

[29] [117] See “What Would Evola Do? [118]”, the text of the talk delivered to The New York Forum.

[30] [119] See “Two Orders, Same Man: Evola, Hesse [120],” reprinted in Mysticism After Modernism, op. cit.

[31] [121] Hermann Hesse, The Glass Bead Game, translated from the German Das Glasperlenspiel by Richard and Clara Winston, with a Foreword by Theodore Ziolkowski (New York: Bantam, 1970), p. 425.

[32] [122] Culturally, at least; in the current economy, of course, Neville’s lifestyle seems more out of reach.

[33] [123] There’s no “sin” in being a merchant. Sure, some picturesque versions of Hinduism would claim (re)birth in a lower caste is some kind of punishment, but that’s just what you’d expect a “high” caste person to claim, isn’t it? Evola rejected such “moralistic” accounts of karma — remember, every significant event in one’s life is chosen before birth; he even disparaged Heidegger’s claim that “authentic” “Dasein” must feel “guilty” over its “thrownness” as mere disguised Christianity (see his Ride the Tiger, chapter 15). As Nicholas Jeelvy says [124] about Boomer who “just want to grill”:

Do understand that I’m not knocking these people. They were born with average or below-average IQ and a weaker will than others. This is something they have zero control over. Low IQ and low thumos aren’t crimes. These people very prudently do not want to be involved in politics — they’ve neither the ability nor the inclination. Indeed, they are forced into politics by the republican-democratic system and the concordant liberal culture of “the good citizen” who is engaged with grand ideas. Really, the best these people can muster is local politics, which is why they expect small institutions to scale up. To them, the American federal government is a massive homeowner’s association and the FBI is their local sheriff’s department writ large. Small minds (which are small through no fault of their own) cannot comprehend the nature of macroentities. If they knew what we know about globohomo’s various institutions and agendas, they would be so thoroughly demoralized that they’d either be too depressed to leave their homes or the human submission instinct would kick in and they’d immediately convert to globohomo.

[34] [125] For more on Don Draper, see my End of an Era: Mad Men and the Ordeal of Civility (San Francisco: Counter-Currents, 2015) as well as more recent essays here on Counter-Currents.

[35] [126] After the war, Evola was given lifetime use of an apartment in Rome by a princely admirer.

[36] [127] He left Barbados for New York City at seventeen, eventually became a successful professional dancer on Broadway [128], but also working such jobs as an elevator operator. “I made thousands in a year, and spent it in a month.” Evola boasted of never receiving a paycheck, but this is difficult to reconcile with the evidence de Turris presents of his desperate letters to various officials to try to continue his “stipend” from the Fascist government as the latter collapsed, as well as his journalistic activities; a “paycheck” may suggest subservience to an employer, but Evola’s “stipend” was hardly passive income; if he was a “Baron,” it was more in the style of “Baron” Corvo’s: fiercely independent, but often hand-to-mouth.

[37] [129] “With Neville there’s nothing to join, nothing to buy.” — Mitch Horowitz.

[38 [130]] [130] Evola, though a veteran, was unable to rejoin the Italian military forces because, feeling himself to be “more fascist than the fascists,” he had never joined the party, which was now required for service; see de Turris, p. 69.

[39] [131] “The Secret of the Sperm,” 1965. Hear Neville tell it at 17:50 here [132].

[40] [133] “A Cosmic Philosopher,” pp. 83-84. The lectures are covered in a typically snarky article in The New Yorker (from September 11, 1943!), “A Thin Blue Flame on the Forehead,” scanned here [134].

[41] [135] Even the frickin’ Chinese emperor in Mulan only drafts her elderly father because he has no military age boys.

[42] [136] See Beau Albrecht’s discussion of Sen. Bilbo’s book Take Your Choice, “Part One: Strange Times Ahead [137]” and “Part Two: Stop the Hate [138]!”

[43] [139] See Kerry Bolton, “Ethiopia Pacific Movement: Black Separatists, Seditionists, & How “White Supremacists” Stymied Back-to-Africa,” Part I [140] and Part II [141].

[44] [142] Horowitz’s speculations on the identity of the mysterious Abdullah are in “A Cosmic Philosopher.”

[45] [143] “The Perfect Law of Liberty [144],” 4/2/71. The Epistle of James reads: “Be doers of the word, and not hearers only, deceiving yourself. For he who is a hearer of the word, and not a doer, he is like one who looks into the mirror and sees his natural face; and then he goes away and at once forgets what he looks like. But he who is a doer, he looks into the perfect law, the Law of Liberty, and perseveres. And when he does that, he is blessed in his doing.” (Chapter One).

[46] [145] Mitch Horowitz notes “This passage sounds a note that resonates through various esoteric traditions: One cannot renounce what one has not attained. To move beyond the material world, or its wealth, one must know that wealth. But to Neville — and this became the cornerstone of his philosophy — material attainment was merely a step toward the realization of a much greater and ultimate truth.” See “A Cosmic Philosopher.”

[47] [146] Op. cit.

[48] [147] “A Thin Blue Flame,” p. 64.

[49] [148] “Criswell departed this dimension in 1982” — Ed Wood (Tim Burton, 1992), final credit sequence. Criswell, a very Neville-like figure, also appears in Ed Wood’s last “legit” film, Night of the Ghouls [149] (1957, released 1984), in which a phony psychic (not Criswell!) gets his comeuppance when it turns out he really can raise the dead; again, be careful what you wish for.

[50] [150] “No Other God [151],” 5/10/1968.

[51] [152] Have a Great Day: Daily Affirmations for Positive Living by Norman Vincent Peale (Ballantine, 1985); September 2.

[52] [153] Holy Fable Volume 2: The Gospels and Acts Undistorted by Faith by Robert M. Price (Mindvendor, 2017).

[53] [154]What would Evola Do [155]?”

Article printed from Counter-Currents: https://counter-currents.com

URL to article: https://counter-currents.com/2020/09/immobile-warriors/

URLs in this post:

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[4] his review: https://www.counter-currents.com/2020/08/julius-evola-the-philosopher-and-magician-in-war-1943-1945/#more-121292

[5] here.: https://counter-currents.com/2014/08/now-available-in-hardcover-paperbackthe-eldritch-evola-others/

[6] this: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Wreck_of_the_Titan:_Or,_Futility

[7] there is no fiction: http://realneville.com/txt/there_is_no_fiction.htm

[8] And how can this be: https://youtu.be/O1cEjBxjmm0

[9] [4]: #_ftn4

[10] as the phenomenologists would say: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epoch%C3%A9#Phenomenology

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[17] How Abdullah Taught Neville the Law: https://maxshenkwrites.com/2017/03/24/how-abdullah-taught-neville-the-law-he-turned-his-back-on-me-and-slammed-the-door/

[18] [11]: #_ftn11

[19] Goddard Enterprises: https://www.goddardenterprisesltd.com/history

[20] an offer to buy him the building: https://counter-currents.com/2019/07/artist-autist-crowley-in-the-light-of-neville-part-2/

[21] rewarded with VIP tickets: https://counter-currents.com/2019/05/a-word-from-the-wise-guy-part-ii/

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[29] Myth of Er: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myth_of_Er

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[32] Out of This World: Thinking Fourth-Dimensionally: https://coolwisdombooks.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/WB8A942.jpg

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[40] here.: https://counter-currents.com/2015/12/green-nazis-in-space-2/

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[48] marriage with a daughter: https://coolwisdombooks.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/S75Wrlm.jpg

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[60] press-gang: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Impressment

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[62] recounts: https://www.harvbishop.com/neville-goddard-a-cosmic-philospher/

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[65] [49]: #_ftn49

[66] [50]: #_ftn50

[67] [51]: #_ftn51

[68] [52]: #_ftn52

[69] [53]: #_ftn53

[70] what you can do to keep them standing: https://counter-currents.com/2020/09/the-counter-currents-newsletter-august-2020-year-of-decision/

[71] our Entropy page: https://entropystream.live/countercurrents

[72] sign up: https://counter-currents.com/2020/05/sign-up-for-our-new-newsletter/

[73] [1]: #_ftnref1

[74] [2]: #_ftnref2

[75] Believe It In: http://realneville.com/txt/believe_it_in.htm

[76] [3]: #_ftnref3

[77] [4]: #_ftnref4

[78] Mysticism After Modernism: Crowley, Evola, Neville, Watts, Colin Wilson & Other Populist Gurus: https://manticore.press/product/mysticism-after-modernism/

[79] [5]: #_ftnref5

[80] [6]: #_ftnref6

[81] [7]: #_ftnref7

[82] [8]: #_ftnref8

[83] here: http://www.navigatingtheaether.com/2013/10/03/out-of-this-world-by-neville-goddard/

[84] [9]: #_ftnref9

[85] [10]: #_ftnref10

[86] The Spiritual Cause: https://freeneville.com/the-spiritual-cause-may-3-1968-free-neville-goddard-pdf/

[87] [11]: #_ftnref11

[88] here: https://youtu.be/6t6jGfUp5Ps

[89] [12]: #_ftnref12

[90] If Any Two Agree. . .: http://realneville.com/txt/if_any_two_agree.html

[91] [13]: #_ftnref13

[92] Will no one rid me of this turbulent priest: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Will_no_one_rid_me_of_this_turbulent_priest%3F

[93] [14]: #_ftnref14

[94] Faith: http://realneville.com/txt/faith.htm

[95] [15]: #_ftnref15

[96] [16]: #_ftnref16

[97] [17]: #_ftnref17

[98] completed the system of German Idealism: https://counter-currents.com/2017/03/trump-will-complete-the-system-of-german-idealism/

[99] [18]: #_ftnref18

[100] [19]: #_ftnref19

[101] Introduction to Plato’s Republic: https://www.counter-currents.com/2014/05/introduction-to-platos-republic-part-1/

[102] From Plato to Postmodernism: https://www.counter-currents.com/from-plato-to-postmodernism-order/

[103] [20]: #_ftnref20

[104] used at various times by Wallace D. Wattles: https://www.constructivescience.com/2012/11/a-readers-question-about-original-substance-and-other-terms.html

[105] [21]: #_ftnref21

[106] [22]: #_ftnref22

[107] egodeath.com: https://d.docs.live.net/d97440f64d6c8811/Documents/egodeath.com

[108] [23]: #_ftnref23

[109] here: https://www.counter-currents.com/2016/12/lord-kek-commands-a-look-at-the-origins-of-meme-magic/

[110] [24]: #_ftnref24

[111] Faith: https://coolwisdombooks.com/neville-goddard-feynman-time-creation-is-finished/

[112] [25]: #_ftnref25

[113] [26]: #_ftnref26

[114] a commenter on Trevor Lynch’s review: https://www.unz.com/tlynch/review-tenet/#comments

[115] [27]: #_ftnref27

[116] [28]: #_ftnref28

[117] [29]: #_ftnref29

[118] What Would Evola Do?: https://web.archive.org/web/20191228161320/https:/www.counter-currents.com/2017/05/what-would-evola-do/

[119] [30]: #_ftnref30

[120] Two Orders, Same Man: Evola, Hesse: https://web.archive.org/web/20191228161320/https:/www.counter-currents.com/2017/06/two-orders-same-man-2/

[121] [31]: #_ftnref31

[122] [32]: #_ftnref32

[123] [33]: #_ftnref33

[124] says: https://counter-currents.com/2020/09/blackboxing-q/

[125] [34]: #_ftnref34

[126] [35]: #_ftnref35

[127] [36]: #_ftnref36

[128] a successful professional dancer on Broadway: https://coolwisdombooks.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/Screenshot_2020-06-09-Clipping-from-The-Tribune-Newspapers-com-1.png

[129] [37]: #_ftnref37

[130] [38: #_ftnref38

[131] [39]: #_ftnref39

[132] here: https://youtu.be/o3dtnDsy52U

[133] [40]: #_ftnref40

[134] here: https://coolwisdombooks.com/neville/neville-goddard-1943-new-yorker-article-a-blue-flame-on-the-forehead/

[135] [41]: #_ftnref41

[136] [42]: #_ftnref42

[137] Part One: Strange Times Ahead: https://counter-currents.com/2020/08/take-your-choice-part-i-strange-times-ahead/

[138] Part Two: Stop the Hate: https://counter-currents.com/2020/08/take-your-choice-part-ii-stop-the-hate/

[139] [43]: #_ftnref43

[140] Part I: https://counter-currents.com/2020/09/ethiopia-pacific-movement-part-one/

[141] Part II: https://counter-currents.com/2020/09/ethiopia-pacific-movement-part-ii/

[142] [44]: #_ftnref44

[143] [45]: #_ftnref45

[144] The Perfect Law of Liberty: https://nevillegoddardbooks.com/neville-goddard-text-lectures/the-perfect-law-of-liberty/

[145] [46]: #_ftnref46

[146] [47]: #_ftnref47

[147] [48]: #_ftnref48

[148] [49]: #_ftnref49

[149] Night of the Ghouls: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Night_of_the_Ghouls

[150] [50]: #_ftnref50

[151] No Other God: http://realneville.com/txt/no_other_god.htm

[152] [51]: #_ftnref51

[153] [52]: #_ftnref52

[154] [53]: #_ftnref53

[155] What would Evola Do: https://counter-currents.com/2017/05/what-would-evola-do/

dimanche, 06 septembre 2020

Philippe Baillet: Passeports pour des temps post-bourgeois

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Philippe Baillet: Passeports pour des temps post-bourgeois

par Daniel COLOGNE

La société actuelle, qui considère le bien-être comme une fin en soi, a de plus en plus tendance à se présenter comme un horizon historique indépassable.  Pareille prétention constitue une parodie de l’âge d’or et de l’état édénique évoqués par les mythologies et les religions, une contrefaçon des « îles bienheureuses » entrevues par le Zarathoustra de Nietzsche. Même si c’était « l’ombre de Dionysos » (Michel Maffesoli) qui bercerait le monde post-moderne avec la sérénade du « oui à la vie », il ne faudrait pas oublier que « celle-ci, sous ses formes les plus hautes, est toujours ennoblie par les qualités proprement apolliniennes de discipline, d’ordre, de hiérarchie et de maîtrise » (p. 147. Les citations suivies d’un numéro de page sont extraites du livre recensé).

 

51SFkzQ77FL._SX298_BO1,204,203,200_.jpgVoici l’un des nombreux points culminants du livre de Philippe Baillet, tant par l’élégance de l’écriture que par la pertinence de la pensée. Recueil d’articles parus entre 1988 et 2010 dans Catholica, Le Choc du Mois, La Nef et La Nouvelle Revue d’Histoire, florilège de textes étalés sur deux décennies et complété par un essai inédit fournissant son titre à l’ensemble, cet ouvrage est marqué par une peu commune aptitude à l’organisation du savoir.

 

Prenant parfois pour point de départ la biographie d’un auteur (comme par exemple Ernst Kantorowicz, que je ne connaissais que de nom), la recension embrasse peu à peu d’autres livres, dont Philippe Baillet tire la « substantifique moelle » avec une rare cohérence, sans s’écarter du sujet initial et en déployant cette qualité essentielle du journaliste, dont Maurice Bardèche me fit part en 1975, lorsqu’il m’encouragea à poser ma candidature à Valeurs Actuelles : la capacité de traiter un dossier.

 

Je ne vois rien d’inconvenant à émettre quelques considérations d’ordre autobiographique, puisque Philippe Baillet le fait lui-même dans sa préface et dans son hommage à Bernard Dubant, qui devait avoir à peu près le même âge que moi et dont j’apprends ainsi le décès avec tristesse.

 

Rien d’étonnant à ce que Bernard Dubant se soit intéressé dès 1975 à Donoso Cortés, auquel Philippe Baillet consacre deux chapitres de son recueil, tout en louant le rôle d’éveilleur de son ami disparu : « il fut d’ailleurs le premier à appeler mon attention sur l’importance du penseur espagnol » (p. 158).  Tous deux se sont également rencontrés sur les figures atypiques du théâtre français que sont Antonin Artaud et Alfred Jarry, chapitres terminaux de l’ouvrage, le texte sur l’auteur d’Ubu-Roi étant dû à Lucien Renart alias Bernard Dubant.

 

J’ai personnellement connu Philippe Baillet entre 1977 et 1979 et, s’il n’avait pas pris place à la tribune du colloque évolien dont il parle en page 159, c’était pour nous réserver, lors du débat qui suivit, une intelligente et vigoureuse intervention sur le guerrier vietcong et le Tupamaro d’Uruguay, à ses yeux plus proches de l’héroïsme évolien que les rodomontades pseudo-chevaleresques dont beaucoup de jeunes « nationalistes révolutionnaires » se gargarisaient à l’époque.

 

md30657416862.jpgJe garde de Philippe Baillet le souvenir d’un homme d’allure plutôt discrète, mais qui savait, lorsque les circonstances s’y prêtaient, éblouir par une érudition surprenante chez un jeune homme de 27 ans, comme en ce samedi après-midi de janvier 1978 en compagnie d’Yvonne Caroutch et Arnold Waldstein, ou forcer la sympathie par sa franchise, comme à Lyon en février 1979, lorsqu’après ma conférence au Cercle Péguy, nous nous sommes retrouvés entourés de jeunes filles catholiques qui n’étaient pas forcément pour lui (et pour moi encore moins !) un auditoire conquis d’avance.

 

Je m’en vais clore les paragraphes des souvenirs à la fois en contant une anecdote amusante et en abordant les choses sérieuses, parmi lesquelles le choix du titre. Philippe Baillet écrit : « À l’âge de quinze, vingt ou trente ans, même quand on est viscéralement de droite, quand on déteste sans moyen terme le monde né avec la Révolution française, on succombe presque toujours à la magie des mots et l’on se dit « révolutionnaire », en croyant que l’emploi d’un mot plutôt que d’un autre est parfaitement anodin. J’ai moi-même connu cette ivresse, mais il y a longtemps que je suis dégrisé » (p. 15).

 

Yves Bataille, Georges Gondinet et moi-même étions loin d’être dessoûlés lorsque, réunis autour d’une succulente galette des Rois en janvier 1978, nous nous vantions à tour de rôle d’être des « révolutionnaires professionnels ». Philippe Baillet n’était pas présent ce soir-là. Le quatrième convive était Éric Vatré, qui attendait patiemment son tour de présenter sa carte de visite, et qui déclina in fine son identité en ces termes : « un contre-révolutionnaire professionnel ».

 

« Voilà pour la “ contre-révolution ”. Et “ blanche ” parce que nous sommes confrontés depuis longtemps déjà à des ennemis porteurs d’un projet funeste » (Ibid.). Pour définir ce projet, Philippe Baillet a recours à Jules Monnerot. Ce projet consiste à « modifier la teneur de la population française » et en une « opération grandiose d’invasion acceptée », écrit l’auteur de Racisme et identité nationale dans un numéro spécial de la revue Itinéraires (1990).

 

Philippe Baillet ajoute que « notre seule chance de survie est liée à l’apparition d’un nouveau type humain de race blanche dans les guerres civilisationnelles et ethniques qui s’annoncent » (p. 16).

 

On pourrait s’étonner de voir un homme pétri de pensée évolienne accorder tant d’importance à la nation française, mais l’amplification immédiate du sujet remet l’auteur dans le sillage de Dominique Venner et de son brillant éditorial de La Nouvelle Revue d’Histoire (n° 49) : c’est l’Europe qui est en « dormition » et que doit réveiller un chevalier pareil à celui des contes de Perrault et de Grimm redonnant vie à la « Belle au bois dormant ».

 

41877770._SX318_.jpgPhilippe Baillet va plus loin. Selon lui, la menace pèse sur l’Occident tout entier. L’essai de plus de vingt pages qui donne son intitulé au livre aborde la « radicalisation du conservatisme » et l’« émergence de la Droite  » racialiste ” aux États-Unis » (p. 87). Ce texte inédit est probablement récent, puisque la recension des livres bien connus de Samuel Huntington date de 2005, corrobore le vœu d’une « contre-révolution blanche » et atteste l’état actuel de la pensée de l’auteur.

 

Philippe Baillet se distingue de la doxa droitiste française caractérisée par un « anti-américanisme rabique, systématique, aveugle » (p. 107), « comme si les Américains blancs devaient expier jusqu’à la fin des temps le fait d’être nés dans une culture issue du protestantisme dissident » (p. 108).

 

Reconnaître l’existence d’« esprits libres d’outre-Atlantique » (p. 62) n’est pas incompatible avec la désignation des États-Unis comme ennemi géopolitique principal, ainsi que l’affirme à plusieurs reprises une livraison récente d’Éléments (n° 136). Je remarque d’ailleurs que Philippe Baillet confirme son soutien au Choc du mois, bien que la nouvelle mouture de cet organe de presse soit moins radicale que la précédente. « L’influence indirecte d’Alain de Benoist y est de plus en plus perceptible » (p. 10).

 

Pour Alain de Benoist, la bourgeoisie est au plan social ce que sont les États-Unis au niveau géo-politique : l’ennemi principal.  Mais qu’est-ce que le bourgeois ? L’homme « qui pense bassement » et que fustige Gustave Flaubert ? Le « cochon qui aspire à mourir de vieillesse » tout en s’abêtissant que vilipendent Léon Bloy et Jacques Brel ? Philippe Baillet fait sienne la formule de Donoso Cortés. La bourgeoisie doit être pourfendue en tant que « classe discuteuse » (p. 32).  Il ne s’en cache d’ailleurs pas : « Il s’agit, grâce à certaines armes intellectuelles, de se préparer au combat, non au débat » (p. 13). Il exècre les discussions des plateaux télévisuels, sans règles préalables et sans objectif clairement fixé, dont chacun repart avec les mêmes entraves et préjugés que ceux qu’il apportait en passant au maquillage.

 

Est-on pour autant en présence d’un polémiste « au couteau entre les dents » ? Certes non. Le projet évoqué plus haut est monstrueux, mais ses adeptes ne sont pas forcément des monstres. « Écraser une secte n’est pas imiter ses fureurs, sa rage sanguinaire et l’homicide enthousiasme dont elle enivre ses apôtres » (p. 22). Ainsi parle l’abbé Augustin Barruel, dont Philippe Baillet loue l’indispensable distinction entre la bataille des idées et la destruction des hommes.

 

unnamedEKl.jpgL’article hyper-critique consacré à « Israël et ses extrêmes » (p. 117) fait immédiatement suite à un légitime éloge « des grands érudits juifs modernes » : Kantorowicz déjà cité, Marc Bloch, Raymond Aron, Aby Warburg.  Parmi les « représentants du peuple juif » dignes d’inspirer notre admiration, et au rebours d’un autre a priori encore trop rageusement enraciné chez bon nombre d’entre nous, Philippe Baillet mentionne « tous ceux qui, libraires spécialisés dans l’ancien ou éditeurs d’ouvrages à faible tirage et à vente lente, sont en quelque sorte les artisans de la haute culture, ceux qui, par exemple dans des domaines comme l’orientalisme, en ont assuré la pérennité matérielle, chose de plus en plus difficile aujourd’hui » (p. 116).

 

Je ne cache pas que, de prime abord, une certaine perplexité m’a saisi en voyant Philippe Baillet se rallier « à la cause du peuple blanc » (p. 79), comme l’ex-libéral Samuel Huntington aujourd’hui « au soir de sa vie » (p. 85). Ceux qui n’ont pas notre couleur de peau seraient-ils tous inaptes à devenir, eux aussi, des « artisans de la haute culture » ? René Guénon et Julius Evola ne nous auraient-ils délivré du biologisme que pour nous y faire retomber, par une sorte de régression, sous l’empire de l’une ou l’autre projection statistique assignant à notre race un statut de minorité dans un quart de siècle ?

 

Mais Philippe Baillet précise que « pour Huntington, l’identité nationale américaine repose sur deux piliers, la culture et la religion, non sur la race » (p. 84). Aux Européens de méditer ce message, même si le patrimoine religieux y est plus diversifié qu’aux États-Unis.  Outre-Atlantique, Huntington défend l’importance de la culture anglo-protestante. De ce côté-ci de l’océan, l’unité religieuse ne semble pouvoir se faire qu’au prix d’un « œcuménisme libéral » (Nikos Vardhikas), c’est-à-dire d’une sorte de consensus-ratatouille, où catholiques, orthodoxes et réformés se tairaient sur les sujets qui fâchent et seraient ramenés à leur plus petit commun dénominateur.

 

Dès lors, les Européens doivent plutôt miser sur leur unité culturelle et, s’ils intègrent le concept de « race », ce ne peut en aucun cas se faire dans l’acception « pseudo-biologique » (Christian Vandermotten) d’aujourd’hui, mais au sens évolien de « race de l’esprit », ou dans la perspective d’un vieux fond anthropologique se référant à « une histoire singulièrement lointaine » (André Siegfried).

 

Philippe Baillet évoque « la mise au pas de toute pensée vraiment libre » (p. 115) par le nazisme qui a ainsi contraint à l’exil plusieurs historiens allemands d’origine juive : Mosse, Laqueur, Stern, dont il déplore l’inexistence ou le caractère tardif des traductions en français (p. 66).

 

Le brillantissime article de 2010 « Sur deux approches de l’idéologie nazie » (p. 63) prouve que l’étape la plus récente du Denkweg de Philippe Baillet n’est entachée d’aucun repli crispé sur une position nationaliste et raciste.

 

41UbyzKeMQL.jpgAu détriment de l’« indigeste pavé prétentieux et très décevant » (p. 76) d’un universitaire français, Philippe Baillet privilégie l’analyse de George L. Mosse, autre « esprit libre d’outre-Atlantique ». Ce dernier voit dans le mouvement völkisch une des plus profondes « racines intellectuelles du Troisième Reich ». Il y décèle une « conception essentiellement culturelle […] de l’État-nation », en réaction contre « l’industrialisation à marche forcée » de l’Allemagne et « à cause de la très longue et tortueuse édification de l’unité politique » (p. 69).

 

Philippe Baillet nous fait découvrir cet historien américain d’origine juive allemande, dont l’œuvre vient à peine d’être traduite en français, près d’un demi-siècle après sa publication originale (1964). Il se fait l’écho de l’auteur d’Intellectual Origins of the Third Reich en rappelant comment les nazis s’inscrivirent dans la continuité du mouvement völkisch, mais au prix d’une terrible simplification, d’une catamorphose des Juifs en symboles dégradants (les « rats », les « bacilles ») et d’un détournement de la « révolution allemande » dans le sens d’une « révolution antijuive » (p. 72).

 

Les grandes tragédies humaines, les guerres du XXe siècle, les éventuels conflits ethniques et civilisationnels de demain : tout cela peut générer un « nouveau type humain » (p. 16), mais pas nécessairement apparenté au kshatriya.  Certes, des tranchées de 14-18, ont émergé Drieu, Barbusse, Evola, Jünger, et Hitler lui-même gazé à l’ypérite sur le front de l’Yser. Mais si l’on regarde par exemple les écrivains belges sortis de la « boue des Flandres », on découvre plutôt des figures apparentées au brahmane. L’un d’eux intitule son roman de guerre Mes cloîtres dans la tempête, répondant ainsi aux Orages d’acier. Le poète José Gers part en quête de sagesse vers un Jardin des Hespérides via l’aventure maritime. Ses voyages vers le Sud lui font adopter l’Afrique, tant maghrébine que subsaharienne, comme une seconde patrie. Nulle tentation d’un totalitarisme « de gauche » ou « de droite » chez cet aventurier iréniste, pas plus que chez son ami le peintre René Devos, engagé volontaire en 1915, à l’âge de 18 ans, chantre pictural de la féminité, cette « Floride à jamais inexplorée ».  Rien de « fasciste » ou de « communiste » non plus chez le délicat Constant Burniaux, brancardier bénévole dès 1914 (il a 22 ans), auteur du récit Les Brancardiers, puis de poèmes exaltant les choses simples de la vie, cette enfance perpétuelle pourvoyeuse de nostalgie dont « nul ne guérit » (Jean Ferrat). Il n’est donc pas sûr qu’à l’éventuel « horizon de fumée et de feu » (Milosz) se lèveraient forcément de nouveaux « purs » et durs, forgerons du Nouvel Ordre de demain.

 

De même qu’entre occidentalisation et modernisation dans le sillage de Samuel Huntington, Philippe Baillet démasque la prétendue synonymie des concepts de « progrès » et de « révolution » à la faveur de sa très fine analyse d’Augusto Del Noce (pp. 137 à 147).

 

Dans la pensée de ce philosophe italien, une loi cyclique devrait avoir une résonance toute particulière chez les évoliens et les guénoniens.  Cette loi « veut que les grands courants de pensée […] reproduisent toujours, dans leur phase terminale, leurs traits originels, mais sous une forme accentuée » (p. 141). Philippe Baillet donne ensuite la parole à Del Noce : « L’idéologie spontanée de la bourgeoisie est le matérialisme pur, le positivisme exclusivement attentif aux faits bruts, la négation de toute présence d’un sens qui transcende le phénomène immédiat ».

 

augusto-del-noce.jpgDel Noce décrit ainsi « l’irreligion naturelle » qui caractérise la société actuelle et avec laquelle « on passe même du rejet, qui est encore le signe paradoxal d’un certain intérêt, à l’indifférentisme complet » (p. 138) sur le plan religieux.

 

Si le cycle bourgeois entre dans sa « phase terminale », les temps à venir peuvent donc être qualifiés de « post-bourgeois », d’où l’intitulé de ma recension. Pour le terme « passeports », je me suis inspiré du titre d’un livre de Jean Biès, dont j’ai rendu compte vers 1982 je ne sais plus exactement où, peut-être dans la revue Totalité, dont Philippe Baillet mentionne la fondation en page 160.

 

Il serait intéressant d’approfondir la confrontation du « bourgeoisisme » tel que l’envisage Del Noce avec les cyclologies de René Guénon et de Julius Evola.

 

Le cycle « bourgeois » selon Del Noce serait comparable à la « première phase de l’action antitraditionnelle » selon Guénon.  Toutefois s’y glissent déjà les sous-phases ou les micro-cycles caractérisés, d’une part par le compromis de l’esprit bourgeois avec le christianisme (compromis dont la bourgeoisie n’a plus besoin aujourd’hui), d’autre part par les parodies de spiritualité des totalitarismes (communisme, fascisme, nazisme), qui relèvent déjà de la « seconde phase de l’action antitraditionnelle » (Guénon) et que Del Noce appelle « la période sacrée de la sécularisation » (p. 142), l’irreligion d’aujourd’hui en étant la « période profane » (p.1 43).

 

Quant à Julius Evola, sa loi de « régression des castes dominantes » (version décadentiste des théories de Pareto et de Michels) devrait impliquer dans le futur un réveil du communisme, à moins que, sur les ruines des désastreuses expériences des totalitarismes « rouges », surgisse rapidement le type humain du « cinquième État » qui impose sa domination. Ce serait alors dans un livre comme Explorations. Hommes et problèmes (Éditions Pardès, traduction de Philippe Baillet) qu’il faudrait chercher, du point de vue évolien, les « passeports pour des temps post-bourgeois ».

 

Le problème est loin d’être simple. Relisons à nouveau Del Noce, intelligemment cité par Philippe Baillet. « C’est pourquoi l’on remarque ce paradoxe qui fait que la vitalité, de matière qui doit être vaincue et transfigurée par les valeurs, est elle-même élevée au rang de valeur, et même devient mesure de toute autre valeur » (p. 140).

 

Je souscris entièrement à ces lignes, mais ce culte de la vitalité me paraît renvoyer à la « seconde phase de l’action antitraditionnelle » selon Guénon : « seconde phase » se mêlant alors à la première, ainsi qu’en témoigne par exemple la critique que fait Guénon du vitalisme de son contemporain Bergson. Tout cela se passe bien avant « les années 1960 » (Ibid.), mais le vitalisme connaît effectivement un regain durant cette décennie à travers le mouvement New Age.

 

Le chapitre concerné reste muet sur le point de départ du cycle bourgeois. Puisqu’il a été question du « monde né de la Révolution française », on peut situer ce point de départ dans l’œuvre de Denis Diderot, véritable écrivain-fétiche de certains universitaires bruxellois, dont l’influence commence heureusement à être contrebalancée, comme je le montrerai plus loin, par d’autres références propres à une génération de plus jeunes professeurs.

 

Encore ne faut-il pas oublier que le fils du coutelier de Langres, aussi conseiller de Catherine II de Russie, se dédouble dans Le Neveu de Rameau en un Moi rationaliste et un Lui où le professeur Maurice Lefebvre voit un pré-romantique.

 

Mais cela ne contredit pas la théorie de Del Noce, car on peut considérer que le matérialisme à l’état brut, trait originel du Diderot de la Lettre sur les Aveugles, revient aujourd’hui sous la forme accentuée de la fin de cycle, sans tolérer désormais aucune contre-partie « romantique ».

 

Voici une autre formulation de Del Noce que doivent méditer tous ceux qui sont convaincus d’être dans un « inter-règne », comme le répète inlassablement et avec raison Alain de Benoist.  Décrivant « la situation actuelle », Del Noce écrit : « mort des anciens idéaux, mais dans le même temps aveu que de nouveaux idéaux ne peuvent pas naître » (cité par Philippe Baillet, p. 143).

 

Tel est du moins l’« aveu » que le Système veut nous arracher.  Une évidence n’en demeure pas moins. Précisément parce que nous sommes dans un « inter-règne », il est difficile de cerner les contours des « nouveaux idéaux », de désigner l’ennemi de demain, de braquer le projecteur sur celui qui, demain, nous désignera comme ennemi.

 

Plusieurs rédacteurs d’Éléments (n° 136) évoquent le « capitalisme post-bourgeois » et donc forcément « post-prolétarien ». Mais alors, s’agit-il encore de « capitalisme » ? Ne faut-il pas in fine recourir au meilleur Guénon, celui de la « révolte du kshatriya » ? Le plus grand danger n’est-il pas incarné par le kshatriya émancipé de la supériorité du brahmane, c’est-à-dire par la vitalité dionysiaque refusant de se laisser ennoblir par les valeurs apolliniennes ? La nouvelle classe dominante ne serait-elle pas composée de ce type humain posant « un regard-pirate sur l’Univers » (Frank-Albert Duquesne), recruté parmi les renégats de toutes races et de toutes les traditions, de même que le type humain qu’il faut lui opposer doit émaner de tous les horizons ethniques et culturels ?

 

Malgré l’ampleur de son index et de son apparat critique, Philippe Baillet ne cite Guénon que cinq fois : une fois en bas de page, deux fois dans l’article sur Artaud, deux fois en liaison avec Bernard Dubant et Jean-Claude Cuin, un autre ami trop tôt disparu.

 

L’auteur a choisi d’insister sur le péril qui menace l’homme blanc sans prôner pour autant une quelconque supériorité de celui-ci. Écoutons-le à nouveau répercuter l’avertissement d’Huntington. « L’Occident a vaincu le monde non parce que ses idées, ses valeurs, sa religion étaient supérieures […], mais plutôt par sa supériorité à utiliser la violence organisée. Les Occidentaux l’oublient souvent, mais les non-Occidentaux jamais » (cité p. 81).

 

La présente recension touche à sa fin et j’espère n’avoir oublié de mentionner aucun des chapitres. Chacun correspond à un mérite particulier de l’auteur. Certains s’attaquent à des sujets de moi quasi inconnus. C’est dire si je m’incline avec respect devant l’immense culture de Philippe Baillet, autodidacte qui a su se faire accepter dans certains milieux universitaires, ainsi qu’en témoigne en 2007 sa collaboration à des mélanges dédiés à Jean-Pierre Laurant septuagénaire.

 

Philippe Baillet est le principal artisan de la réception de Julius Evola dans l’espace francophone. Son parfait bilinguisme italo-français lui permet d’aborder dans le texte original et de nous restituer fidèlement la pensée de grands politologues transalpins. Toujours soucieux de faire la part des choses, il peut juger la traduction d’Evola par Pierre Pascal « calamiteuse » tout en rendant hommage à l’auteur de la Chanson de Robert Brasillach (p. 56).

 

Son article sur Boris Souvarine fut publié avant les livres de Jean-Louis Panné et François Furet, à une époque où « il était de bon ton de taire les liens très étroits, après 1945, [de Boris Souvarine] avec d’anciens collabos » (p. 53).

 

Il faut un indéniable courage intellectuel pour affronter le « sujet maudit » des Protocoles des Sages de Sion (p. 43) sous l’angle évolien de l’alternative « authenticité – véracité » (p. 48). La question n’est pas de savoir si ce texte est authentique.  On sait qu’il s’agit d’un faux. En revanche, on est en droit de s’interroger sur la plausibilité de réalisation de son programme, celui-ci pouvant d’ailleurs être concocté en un tout autre milieu que celui d’une loge « judéo-maçonnique ».

 

cms_visual_1360418.jpg_1586176470000_253x450.jpgTitulaire d’une agrégation en philosophie et lettres de l’U.L.B. (Université Libre de Bruxelles, émanation du Grand Orient de Belgique), je suis bien placé pour savoir comment on risque de se désagréger sous l’effet de la quasi permanente « leçon de conformisme » dispensée par « les cliques universitaires et leur structure féodale » (p. 77).

 

La situation me semble toutefois moins désespérée à l’U.L.B., où l’on édite et enseigne depuis peu Roberto Michels et André Siegfried. Même parmi les professeurs soixante-huitards, dont certains furent mes compagnons de promotion (tels que Jacques Lemaire et Alain Goldschläger, dont j’ai recensé le livre sur le « complotisme »), Philippe Baillet aurait trouvé en Jacques Sojcher, dissertant sur « la crise de la vérité » dans la philosophie moderne, un interlocuteur plus valable qu’André Comte-Sponville à propos du « perspectivisme » (p. 128) de Nietzsche, pour qui « les évidences élémentaires sont déjà des masques ou des filtres » (p. 129).

 

Ce fut pour moi un plaisir et un honneur de rendre compte du livre de Philippe Baillet.  Me revient en mémoire un restaurant asiatique où nous étions attablés avec Bernard Dubant. Je me rappelle deux convives sympathiques, prodigieusement intéressants, non dénués d’un humour dont ils saupoudraient de manière bien dosée leur conversation d’érudits. Avec ce recueil d’articles témoignant de près d’un quart de siècle de recherches, Philippe Baillet s’érige en essayiste accompli, de lecture agréable et à la documentation fouillée. Il incite notre famille intellectuelle à se libérer de certains de ses a priori. Il nous indique le chemin d’une authentique pensée libre, tandis que de fallacieux « libres-penseurs », porteurs auto-proclamés de douteuses « lumières », cherchent à nous mener tout droit à l’impasse. Philippe Baillet est de ces éveilleurs dont nous avons un urgent besoin. Grâce lui soit rendue, ainsi qu’à son éditeur, de nous léguer cet excellent florilège.

 

Daniel Cologne

 

• Philippe Baillet, Pour la Contre-Révolution blanche. Portraits fidèles et lectures sans entraves, Éditions Akribeia, 2010, 188 p., 18 € (+ 5 € de port). À commander : Akribeia, 45/3, route de Vourles, F – 69230 Saint-Genis-Laval.

 

samedi, 05 septembre 2020

Carlos X. Blanco: «La vida es un camino muy largo hacia el bosque»

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Carlos X. Blanco: «La vida es un camino muy largo hacia el bosque»

G.L. 

Ex: https://adaraga.com

Afortunadamente, no encontrarás La caballería espiritual en las estanterías de los más vendidos de Casa del Libro o de la FNAC. Y digo afortunadamente porque este libro de Carlos X. Blanco no ha sido escrito para ser deglutido por esa turba de consumidores compulsivos teledirigidos por los dominicales de El Mundo o El País sino para su degustación por paladares y mentes selectas. A caballo, nunca mejor dicho, entre la filosofía y la psicología (un espacio que nunca debió haberse perdido y que Carlos reivindica), esta obra sencilla pero de extraorinaria profundidad nos ayuda a elegir nuestro camino correcto para adentrarnos en la emboscadura.

G.L: La caballería espiritual comienza con una preciosa alusión al cuento infantil de Pulgarcito como estrategia vital y describes que «la vida es un camino muy largo hacia el bosque». ¿Qué nos aguarda en el bosque?

Carlos X. Blanco: El bosque es un lugar originario del que todos procedemos y hacia el que todos podemos volver, implica  una región densa y oscura;  entrar en el bosque significa «perdernos» en él; perderse en todos los sentidos de la palabra. Perderse o ser incapaces de retomar el hilo de nuestra existencia, no recordar quiénes somos, no hallar una salida. El bosque envuelve la libertad de las múltiples sendas, la región que esconde toda posible senda, pero también la ansiedad de no saber qué pasos dar, qué orientación seguir. El bosque libera de una vida trazada, pero también es angustia por la falta de diferenciación personal y por no saber resolver nuestros conflictos. El bosque está lleno de lobos y de ocasiones para perderse.

Otros filósofos, y en concreto me viene a la mente Ernst Junger, también se han referido al bosque. ¿Por qué el bosque es uno de los principales mitos europeos?

El bosque representa la realidad material primigenia, indiferenciada. La palabra griega hyle (materia) lo expresa muy bien. Significa materia y significa también el bosque,  la madera, esto es, la materia prima que sirve de base o que se considera receptora de las formas. Materia y madera son palabras relacionadas. Europa fue una selva que hubo de ser talada parcialmente en pro de la civilización. Sin embargo, esa selva europea perdida y añorada prosigue su existencia en el fondo del alma humana, al menos en la europea, y es el elemento base y el fondo primitivo al cual, no obstante, deseamos reintegrarnos. La cabaña, el templo, la empalizada, el poblado, eran aún de madera ya trabajada por el hombre en unos primeros momentos de la historia. La primera europeidad cultural era una secreción del bosque. El Levante, Egipto, el resto de Asia, en cambio, fueron tierras de grandes ríos, civilizaciones de la piedra o adobe, antes que de madera, fueron universos áridos reconquistados por  la ciudad, fueron regadíos y mercados esclavistas. En el mundo mediterráneo, como en Oriente, hay ya un alejamiento muy temprano de ese hogar boscoso, pues la cuenca de este mar se «civilizó» pronto, esto es, se secó, se taló, se superpobló desde hace miles de años. Desde la polis, desde la urbs, el hombre vio ya con temor y distancia esa primera patria de la que procede.

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En España nos ha sucedido lo mismo…

Sí, tenemos esa dialéctica entre el bosque atlántico-cantábrico, por un lado, y la llanura y costa sureña-levantina, por el otro. Los conceptos de civilidad y ruralidad difieren mucho en las distintas regiones del país. También ocurre algo muy importante en relación con la técnica. La caballería espiritual europea no puede divinizar la técnica: la pone al servicio de metas espirituales más altas.

Algunos conceptos capitales de Carl Gustav Jung son una constante a lo largo de esta obra como, por ejemplo, el inconsciente colectivo. En un mundo deshumanizado y cibernético como el actual, ¿todavía podemos hallarlo?

Si no lo encontramos, el propio inconsciente colectivo saldrá a nuestro encuentro. Lo hace en nuestros sueños, mueve las manos del artista o del escritor, modela creencias del hombre corriente y concentra altas dosis de energía para hacer las cosas de la vida. El inconsciente colectivo es un océano lleno de energía, repleto de vida, corrientes y mareas. Todo él es fuerza, empuje. El hombre domesticado y mecanizado de hoy, si no sabe manejarlo, sucumbirá. El mundo moderno es el mayor pecado contra la naturaleza. Seas o no creyente, has de saber que muchas de las propiedades esenciales que la psicología jungiana atribuye al inconsciente colectivo son co-extensivas con las que las religiones más poderosas espiritualmente hablando (verbigracia, el cristianismo) atribuyen a Dios. Ir contra esta fuerza es ir contra la naturaleza, y es la mayor de las herejías. No puedes enfrentarte a tal océano de energía. Religiosamente eso es pecado. Psicológicamente eso es enfermedad. Metafísicamente es ir contra el ser, significa despojarse de la manera más absoluta.

¿Podemos encontrar a Dios?

Se puede hallar. Amando a tus hijos y a tu pareja. Arraigándote en una patria y a una comunidad. Haciendo de tu familia y de los tuyos un remanso y una fortaleza, construyendo una pequeña patria invencible con ellos. Buscando ratos de soledad y de contacto con la naturaleza, leyendo signos de divinidad en tu interior y en tu derredor.

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«La vida psíquica es compensación». ¿Somos realmente libres o el censor que llevamos dentro nos lo impide?

La homeostasis, la búsqueda del equilibrio, la restauración de valores estables, forma parte de la vida orgánica y en la vida orgánica se verifican las mismas leyes que en la espiritual. En nuestro crecimiento y en nuestro combate contra la enfermedad, el pecado, el conflicto (en el fondo es todo lo mismo) contamos con un aliado, que es el propio proceso auto-curativo. El bien se hace camino, a cada paso se abren sendas para hallarlo. La verdadera espiritualidad (y dentro de ella, la religión) consiste en leer esos signos que hacen que no te pierdas, en aceptar esos dones y en no ser «rebelde» (diabólico) ante ellos. Mi ensayo La Caballería Espiritual es una pequeña brújula para orientarnos en ese crecimiento, para ser caballeros en el sentido medieval de una vida de servicio que acepta los dones pero también los sacrificios que la propia vida nos pide si queremos existir ennoblecidos, si deseamos ser dignos y no volver al lodo. El ser humano es, él mismo, un quicio. Somos, como dicen varios filósofos (Eugenio Trías, Manuel Fernández Lorenzo), seres fronterizos. Eso supone una gran dignidad pero también un gran riesgo, y antes que Jung o los pensadores citados, nos ha sido descrito muy bien por Santo Tomás de Aquino: semejantes a Dios, cercanos a los más ínfimos de los ángeles, pero muy por encima de las bestias. Así somos los hombres. Podemos bestializarnos o podemos deificarnos. De hecho nos deificamos un poco a diario cada vez que amamos, somos responsables o volcamos esfuerzo y espíritu de servicio.

«En mí está Todo». Una reflexión breve pero muy profunda. ¿Está capacitado el hombre del siglo XXI para saber quién es realmente?

Cada vez menos, pues nos vemos inmersos en un proceso brutal y satánico que consiste en la abolición de lo humano. El gran capital ha descubierto que la persona sobra, que le estorba ese animal racional que, incluso de manera inconsciente y confusa, busca deificarse. El gran capital ha descubierto que no solamente los bienes de la naturaleza o el fruto del trabajo pueden ser mercancías, sino que la propia mercancía humana es la más interesante para acumular beneficios, producir plusvalía. Y estamos en la transición horrenda de pasar de la esclavitud «enteriza» del individuo humano (cada cuerpo humano es tratado como una mercancía, ignorando su alma), a una esclavitud mucho más completa e interior, una especie de infección que afecta al compuesto humano mismo, a su alma y a las relaciones de su alma con cada una de las potencias del hombre.

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¿De qué forma estamos siendo esclavizados?

Somos un pequeño cosmos, y la colonización y esclavización de cada parte de ese universo humano que es cada persona, va siendo un proceso imparable. Introducir la tecnología en todas nuestras funciones más vitales, no ya simplemente para aliviar el dolor o la fatiga en el trabajo, paliar el hambre o mejorar la cosecha, sino para poder, simple y llanamente, vivir… es un gran pecado. Debemos armar una fuerza de caballería para rescatar esos santos lugares que son el alma de cada individuo. El mundo va mal porque yo voy mal. Qué simple es el pensamiento jungiano. Le acusan de gnóstico, pero en muchos puntos expresa el Evangelio al modo más católico.

¿Puede el hombre de hoy escapar de alguna manera de este mundo no ya alejado de sino enfrentado abiertamente a Dios?

Sí, sin dudarlo. Hay que crear refugios en la familia. Educar a los niños al margen, y a veces, en contra, de las directrices autoritarias del Estado, de la partitocracia, de la UNESCO, etc. Hay que hacer «asamblea», verdadero sentido de la palabra Iglesia (ecclesía) con aquellos que también buscan a Dios. También hay que formar comunidades equivalentes a los monasterios medievales, refugios de la cultura, de la espiritualidad, del humanismo clásico, en medio de un mundo bárbaro. Europa se está barbarizando a marchas forzadas, y la creación de una red de comunidades de personas que buscan, que anhelan el crecimiento y la sanación, que se resisten al proceso nivelador, que no desean la «muerte» de su radical singularidad, es de todo punto esencial.

Un concepto muy interesante que desarrollas en tu obra es el de «el hombre planta».

Tenemos raíces. Necesitamos suelo nutricio. No somos fácilmente trasplantables. El hombre-nómada no es un modelo para nuestra especie. Muy pocas personas pueden vivir sanas dentro del nomadismo moderno.  Debemos volver al terruño. Como creo que decía Sam Gamyi, el inolvidable personaje de El Señor de los Anillos, debemos cavar en nuestro huerto, cavar hondo. La lealtad a su señor Frodo se prolonga con la lealtad a su huerto, a su granja cargada de hijos, fruto del amor a su esposa. Sam echó raíces, pero ya las tenía desde el principio. Era leal a Frodo.

Ese concepto, el del «hombre planta», imbrica muy bien con el todo, como parte de una totalidad. ¿Qué es ese todo?

Somos un sistema, una totalidad ordenada y, como católico, te diré que formamos parte de un sistema o totalidad perfectamente jerárquica. Si sabemos no cortar raíces, respetarnos, ser leales, estamos contribuyendo al bien en que consiste ese todo. La caballería en la que debemos militar no es rebelde ante otra cosa que ante el mal. Nuestra bandera debe ser el bien. Cuando plantas un roble chiquitito y, al cabo de muchos años ves un árbol que te supera en altura, estás viendo una imagen del bien. Ese roble te dará sombra, te ofrecerá sus bellotas y permitirá que tus niños se encaramen a sus ramas. Debería ser obligatorio plantar árboles: ellos te recuerdan que somos parte del todo, ellos nos lanzan el mensaje de ser colaboradores y amigos tuyos. Si al todo lo llamas, según tus creencias, el bien o Dios, entonces estás siendo un co-laborador de lo más alto. Co-laborador: trabajar con, vives  como aliado, cooperador.

¿Cómo es ese todo?

No es un todo estático en el que te pierdes como la gota de agua en el mar, o la vaca negra en medio de una noche. Es el todo jerárquico donde la persona se halla feliz por ser importante en la escala que le corresponda. A todo niño deberíamos enseñarle a ser humilde por ser importante, único, imprescindible. Nadie sobra. No dejar traer al niño al mundo, impedir el sano desarrollo del feto es un crimen en el terreno metafísico, no sólo civil: esa persona, con todo su proyecto importante, con su puesto en la creación debidamente asignado, ha sido «abortado». El todo se revuelve con cada «interrupción voluntaria» de su dinámica única e intransferible. Es un crimen contra el Todo.

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Volviendo a Jung, a mi juicio, aciertas en señalar sus paralelismos con Hegel y aludes a una dialéctica común.

Ambos son grandes pensadores dialécticos. Hay en el alma, como en la realidad misma, un dinamismo inagotable. El mundo es lucha, oposición, síntesis, pero también la Psique humana es eso mismo. No tengo dudas: los mundos físicos, históricos, culturales, etc. , al igual que la psique humana, que es parte y a la vez espejo de esos otros mundos, son sistemas que buscan una diferenciación cada vez mayor. Y lo buscan por naturaleza, a pesar de esa corriente niveladora que nació con la modernidad. No podemos ser iguales, nunca lo seremos: la jerarquía del mundo implica una tendencia a la perfección. Un guijarro o un grano de arena ya son suficientemente perfectos en la playa donde reposan y se parecen demasiado a sus vecinos. Contienen toda la perfección que el mundo o el creador esperaban para ellos. El esfuerzo nos corresponde a nosotros, los hombres, que no somos guijarros uniformes arrojados en la playa. Siendo siempre imperfectos, debemos seguir las orientaciones y adentrarnos en el bosque, correr peligro y matar dragones. A mayor perfección de entrada, nunca absoluta, mayor esfuerzo de perfección para alcanzar el destino: nobleza obliga. La nobleza de que está investido el hombre, impone obligaciones y responsabilidades.

Perteneció a la escuela de Sigmund Freud pero rompió con su maestro. ¿Qué nos enseña Jung frente a Freud?

Que el ser humano no es una cloaca. Que nosotros somos espíritu. La verdadera psicología no es una para-física, un remedo de las ciencias naturales. Además de sexo, el ser humano es amor y crecimiento. No somos simplemente máquinas homeostáticas, sino líneas dinámicas que se orientan a un todo que, en el mundo mecanicista de hoy, nos lo quieren ocultar. Somos seres con vocación de servicio, somos caballería, orden monástica, asamblea de seres libres y capaces de caridad, y no, en modo alguno, una piara de cerdos.

Te muestras muy crítico con la psicología convencional, particularmente con la clínica, y reivindicas aquella «más amplia en intereses, valentía y profunidad». ¿Es el cientifismo el nuevo enemigo a batir?

Desde luego. Poseo formación en psicología experimental y neurociencias, y conocí demasiado bien a los «ratólogos», esos expertos en torturar roedores de laboratorio sin ton ni son, y conocí a pedantes conductistas, fieles seguidores de Skinner, que explicaban la mística de Santa Teresa, por ejemplo, en términos behavioristas o de drogadicción. Los freudianos reducirían la mística a la frustración sexual, etc. La psicología clínica actual, la de las más diversas sectas y escuelas que quiere ayudar a los pacientes basándose en experimentos con ratas o perros, o en abstracciones y modas americanas (la «inteligencia emocional», etc.) no es la sino terapia mecanicista acorde con un mundo-máquina, es un «servicio» que en realidad no cura nada y se limita a dar nombres raros a problemas existenciales de la persona, para los que no ofrece verdaderas salidas, sólo «modelos» para dar de comer a unos miles de titulados, cuando lo que ofrecen en venta no son, en gran medida, sino humo bien empaquetado, fraudes, cuando no simples placebos.

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Vivimos en una sociedad obsesionada con la medición, la productividad y la eficacia. ¿Todavía queda espacio para aquello que, afortunadamente, no es medible ni es necesario que lo sea?

Sí, pero para ello habría que ir sustituyendo las ciencias «modernas» (economía, psicología, sociología…) por la metafísica. A fin de cuentas, no son ciencias: son metafísica barata, remedos. No hay salvación para el mundo si no volvemos a la metafísica y a la sacra doctrina. Habría que replantearse lo que fue la «Revolución Científica». Se quiso presentar como una ruptura con la sabiduría medieval. Triunfó la perspectiva de la cantidad, que es sólo una de las categorías del ser. Hoy en día todo se quiere medir o cuantificar, pero a veces no tenemos ni la más remota idea de lo que estamos midiendo (véase el ejemplo de la Inteligencia: ¿Qué es la inteligencia?, pues lo que miden los tests de inteligencia). Por encima de todas las ciencias, está la sabiduría. La propia fe no se enfrenta a las ciencias. La verdadera fe es una sabiduría superior al conjunto de las ciencias particulares. No es irracional, como empezó a pensarse después de Occam y tras la reforma de los protestantes. Es, por el contrario, suprarracional. Esto significa que la propia razón y la medida, sin despreciarlas ni mucho menos, deben subordinarse a la meta más alta.

«Gran parte de lo que hoy se llama ciencia no es conocimiento, es basura».

La pandemia del coronavirus lo demuestra. Se nos llenaba la boca con la «ciencia» moderna, en realidad con la tecnología al servicio de trasnacionales depredadoras y poderes militares, pero no podemos con este virus. Un niño posee un móvil con microprocesadores y minicámaras de última generación, pero no llega el agua potable a muchas aldeas y poblados en el mundo. Una «ciencia», así, permíteme, es una porquería. O buscamos un conocimiento cierto fundando en la búsqueda de causas verdaderas, con unas conclusiones necesarias que se derivan de principios de evidencia firme, o no tenemos ciencia. Manipular variables, construir juguetitos o publicar artículos «salami» en «revistas de impacto» no es ciencia… es añadir más porquería del mundo moderno. Un mundo que no hace otra cosa: producir la más espesa y olorosa de las porquerías.

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Carlos X. Blanco: La caballería espiritual. Editorial EAS (Noviembre de 2018)

Imagen: Nadine Doerlé: Armadura de caballero

jeudi, 27 août 2020

Hinduism and the Culture Wars

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Hinduism and the Culture Wars

Koenraad Elst

#IndicTalks

 
 
In this introduction of his brilliant new book, Koenraad Elst talks about 'Hinduism and the Culture Wars'. Culture Wars are a common phenomenon in the West, where tradition represented often by the religious orthodoxy and the old establishment resists every new change that is being brought about in the society, even the necessary changes. The Old Guard, guided by religion, in this context, acts as the automatic resistance to anything new. That is the reason that Evolution and Abortion are still raging debates in the West, even in countries like the United States of America. This is because, the Prophetic Monotheism prevalent in the West and most of the world except India and China, resists change and ossifies time.
 
On the other hand is a pagan and polytheistic culture like Hinduism, where culture wars are hardly seen. Hindu society accepts necessary change because its guiding dharmic system of Sanatana Dharma has inbuilt mechanisms of social change. It keeps incorporating progressive ideas and necessary changes along with conserving the core civilizational beliefs. Listen to this brilliant Talk to know how unique India's dharmic way of life is and how it takes the middle path between tradition and change.
 
 
For related Indic Talks and Indic Courses, visit :

lundi, 17 août 2020

Mircea Eliade: Illo Tempore, "Boicot de la historia", y Tradicionalismo campesino

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Mircea Eliade: Illo Tempore, "Boicot de la historia", y Tradicionalismo campesino

Ex: https://www.geopolitica.ru

Traducción de Juan Gabriel Caro Rivera

Para Mircea Eliade, el problema del tiempo es uno de los más importantes, si no es el más importante. La división del tiempo en sagrado y profano, el concepto de "Eterno Retorno" y "el horror de la historia" son quizás los primeros conceptos que se me ocurren al mencionar el nombre del gran historiador de las religiones. Y todos ellos están de alguna manera relacionados con el problema del tiempo.

El terror de la historia

En su famosa obra "El mito del retorno eterno", Eliade observa cómo, en los rituales que imitan los actos ejemplares de un dios o un héroe mítico, en la historia de un mito, un hombre de una sociedad arcaica es arrancado del tiempo profano y mágicamente vuelve a entrar en el Gran Tiempo, Illo Tempore, "el tiempo que es", el tiempo sagrado, el tiempo original, es lo más cercano posible de la eternidad.

La conexión de una persona con este tiempo primordial causa un "horror de la historia": una persona tradicional trata de evitar la secuencia lineal de los eventos (que Eliade ve como vacía y sin contenido) y trata de regresar al tiempo primordial. 

210688331.jpgEl Eterno Retorno no es solo la vida en los ciclos cósmicos. Este es precisamente el deseo del hombre de volver al "tiempo": el tiempo radial del alma, que pasa a través de los anillos del tiempo y se dirige hacia la imagen de la Eternidad.

Podemos decir que la existencia del hombre en el mundo según Eliade siempre fluctúa entre dos polos: la historia y el tiempo original del mito. 

Además, por "historia", Eliade no se refiere al tiempo dirigido hacia un objetivo determinado, por ejemplo, escatológico, sino a la comprensión del tiempo como "una cadena de eventos inevitables, imprevistos y que tienen su propio valor autónomo".

La escatología presupone la abolición de la historia, y el cristianismo contiene la oportunidad de ingresar al illo tempore en este momento a través de la metanoia, "la historia puede actualizarse, por la influencia de cada creyente y por medio de él, incluso antes de la Segunda Venida del Salvador, cuando ésta y toda la creación serán completamente destruidas".

Una "historia" pura como duración pura aparece solo con la abolición de Dios en la estructura de la cosmovisión del hombre de los Nuevos Tiempos.

Para Eliade, el "tiempo lineal de la historia" es lo que priva a una persona de la libertad. Esta vez como una acumulación constante de experiencias, eventos, estructuras históricas, privados de la posibilidad de restablecer, de corregir los errores, a través de un retorno al tiempo sagrado arquetípico, que aplasta y encadena a una persona.

“Por el contrario, cuanto más se vuelve moderno en otras palabras, sin protección contra el horror de la historia, menos posibilidades tiene de crear la historia. Porque esta historia se hace sola (gracias a esos eventos que surgieron de actos hechos en el pasado, hace varios siglos o incluso hace varios milenios: solo mencionaremos las consecuencias del descubrimiento de los cultivos agrícolas o los métodos de procesamiento de los metales, la revolución industrial del siglo XVIII, etc. .), o lo hecho por un número cada vez más limitado de personas que no solo prohíben que sus contemporáneos interfieran directa o indirectamente en la historia creada por ellos (o por él), pero, además, tienen amplias oportunidades para hacer que cada individuo sufra las consecuencias de esta historia, es decir, vivir con un miedo constante y creciente. La libertad de crear la historia de la que el hombre moderno está tan orgulloso es realmente ilusoria para casi toda la raza humana", dice Eliade en El mito del retorno eterno. "El hombre arcaico, aunque comete errores, pero a través de la posibilidad de referirse al tiempo original", conserva la libertad de destruir tales errores, abolir el recuerdo de su "caída en la historia y hacer un nuevo intento de salir finalmente del tiempo".

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Noaptea de Sanziene

La lucha con el tiempo, la nostalgia por el Paraíso y la oposición del Cosmos y la Historia son importantes no solo para el trabajo científico, sino también para el trabajo artístico de Eliade.

En este sentido, se puede destacar la novela "Noaptea de Sânziene". El nombre se refiere a un festival folklórico en honor de una determinada categoría de hadas, Sinzien (en singular). En sus trabajos científicos, Eliade mismo señaló que el nombre de Sinzien, posiblemente proviene de San(cta) Diana y el culto de Diana en Dacia, que puede haber estado entrelazado con el culto local de la diosa Bendis, Ileana Cosânzeana, la heroína de los cuentos rumanos, una hechicera con ciertos rasgos ctónicos, la novia del personaje principal, secuestrada por una serpiente y liberada por el personaje principal, pertenece al mismo círculo de imágenes.

Otra figura folclórica con un nombre similar, Iana Sânziana, el mes femenino, la hermana del sol, quien, sin embargo, escapa del incesto y se casa con esta luminaria celestial. Aquí vemos otra encarnación astral del mismo aspecto de la feminidad.

Noaptea de Sânziene se celebra la noche del 23 al 24 de junio. Según la creencia popular, esa noche "las puertas del cielo se abren" y el otro mundo entra en contacto con este mundo. En este momento, los animales también pueden hablar y se cree que cualquiera que los escuche puede aprender muchos secretos. En general, en otros aspectos (las hogueras, saltar sobre una hoguera), estas fiestas son similares a las de Ivan Kupalo o a Ligo del Báltico y otras fiestas del solsticio similares.

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El protagonista: Stefan Viziru durante toda la acción está obsesionado con el problema del tiempo, más precisamente, el problema de abandonar el tiempo. La vida del héroe estuvo marcada por dos estados paradisíacos: una habitación a la que tuvo acceso cuando era niño y una reunión de la bella Ilena en el bosque en las afueras de Bucarest en Noapte de Zanziene (23-24 de junio).

La reunión en la noche cuando las puertas del cielo están abiertas devuelve a Stefan al conocimiento del "estado inicial", a la profunda experiencia de su propia existencia. Ileana, que no es una coincidencia llamada la novia arquetípica de los cuentos populares, se convierte en el símbolo del Conocimiento y la Vida. El anhelo de Ileana se convierte en el anhelo del paraíso perdido, en el momento de la salida del tiempo profano y la familiarización con lo sagrado.

Por cierto, aunque esto lleva lejos, Stefan en este momento está casado con una mujer llamada Joana. Un momento que solo se puede entender si se tiene conocimiento del contexto popular rumano. 

En busca de una pista sobre la posibilidad de dejar el tiempo, Stefan se encuentra con un personaje llamado Anisius, un hombre que, después de haber tenido un accidente, repensó el tiempo y su posición en él.

"Este hombre reveló un gran secreto", susurró Stefan, inclinándose sobre la mesa. Aprendió a vivir. La vida, como un ser integral (total)". Esta vida se opone a la vida que viven los demás, donde ellos mismos no viven, sino que los tejidos, las glándulas y los reflejos son los que viven automáticamente.

Al describir a Anisius, el héroe y, al mismo tiempo, Eliade mismo, notan la tremenda majestuosidad y grandeza con que este hombre limpió los árboles del jardín de orugas.

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“Estaba limpiando sus árboles de oruga. Lo observé y sentí su presencia en cada gesto. Frente al árbol, no estaba distraído por nada, no pensaba en otra cosa. Pero supuse que el árbol estaba completamente abierto para él. No era un objeto simple, uno de los miles como parece para la mayoría de las personas. El árbol que estaba limpiando le reveló en ese momento todo el universo, lo vio por completo".

La experiencia del trauma y la inmovilidad hizo que Anisius comprendiera el movimiento del tiempo. Y decide salir de la historia y pasar al tiempo cósmico, que es un paso hacia una salida completa del tiempo.

“Solo tiene en cuenta el tiempo cósmico: día y noche, salida de la luna y puesta del sol, las estaciones. Y este tiempo cósmico, me dijo, algún día será cancelado por él. Pero ahora necesita tiempo para encontrarse a sí mismo. Encontrarse, en el sentido metafísico de la palabra: llegar a conocerse como un ser integral. Y luego ya no se distrae de la experiencia de cada momento significativo de este tiempo cósmico".

Para una persona así, “la luna nueva o la luna en su conjunto, el equinoccio y el solsticio, los amaneceres y el crepúsculo no poseen, para nosotros, solo una función de calendario. Cada uno de ellos le abre un nuevo aspecto de todo el Cosmos ".

El principio central de tal existencia es "no aceptar ningún tiempo excepto el espacio-tiempo, no tomar, en primer lugar, el tiempo histórico, el momento en que, por ejemplo, se celebran elecciones, Hitler se arma, y en España hay una guerra civil". Entonces, la naturaleza, el mundo se convierte no solo en un lugar de descanso del espíritu, sino, por el contrario, "la clave de las primeras revelaciones metafísicas: el secreto de la muerte y la resurrección, la transición del no ser al ser".

Al mismo tiempo, este hombre, que regresó a una simple existencia campesina en la novela, también se nos revela como el Emperador que vive en el espacio de un cuento de hadas, el Emperador Anisius, quien está en comunión directa con Dios (por cierto, recuerda la característica del cristianismo cósmico, donde Cristo y los apóstoles vienen a la tierra y viven precisamente entre los campesinos). Sin embargo, Anisius y Stefan expresan dos puntos de vista sobre la posibilidad de salir del tiempo.

Anisius espera que al final del ciclo actual, la humanidad fundamentalmente equivocada sea reemplazada por una nueva que "no vive, como nosotros, en el tiempo histórico", sino solo en el instante, es decir, en la Eternidad ". Stefan cree que "una salida del tiempo es posible incluso en nuestro mundo histórico. La Eternidad siempre está disponible para nosotros. El Reino de Dios siempre es alcanzable ". 

La salida de la historia

El rechazo de la historia por Eliade, la concentración específica en el momento de salir del tiempo en momentos de experiencia o colisión con lo sagrado, se explican de diferentes maneras. Incluso hay un punto de vista de que esto expresa nostalgia por la Patria, como un paraíso perdido, de un autor que ha vivido una parte importante de su vida en el exilio.

De hecho, existe una conexión específica con el contexto étnico, pero de una manera ligeramente diferente. Lo anti-temporal (es decir, la orientación predominantemente anti-histórica de Eliade) puede correlacionarse con la naturaleza anti-histórica fundamental de la cultura campesina rumana.

De hecho, tenemos un caso especial, el pueblo rumano se forma en una síntesis de dacios y colonos romanos, pueblos que viven en la dimensión del Estado y la gran historia. 

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Sin embargo, cuando, después de 271, las legiones y colonos romanos abandonan Dacia, pasan más de mil años hasta que aparecen los primeros Estados rumanos en la antigua Dacia. Durante más de mil años, los descendientes de los dacios y romanos parecen estar fuera de la historia. 

Lucian Blaga señala que durante este período tiene lugar un evento fundamental para la cultura rumana: una desviación de la historia hacia la "existencia mental-orgánica" temporal. Señala algunas palabras rumanas cuya etimología refleja mejor este giro.

La palabra pământ significa tierra. Proviene del latín "pavimentum", un piso de piedra, una calle adoquinada. La palabra "bătrân", un anciano, proviene del latín veteranus. Sobre ambos casos en el idioma rumano, estas palabras perdieron su "importancia histórica", "urbana" y adquirieron un nuevo significado campesino.

El caso de la palabra "oaste" es especialmente indicativo - en el "ejército" rumano. "Oaste" viene del latín "hostis", que significa "enemigo". Esta palabra en sí refleja precisamente el horizonte de la existencia campesina, cuando el ejército y los militares son principalmente enemigos que vienen del exterior.

El campesino tradicionalista

El "boicot a la historia", que Blaga ve como la base de la existencia histórica del mundo campesino rumano, también es un componente importante de la visión del mundo de Eliade. 

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Lucian Blaga

Eliade, especialmente en su atracción hacia las mitologías arcaicas y "primitivas", no puede entenderse sin darse cuenta de su profunda solidaridad interna con la cosmovisión del campesino rumano. Por cierto, el concepto de cristianismo cósmico aparece en Eliade en el análisis de la "Mioritsa", una obra de especial importancia para Lucian Blaga.

Eliade llama al cristianismo cósmico la fe popular del cristianismo europeo, especialmente del campesinado del sudeste de Europa. Esto, en su opinión, no es una reliquia del paganismo, "no es una nueva forma de paganismo, ni un sincretismo del paganismo con el cristianismo. Es una creación religiosa completamente única, donde la escatología y la soteriología van hacia dimensiones cósmicas".

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Como señala Eliade en su Aspectos del mundo: “El cristianismo cósmico en las zonas rurales está lleno de nostalgia por la naturaleza, santificado por la presencia de Jesús, nostalgia por el paraíso, el deseo de transformación de la naturaleza, prístino y primaveral, protegido de constantes agitaciones, conquistas, guerras, ruinas. Este es el "ideal" de los pueblos agrícolas, constantemente arruinado por las hordas guerreras de nómadas y explotado por varios "amos". “También es una forma de protesta pasiva contra la tragedia y la injusticia de la historia, contra el hecho de que el mal no aparece solo como resultado de la voluntad individual y la decisión individual, sino que resulta ser una estructura supra-personal del mundo histórico".

No hace mucho tiempo, en una conferencia en el seminario sobre la metafísica de la tercera casta y el campesinado, Alexander Guélievich planteó la cuestión del tradicionalismo de la tercera casta, señalando que Guénon puede correlacionarse con la primera casta sacerdotal y Evola con la segunda casta guerrera.

Eliade, por supuesto, no es del todo tradicionalista, en el sentido en que Guénon y Evola son tradicionalistas. Sin embargo, de los pensadores más cercanos a los tradicionalistas, es Eliade quien tiene una actitud más cercana a los representantes de la tercera casta.

Guénon se centra en la contemplación de los principios inmutables. Evola a la lucha heroica y la existencia militar intransigente. Eliade: en el espacio, lo opuesto a la historia, a la actualización ritual y al mantenimiento del equilibrio. Si Evola se enfocó estilísticamente en los ejemplos de las destrezas militares, entonces Eliade lo hizo en los rituales campesinos y arcaicos, de ahí la simpatía especial por el "cristianismo cósmico".

Su filosofía es menos trágica, porque Eliade está en todas partes tratando de leer los signos de lo sagrado oculto, no solo para exponer la crisis del mundo moderno, el cierre del huevo del mundo desde arriba, sino para ver la posibilidad de la revelación en las cosas más comunes. La hierofanía puede manifestarse en las cosas más comunes: este es el significado de la mayor parte de su obra literaria. 

Al mismo tiempo, Eliade es sorprendentemente étnico, lo que tampoco puede entenderse sin referencia a su literatura. Eliade es historiador de las religiones y profesor estadounidense que escribe obras teóricas en inglés y francés. Eliade escribe solo en rumano principalmente sobre su patria, razón por la cual las traducciones a veces aparecen antes que los originales.

978968411183.JPGSe presta especial atención a los problemas de la relación de los sexos en la obra literaria, el equilibrio entre el hombre y la mujer, el peculiar simbolismo matrimonial de Eliade, claramente manifestado en su obra literaria, también se refiere al principio característico de la tercera función según Dumézil: la relación entre los sexos y "estar en la boda".

La figura de Anisius de Noapte de Sanziene, un "emperador" campesino que ve el paso del tiempo histórico al tiempo cósmico como un paso en el camino del tiempo a la Eternidad, es un hombre campesino separado del tradicionalismo. Así es como la figura de una persona separada se realiza en un contexto campesino, donde en el trabajo esa persona rompe con el mundo moderno y logra una visión de todo el cosmos en su conjunto.

Por otro lado, el final Noapte de Sanziene es indicativo: Stefan finalmente conoce a Ileana, la heroína con el nombre de una novia de cuentos de hadas rumanos en un bosque en las afueras de París, su reunión es coronada con la muerte en un accidente automovilístico. La muerte y el estar en la boda coinciden. Pero, como termina la novela de Eliade, este "último momento infinito será suficiente".

14:53 Publié dans Traditions | Lien permanent | Commentaires (2) | Tags : mircea eliade, tradition, traditionalisme | |  del.icio.us | | Digg! Digg |  Facebook

dimanche, 09 août 2020

Julius Evola: The Philosopher & Magician in War: 1943-1945

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Julius Evola:
The Philosopher & Magician in War: 1943-1945

ex: http://www.counter-currents.com

Gianfranco de Turris
Julius Evola: The Philosopher and Magician in War: 1943–1945
Rochester, VT: Inner Traditions, 2020

julius-evola-9781620558065_hr.jpgThis English translation of Gianfranco de Turris’s Julius Evola: Un filosofo in guerra 1943–1945 has come along at just the right time, for it shows us how a great man coped both with societal collapse and with personal tragedy. As the title implies, the book focuses on Evola’s activities during the last two years of the Second World War. However, de Turris goes considerably beyond that time frame, dealing with much that happened to Evola after the war, up until about 1950.

De Turris’s main objectives in this work are to solve a number of mysteries about Evola’s activities at the end of the war, and in the post-war years, and to respond to the philosopher’s critics. Because, until now, so little has been known about these years in Evola’s life, they have been the object of a great deal of speculation, especially on the part of hostile, Left-wing writers. De Turris has uncovered fascinating new information about Evola’s activities and provided definitive answers to a great many lingering questions.

The book begins with an episode that will doubtless be the focus of most critical reviews: Evola’s journey to Hitler’s headquarters in August–September 1943. As the war dragged on, public opinion in Italy had begun to turn against Mussolini, especially after Rome was bombed by the Allies for the first time on the 19th of July. Several members of the government had turned against Mussolini, and the Duce felt compelled to summon the Fascist Grand Council for the first time since the beginning of the war. This turned out to be a mistake, for it passed a motion of no confidence in Mussolini, effectively giving King Victor Emmanuel the power to dismiss him. Mussolini, however, behaved as if nothing of significance had occurred. He appeared for an audience at the royal palace the next day, prepared to brief the King on recent events. Instead, the King had Mussolini arrested and imprisoned in a hotel atop Gran Sasso mountain, the highest peak in the Apennines.

The story of Mussolini’s daring rescue (on the 12th of September) by German commandos flying gliders, led by the legendary Otto Skorzeny, is one of the most famous episodes of the war. Mussolini was immediately flown to Munich and then to Hitler’s HQ (“Wolf’s Lair”) in East Prussia. When he arrived on the 14th of September, Julius Evola had already been there for several days. The philosopher was part of a delegation chosen by the Germans to help advise them on what course to take in Italy. The delegation also included the Duce’s son, Vittorio.

Their journey from Italy was undertaken at considerable risk. The plane carrying Evola narrowly escaped interception by Allied aircraft. On the ground, Evola and others were disguised for part of their journey in Waffen SS caps and coats. Once the philosopher had arrived at Wolf’s Lair, he and the other members of the delegation were received by Joachim von Ribbentrop who communicated to them Hitler’s wish that “the Fascists who remained faithful to their belief and to the Duce were to immediately initiate an appeal to the Italian people announcing the constitution of a counter-government that confirmed loyalty to the Axis according to the commitment first declared and then not maintained by the King” (quoting Evola’s account, p. 20).

Believe it or not, this is one of the less interesting parts of de Turris’s book. Far more interesting is what happens to Evola later. Those already familiar with the details of Evola’s life will know what is coming: his flight from Rome, his injury in Vienna, and his long recovery in the years immediately following the war. This part of the book is more interesting not just because it fills in many blanks in Evola’s biography, but because it reveals a more “human” side to the philosopher. I apologize if this seems a somewhat maudlin way to speak of a man like Evola, but I can think of no alternative.

Those who have read Evola extensively know that the philosopher can often seem as remote as the peaks he climbed in his youth. In de Turris’s account, however, we find an Evola who is initially depressed and dispirited by the outcome of the war, and by his injury. He struggles to make sense out of why these things have occurred, and he struggles to define what his mission must be in the post-war situation. Eventually, he emerges triumphant, but it is instructive to see not only how he overcomes his struggles, but that he struggles. In facing our current situation, in which the Western world (especially the US) seems to be falling down around our ears, Evola’s example gives us strength. We see that even Evola, even this “differentiated type” (to use his terminology) had to struggle with adversity — but that he overcame.

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On June 4, 1944, the Allies captured Rome. One of the first things their agents did, just hours after entering the city, was to pay Julius Evola a call. Allied intelligence had learned that Evola’s name was on a list of intended agents of a German-led “Post-Occupational Network” for espionage and sabotage (his codename was “Maria”). They showed up at Evola’s apartment, no doubt with the intention of arresting and interrogating him. However, Evola’s elderly mother detained them at the entrance, while the philosopher slipped unnoticed out a side door. The one thing he took with him was a suitcase containing the materials that would eventually become the three-volume Introduction to Magic (Introduzione alla magia).

Evola then embarked on a long and arduous journey. On foot, he made his way out of the city and located the retreating German troops. They gave him shelter, and eventually, he wound up in Vienna, where he lived under an assumed name. Exactly why Evola headed for Vienna has been something of a mystery, and de Turris spends a good deal of time on it. Incredibly, it appears that Evola went to Vienna to undertake research on Freemasonry at the request of the SD (Sicherheitsdienst; the “Security Service” of the SS)! The SD’s “Office VII” had been engaged in Freemasonic studies, and they were not going to interrupt it for a small thing like the apocalypse.

Evola later told an associate that the SD had assigned him the task of “a purification work and ‘return to the origin’ of the Freemasonic rituals found during the war by the German troops in various countries” (p. 158). Evola was not sure exactly why the SD was interested in this. Had they sent him in search of the Ark of the Covenant, it would hardly be more surprising. In case it is not obvious what Freemasonry had to be “purified” of, Evola actually makes this clear in his autobiography The Path of Cinnabar (Il cammino del cinabro): “[Freemasonry] initially had an initiatic character but later, in parallel with its politicization, had moved to obey and subject itself to anti-traditional influences. The final outcome was to act out the part as one of the main secret forces of world subversion, even before the French Revolution, and then in general solidarity with the revolution of the Third State [sic]” (quoted in de Turris, p. 159; The translator means “Third Estate,” which, in the French Ancien Régime, was made up of the peasants and bourgeoisie).

Luftangriffe.jpgOn January 21, 1945, Evola decided to take a walk through the streets of Vienna during an aerial bombardment by the Americans (and not the Soviets, as has been erroneously claimed). While he was in the vicinity of Schwarzenbergplatz, a bomb fell nearby, throwing Evola several feet and knocking him unconscious. He was found and taken to a military hospital. When the philosopher awoke hours later, the first thing he did was to ask what had become of his monocle. Once the doctors had finished looking him over, the news was not good. Evola was found to have a contusion of the spinal cord which left him with complete paralysis from the waist down. As Mircea Eliade notoriously said, the injury was roughly at the level of “the third chakra.” It resulted in Evola being categorized as a “100-percent war invalid,” which afforded him the small pension he received for the rest of his life.

Why did Evola go for a walk during a bombing raid? Eliade erroneously claimed that Evola “went to fight on the barricades against the Soviet Russian advance on Vienna” (p. 128). Evola provides an answer himself, in a hitherto unpublished letter to the wife of the Austrian conservative philosopher Othmar Spann:

. . . I would always challenge destiny, so to speak. And from here originate my acts of folly on the glaciers and mountains: hence the principle of my not caring or having any concern about the aerial bombardments. And the same goes for when I was in Vienna when the situation had exacerbated to the point of severe danger. . . . In the end I was caught by a carpet bombing in Schwarzenberg. [p. 125]

But when Evola went out walking that fateful day, he had expected that his destiny would be either to live or to die. He was not expecting that he might be destined to live out the rest of his days as a cripple. This turn of events seems to have utterly perplexed the philosopher, and he struggled to make sense of why this had happened to him, and at that point in his life. Matters were complicated by Evola’s belief, stated years later in The Path of Cinnabar, that “there is no significant event in existence that was not wanted by us before birth” (quoted in de Turris, p. 169).

In the same letter to Erika Spann, Evola writes: “What is not clear to me is the purpose of the whole thing: I had in fact the idea — the belief if you want to call it, naïve — that one either dies or reawakens. The meaning of what has happened to me is one of confusion: neither one nor the other motive” (p. 170). De Turris refers to the “incomprehension and disillusionment” Evola experienced “at the outcome and aftermath of the war” (p. 54). The philosopher had been struggling to understand the cataclysm that had engulfed Europe and destroyed Fascism and National Socialism, concerning which he had cautiously nurtured certain hopes. Now, additionally, he had to make sense of why fate had chosen to permanently cripple this Western kshatriya, this man of action. It is difficult to imagine the desolation and inner turmoil Evola had to endure in the years immediately following the war. Again quoting the letter to Frau Spann: “In this world today — in this world of ruins — I have nothing to do or look for. Even if tomorrow everything magically returns to its place, I would be here without a goal in life, empty. All the more so in this condition and in this clinic” (pp. 199-200).

AK-OÖ-Bad-Ischl-Kur-Erholungsheim-Salzkammergut.jpgEvola was eventually transferred to a hospital in Bad Ischl, where he received better treatment. De Turris offers a rather harrowing account of the various operations and therapies used to treat Evola, mostly without success. Despite his condition, while at Bad Ischl, Evola actually traveled to Budapest, where he remained for a couple of months before returning to Austria. Little is known about what Evola was doing in Budapest or who helped him get there (though we now know the address at which he was living). De Turris argues persuasively that Evola went there to be treated by the famous Hungarian neurologist, András Pető, who had some success in the treatment of paralysis using unconventional methods. Unfortunately, he was not able to help Evola.

From the beginning, Evola had entertained the possibility that his paralysis was “psychic” in nature. He was encouraged in this belief by René Guénon, with whom he continued to correspond from his hospital bed in Bad Ischl. Guénon wrote to him:

According to what you tell me, it would seem that what really prevents you from recovering is more of a psychic nature than physical; if this is so the only solution without doubt would be to provoke a contrary reaction that comes forth from your own self. . . . Besides, it isn’t at all impossible that something might have taken advantage of the opportunity provided by the lesion to act against you; but it’s not at all clear by whom and why this may have occurred. [p. 148]

In fact, there does seem to be something mysterious about Evola’s condition. In 1952, he was visited in his apartment by several associates, including the anthroposophists Massimo Scaligero and Giovanni Colazza. During this visit, the men saw Evola move his legs – something that, given his paralysis, should have been completely impossible. After leaving Evola’s presence, they were naturally eager to discuss this. It was reported that Colazza said to Scaligero, “Of course he could! But he doesn’t! He does not want to do it” (p. 197).

Setting this mystery aside, Evola appears to have become reconciled to his condition by reminding himself that, after all, the body is but a temporary vehicle for the spirit. In a letter to a friend, he states that “in regard to my situation — even if I had to remain forever like this, which is not excluded — it spiritually does not signify anything more for me than if my car had a flat tire” (p. 168). Another friend, a Catholic priest, naïvely suggested that Evola travel to Lourdes in hopes of a miracle cure at the Sanctuary of our Lady. Evola responded with kindness and patience, saying, “I have already told you how little this thing means to me . . . The basic premise, which is that of an ardent desire for a healing, is first of all lacking. If grace were to be asked for, it would rather be to understand the spiritual meaning as to why this has happened — whether it remains this way or not; even more so, to understand the reason for my continuing to live” (pp. 168-69).

Julius Evola.jpgAnd, in time, Evola does seem to have come to some understanding of why fate had dealt him this hand, though he never made public these very personal reflections. On the eve of the philosopher’s return to Italy in August 1948, his doctor at Bad Ischl reported that “the general state of the patient has improved considerably in these last days, the initial depressions have become lighter, the irascibility and the problems of relationship with the nursing staff and patients have declined markedly” (p. 176). Indeed, one imagines that Evola was not an ideal patient. He wrote to Erika Spann of the “spirit-infested atmosphere of the diseases of these patients” (p. 193; italics in original).

What undoubtedly lifted Evola’s spirits is that he had at last defined what was to be his post-war mission. In The Path of Cinnabar, he writes that

The movement in the post-war period should have taken the form of a party and performed a function analogous to that which the Italian Social Movement [MSI] had conceived for itself, but with a more precise traditional orientation, belonging to the Right, without unilateral references to Fascism and with a precise discrimination between the positive aspects of Fascism and the negative ones. [Quoted in de Turris, p. 54]

Concerning this, de Turris comments that “all of his [post-war] publishing activities and book-writing projects were specifically oriented in this direction” (p. 54). In 1949, Evola began writing again, initially under the penname “Arthos.” He wrote in bed, in pencil, with a lap desk placed before him, or he used a typewriter, seated at his desk in front of the window. His French biographer, Jean-Paul Lippi, referred to him as “an immobile warrior.”

Around this time, Evola learned that he had become an idol of Right-wing youth in Italy. In September 1950, he addressed the National Youth Assembly of the MSI in Bologna. The inclusion of Evola seems to have been last-minute. The organizers heard that the philosopher was staying at a nearby hospital and paid him an impromptu visit. One of the men present offers this moving account of what happened next:

We introduced ourselves and invited him to attend the assembly. He made himself immediately available and expressed great interest. He asked us if he could have the time only to change and shave. I remember that in his haste he had a small cut on his cheek. We carried him in our arms and placed him in the German military truck. Upon entering the assembly hall he was warmly welcomed by our group and since Evola was unknown to me as a thinker, Enzo Erra introduced him as a heroic invalid of the Italian Social Republic. On stage, while I was supporting him, I noticed that he was pleasantly surprised and moved by the welcome of hundreds of young people. He silently fixed his attention and listened intently to the various interventions, and at the end of the proceedings we took him back to the hospital. It was at that moment that we had the idea of asking him to write a booklet that would be a guide, and that was how the Orientamenti was born. The next day we accompanied him to a small mountain hotel in the Apennines. [p. 207]

unnamedcivilta.jpgJulius Evola was back. Indeed, he wrote some of his most important books in the post-war years: Men Among the Ruins, The Metaphysics of Sex, Ride the Tiger, The Path of Cinnabar, Meditations on the Peaks, and others. Arguably, he enjoyed far more influence after the war than he ever did before. Disturbed by his influence on the youth, Italian authorities arrested Evola in May 1951 and put him on trial for “glorifying Fascism.” He was acquitted — something that would be unimaginable in today’s world, given its unironic concern with “social justice.”

This book is required reading for admirers of Evola, and students of traditionalism generally. It should also be read by Leftist critics of Evola — though it will not be, or, if it is, the contents will be distorted and misrepresented. You see, de Turris does almost too thorough a job of demolishing Evola’s detractors. One wishes, in fact, that he had spent a little less time jousting with these people, as they all come off as dishonest lightweights. Still, I suppose it is necessary. And “jousting” is an appropriate term, as de Turris’s defense of his mentor is gallant and virile in the best tradition of the “aristocrats of the soul.” He has learned from a master, and in his voice we sometimes hear an echo of Evola’s own. De Turris is well-qualified to tell Evola’s story: he knew the philosopher personally, and is the executor of his estate.

Among the fine features of this volume are two interesting appendices. The first consists of illustrations, some of which are fascinating. One is a reproduction of the top of a cigar box signed by the men present at Wolf’s Lair, including Evola, Vittorio Mussolini, and others. The second appendix consists of hitherto-unpublished translations of several articles Evola wrote in 1943 for La Stampa, the daily newspaper in Turin. I will close with a quote from one of these, which is not only prescient, given Evola’s fate after 1943, but also particularly relevant to the situation in which we now find ourselves:

From one day to another, and even from one hour to another, an individual can lose his home to a bombardment: that which has been loved the most and to which one was most attached, the very object of one’s most spontaneous feelings. . . . It has become blatantly clear . . . as a living fact accompanied with a feeling of liberation: all that is destructive and tragic can have value to inspire. This is not about sensitivity or badly understood Stoicism. Quite the contrary: it is a question of knowing and nurturing a sense of detachment from oneself, people, and things, which should instill calm, unparalleled security, and even . . . indomitability. . . . A radical breakdown of the “bourgeois” that exists in every person is possible in these devastating times. . . . [To] make once more essential and important what should always be in a normal existence: the relationship between life and more than life . . . During these hours of trials and tribulations the discovery of the path, where these values are positively experienced and translated into pure strength for as many people as possible, is undoubtedly one of the main tasks of the political-spiritual elite of our nation. [pp. 261–62]

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lundi, 03 août 2020

Towards a Right-Wing Critical Theory

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Towards a Right-Wing Critical Theory

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Amid the social turmoil of the late 1960s, the German Communist student Rudi Dutschke called for a “long march through the institutions” as the preferred strategy of ensuring the victory of global Marxist revolution. The success of this initiative is no more prominent in the West than in today’s academia, where Frankfurt School Critical Theory and its related trend, postmodernism, maintain an iron grip of control over the intellectual atmosphere, viciously rooting out all forms of dissent through outing, outrageous accusations, public shaming, firing, and, all too often, the tragic consequence of permanently destroying one’s future. Should any uppity academic arrogate to oppose the systemic “deconstruction” of the heteronormative, cisnormative, patriarchal, ethnocentric, elitist, religious West, their villainous resistance to tolerance and progress will be justly silenced.

Naturally, such quasi-Stalinist practices (we will remove “quasi” once incarceration, and not the loss of one’s livelihood, becomes the normal penalty for opposition) make a bad impression on those yet unconvinced of the merits of these intellectual traditions. Popular figures such as Jordan Peterson and Pat Buchanan are well known for their criticisms of critical theory, with the unfortunate consequence that their obstinacy in truly engaging with the school has resulted in more than a few jokes and the vehement refusal of most men on the Right to see anything valuable in the enemy’s unwavering criticism and deconstruction of the modern West’s various sacred cows. Peterson is often mocked by Leftist intellectuals and their followers for his tirade against “postmodern neo-Marxism,” quick to see the movement as nothing but a nihilistic and epistemologically skepticist cult with no real conviction for anything but frenetic revolution. Pat Buchanan, in The Death of the West, [1] [1] acknowledges the Frankfurt School’s success in undermining the various institutions of our civilization, but can only pathetically anathematize critical theory as “anything but benign” [2] [2] in the typical fashion of a paranoid and impotent American “conservative” who is chronically unable to realize the inevitable, downward-spiraling consequences of the Enlightenment project and fears for the destruction of his comfortable, consumer lifestyle. Accusing the cultural Marxists of preferring psychological conditioning to philosophical argument, [3] [3] Buchanan fails to see the irony when he continues to merely restate the anti-Western positions of critical theorists in order to generate panic in his readership without producing any real understanding or alternative, openly remarking a few pages later that “traditionalists have yet to discover effective countermeasures.” [4] [4]

But they have. If “traditionalists” have yet to discover effective methods to defend the West’s traditional values, it is only because Buchanan conflates traditionalism — more specifically, Traditionalism — with his own “paleoconservatism” and worship of classical liberal American principles. It is indisputable that Republicans, Right-wing libertarians, and other mainstream conservatives are more concerned with the performance of the stock market and a vague notion of “liberty” than they are with the much more tangible and profound issues of demographic change, the family, spiritual well-being, and other matters factoring into the question of whether or not the proverbial “pursuit of happiness” means anything more than the hollow satisfaction offered by monetary gain; consequently, they are by no means willing to actively engage with self-professed enemies of Western Civilization through anything but the occasional pseudointellectual garbage (of which The Death of the West is a slightly above average example) regurgitated by “thinkers” like Dinesh D’Souza or Ben Shapiro. This is owed in no small part to the time-honored American tradition of anti-intellectualism and the fact that any real action would cost them their own, slightly older, modernist ideals. However, once one is willing to recognize that a true conservatism entails a rejection of all revolutionary tendencies and thus begins to look outside the camp of those satisfied with self-destructive American principles, one sees that the Right itself has access to an entire critical tradition of its own, older than that of the Frankfurt School, which needs only to be revived to fight academic Leftism with its own methods: a radical disillusionment with the bourgeois narrative of progress combined with a systematic effort to establish an intellectual elite of theorists through securing as much influence as possible by openly working to deconstruct all modern myths.

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That is to say, if the Right can look beyond the specific, unappealing conclusions of critical theorists and postmodernists and instead take inspiration from their methods as a whole, this tradition could be recovered. But, once again, what is meant by “Right” is no milquetoast Americanist conservatism, nor even the illiberal ethnonationalism of the “alt-right,” which are both essentially modernist. Rather, what might be termed “Right-wing critical theory” is fully and fundamentally counter-revolutionary, in the intellectual vein of the Traditionalists René Guénon and Julius Evola. To the extent that the “West” is identified with the individualistic, secularist paradigm of European society following the Enlightenment and French Revolution, Right-wing critical theory can even be termed anti-Western. Opposing material and moral progress, the bourgeois invention of the nation-state, the artificial dichotomy of capitalism and communism, the secular rationalism of the Enlightenment and its arrogant dismissal of other cultural traditions, stale Christian moralism, biological racism, the unjust oppression of colonized peoples by mercantile European empires, the primacy of science, and a plethora of other ideas specific to the modern West, Evola and Guénon frequently sound like trendy postmodern academics or other “cultural Marxist” intellectuals. If the Traditional Right is to crush — or “deconstruct” — the ideologies and institutions that led to the genesis of decadent modernity, then they would do well to imitate the critical theorists by looking at our own critical tradition as developed by these seminal thinkers and thus catch the enemy off guard by using his own weapons. In what follows, I will list five excerpts (though I could list many, many more) that demonstrate Guénon and Evola’s uncanny skill in challenging the distorted and puerile Weltanschauung of Western bourgeois civilization.

Let us begin with the central myth of modernity. Regarding the idea of progress, Evola, in Revolt Against the Modern World, states:

No idea is as absurd as the idea of progress, which together with its corollary notion of the superiority of modern civilization, has creative its own “positive” alibis by falsifying history, by insinuating harmful myths in people’s minds, and by proclaiming itself sovereign at the crossroads of the plebeian ideology from which it originated. . . . Our contemporaries must truly have become blind if they really thought they could measure everything by their standards and consider their own civilization as privileged, as the one to which the history of the world was preordained and outside of which there is nothing but barbarism, darkness, and superstition. [5] [6]

Written during the existential crisis of faith experienced by the champions of liberalism in the wake of the Second World War, Guénon appraises the idea of material progress:

However, let us consider things for a moment from the standpoint of those whose ideal is material “welfare,” and who therefore rejoice at all the improvements to life furnished by modern “progress”; are they quite sure they are not being duped? Is it true that, because they dispose of swifter means of communication and other things of the kind, and because of their more agitated and complicated manner of life, men are happier today than they were formerly? The very opposite seems to us to be true: disequilibrium cannot be a condition of real happiness. Moreover, the more needs a man has, the greater the likelihood that he will lack something, and thereby be unhappy; modern civilization aims at creating more and more artificial needs, and as we have already said, it will always create more needs than it can satisfy, for once one has started on this path, it is very hard to stop, and, indeed, there is no reason for stopping at any particular point. [6] [7]

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Next, for those who know all too well the Leftist lecture on how everything is merely a “social construct,” let us take a look at Evola’s views on the modern nation-state, taken from the same work, wherein the “nation” is only a result of the degeneration of the higher ideal of the Imperium, or Empire:

Modern nationalism is not based on a natural unity, but on an artificial and centralizing one . . . Regardless of its myths, the substance of modern nationalism is not an ethnos [emphasis original] but a demos, and its prototype always remains the plebian one produced by the French revolution. . . . It is well known that in Europe during the nineteenth century, nationalism was synonymous with revolution . . . What emerges in nationalism is an opposite aspect, namely, the cumulative and collectivizing element. [7] [8]

What may be most surprising is how similar the Guénonian-Evolian critique of European colonialism sounds to modern liberal-academic critiques of the same; far from praising the conquering spirit of the European people, Guénon and Evola strictly condemn the cruel spread of materialism and “progress” to other parts of the globe, the subsequent economic exploitation, the laughable intimations of Western superiority, and the perceived unbridgeable differences between East and West. Any reader who has taken a college course or two on an Eastern culture will probably have heard of the Gramscian Marxist and postmodernist writer Edward Said, who in 1978 published Orientalism (a holy book in today’s universities), accusing Western civilization, which supposedly sees itself as masculine, active, rationalistic, and progressive, of caricaturizing the East — fundamentally Other — as feminine, passive, superstitious, and regressive, and using this depiction to justify colonialism. Long before Said penned Orientalism, however, Guénon, as early as 1927, had already dismissed the arrogance of modernist Western scholars who had failed to understand the East, blaming the supposed divide between Occident and Orient on the West’s abnormality:

There is no essential opposition between [traditional civilizations] . . . On the other hand, a civilization that recognizes no higher principles, but is in reality based on a negation of principles, is by this very fact ruled out from all mutual understanding with other civilizations . . . There was no reason for opposition between East and West as long as there were traditional civilizations in the West as well as in the East; the opposition has meaning only as far as the modern West is concerned, for it is far more an opposition between two mentalities than between two more or less clearly defined geographical entities. [8] [9]

Often misrepresented as a sadistic, militarist fascist bent on oppressing others for the mere hell of it, Evola, in Recognitions: Studies on Men and Problems from the Perspective of the Right, critiques Western imperialism:

. . . but especially with regard to the Orient the idea of “superiority of civilization” was a mere presumption of the white races, as was the conviction that Christianity made the Occident the bearer of the true faith, authorizing it to a haughty detachment from the rest of humanity, which it considered “pagan” and barbaric. . . . The myth of superiority, which in the end justified every sort of abuse and oppression, rested on the progressivist superstition — that is on the idea that science and technological civilization constitute the last word on the history of the world, and secure the Europeans of the global right to a general “civilizing” work. [9] [10]

It is quite obvious that the similarities with the critical theorists extend only as far as the act of criticism itself, only in recognizing that there is a crucial problem with the world today and the subsequent initiation of intellectual-cultural militancy against it; thus, the critical Right must in truth act as a counter-criticism, combating the pernicious assumptions of the modern world as well as of the Marxist theorists themselves. One clear example is found in Evola’s doctrine of the regression of the castes, viewing bourgeois society as a morphological anomaly of civilizations but even more harshly condemning the Marxist-led proletarian movements which seek to replace it. [10] [12] Nor could the formation of a true Right-wing critical theory flourish without a concomitant spiritual awakening; as today’s subversive academics are fueled by a religious white guilt and bourgeois pity for “oppressed” minorities, the Right ought to draw strength from a source indescribably higher.

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One might object that the formation of an intellectual elite in today’s increasingly dystopian environment is fanciful at best and delusional at worst. After all, Guénon, in The Crisis of the Modern World, explicitly advocated for the formation of an élite intellectuelle to make contact with spiritual representatives of the East in order to direct the West back onto a course of normality, eventually giving up on this possibility late in life. Likewise, Evola’s idea of the Männerbund (though this was less intellectual for him) has hardly come to fruition. Furthermore, open critical dissent — that is, not merely expositions of one’s own ideology, but the direct deconstruction of the dominant paradigms peddled by the Leftist elite — isn’t safe for a family man with a job.

However, as the technocratic surveillance state tends increasingly towards practical omnipotence and omnipresence, and those preferring to stick to the shadows in some remote corner of America become increasingly unable to do so, one must ask oneself what alternatives are left. Nor should anyone mistakenly believe that a Right-wing critical theory would discourage complementary action; as the 60s generation marched in the streets, their allied intellectuals fervently published in their defense.  It is also worth considering that the revolutionaries themselves faced the same dangers of loss of their livelihoods, reputations, or even lives through active dissent. If true men of the Right can ride the tiger by adopting the same methodologies of deconstruction and disillusionment as their subversive opponents, and use their increased popularity to gain ever more prominent positions with society, then as long as the counter-revolution sticks to truly Traditional principles, perhaps the tide can be turned. Counter-Currents already recognizes that the culture war is truly crucial.

If modernity is a prison, then we must survey the movements of our guards to learn how to escape.

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Notes

[1] [15] Patrick J. Buchanan, “Four Who Made a Revolution,” in The Death of the West: How Dying Populations and Immigrant Invasions Imperil Our Country and Civilization. New York: St. Martin’s, 2002.

[2] [16] Buchanan, 80.

[3] [17] Buchanan, 83.

[4] [18] Buchanan, 90.

[5] [19] Julius Evola, Revolt Against the Modern World. Rochester, VT: Inner Traditions International, 1995. p. xxx.

[6] [20] René Guénon, The Crisis of the Modern World. Hillsdale, NY: Sophia Perennis, 2004. p. 93.

[7] [21] Evola, 339.

[8] [22] Guénon, 21-22.

[9] [23] Julius Evola, Recognitions: Studies on Men and Problems from the Perspective of the Right. London: Arktos Media, 2017. p. 90.

[10] [24] The regression of castes permeates Evola’s work. For an overview, see “The Regression of the Castes” in Revolt. See also “The Historiography of the Right” in Recognitions for an example of the appropriation of Marxist methodologies for Right-wing purposes.

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vendredi, 31 juillet 2020

Brief Thoughts on Tao Te Ching

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Brief Thoughts on Tao Te Ching

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Author’s note: Cited passages are taken from the 1988 Stephen Mitchell translation, London, Macmillan.

Tao Te Ching, the “Book of the Way,” was ostensibly composed by the pseudonymous Lao Tzu, about whom next to nothing is known, sometime around the time of Confucius (551-479 BC). It’s things like this that add even more irresistible mystique to this slender volume, its lucid prose and valuable insights aside. Tao Te Ching reads like a happy accident of the recorded histories of Earth, its ruminations on being not-being coming across almost ironically due to the fact that they exist on paper. In some ways, one could argue that Tao being extant is one of the greatest ironies known to man.

Aside from its ephemeral diction and the general obscurity of its author, Tao is known for the basic description of the ideals of Taoism — that is, living in accordance with Tao, the “way” or “truth” of the universe. Much of the Western conception of Eastern spiritualism and the thinking of East Asians stems from our exposure to the practices of Confucianism and Taoism, with many things from either school often being inaccurately attributed to the other in our collective conscience. In some ways, the appeal of the East when it comes to Western thought can be partially explained by this same alienness and exoticness, but with the important caveat that these works still remain intelligible to us within our own cultural context. The great Ezra Pound was famously inspired by Eastern poetry and art in his own compositions, cutting his teeth on translations of Confucius and other great Chinese writers both before and during his own time as a writer. Reading through the Cantos alongside Tao will inevitably reveal some parallels to the reader.

East Asian writings are so stimulating to the right kinds of Western minds because they often dwell upon the same topics that Westerners dwelled upon, but with a wholly different set of ethics and metaphysical principles underlying their thought processes. It is not necessarily true that Asian philosophers arrive, invariably, at conclusions or questions remarkably similar to those in the Western tradition, but that our readings of these works with the mind of a Westerner allows us to make connections to concepts that we deal with in our own philosophical musings — in some ways, we’re comparing notes, and in other ways, we’re taking away insights that could only be made possible by our own conceptions of things like honor and being. The Western Taoist and the Eastern Taoist inevitably practice the Way differently, but that may also be the point.

To explain the premises of Taoism now would take days, so I encourage anyone interested in the book or this philosophy to explore it on their own. Rather, I would like to focus on two concepts discussed in Tao that are immediately applicable to the struggles of the West; and more specifically, those fighting to save it.

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One of the most important concepts in Tao is that of the awkwardly-rendered and deliberately ambiguous “being not-being,” — effortless action, wu wei 無爲 — the act of living in accordance with the Way. Action springs forth from the knowledge that the situation at hand is unknowable, but through observation and instinct, can be made known by one’s own hand. One of the more elegant descriptions of this premise comes from zhang 22:

The Master, by residing in the Tao,
sets an example for all beings.
Because he doesn’t display himself,
people can see his light.
Because he has nothing to prove
people can trust his words.
Because he doesn’t know who he is,
people recognize themselves in him.
Because he has no goal in mind,
everything he does succeeds.

It would be easy to dismiss this as nonsensical babble. But the truth of this particular segment lies in how one determines the meanings of the self and what it means to “know” who one is. In the less abstract sense of things, one could argue that the West is in a permanent state of unknowing of our identity, especially in the modern day and age in which such things are nebulous and often impossible to grasp.

But doesn’t the idea of rejecting a concrete definition of one’s identity fall directly in opposition to our struggle, the struggle of asserting our collective identities and personhood in the face of those who claim such things do not exist? Not necessarily. One could also make the argument that knowledge of the self in terms intelligible to another human, or in fact, one’s own self, because we speak to ourselves in the tongue understood by others, is not actual knowledge of one’s identity at all. The idea of not-being or not-knowing in the Tao is the idea of shrugging off the medium through which we parse these concepts — is a description of yourself really useful when the words you need to use to describe such a thing are mired in their own implications and subtexts? We can say that we are white, European, traditionalists, nationalists, or any other number of these things when talking to others. But who are we, really?

The next zhang offers some clues:

Express yourself completely
then keep quiet.
Be like the forces of nature:
when it blows, there is only wind;
when it rains, there is only rain;
when the clouds pass, the sun shines through.

If you open yourself to the Tao,
you are at one with the Tao
and you embody it completely.
If you open yourself to insight,
you are at one with insight
and you can use it completely.
If you open yourself to loss,
you are at one with loss
and you can accept it completely.

Open yourself to the Tao,
then trust your natural responses;
and everything will fall into place.

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Far from the pacifism or woo-ish “let the wind blow” weaves of New Agey nonsense, our Lao Tzu seems to be telling us that there is intense value to be found in the visceral — the visceral tempered by the knowledge gleaned as we spring into action. We as fighters for the West are not-are by engaging in action when we see that our struggle demands it. When we march, we think not of ideas. Even when we write of ideas, we think not of ideas; we make them known to us through the swift motion of our understanding making its way forth by ink onto paper. When we decided to make the plunge into these spheres, knowing that it may well cost us our lives or livelihoods, we thought not of what grand ideology or philosophy made such a thing just, practical, or self-serving. We simply did. We obviously consider these things after the fact, but that is the key — rather than dream up rationale for our actions and then engage in actions, we went forward with gut instincts then sought to understand the causes of our predicament afterward. We made the universe known through doing, not through proving.

But perhaps the most important zhang of Tao is the one that puts the biggest smile on my face. For being not-being in time and space is quite the task, it is easy to get bogged down in seriousness, or even worse, begin to miss the point and start explaining yourself. When our enemies describe us — invariably incorrectly — it is easy enough to laugh, and remember the words of zhang 20 quite simply:

Other people are excited
as though they were at a parade.
I alone don’t care,
I alone am expressionless,
like an infant before it can smile.

Other people have what they need,
I alone possess nothing.
I alone drift about,
like someone without a home.
I am like an idiot, my mind is so empty.

Other people are bright;
I alone am dark.
Other people are sharp;
I alone am dull.
Other people have a purpose;
I alone don’t know.
I drift like a wave on the ocean,
I blow as aimless as the wind.

At this point in time, we ought not to seek to correct our detractors. They fumble about against a tide they fail to understand. The Right has the book thrown at us every day. We simply ride the winds where they take us, and we’ve done a cracking good job of it so far. Above all, we are nothing like those bogged down with the hubris of pretending to know who we or they are — we simply are.

jeudi, 30 juillet 2020

Símbolos polares y solares: las Especies Eucarísticas.

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Símbolos polares y solares: las Especies Eucarísticas.

Ex: https://agnosis2.blogspot.com
 
Quisiéramos poner algunos ejemplos prácticos de esta relación a veces compleja y ambigua entre los simbolismos polar y solar. 
 
Un caso que seguro sorprenderá a muchos lo encontramos en las santas especias eucarísticas de la Santa Misa. Para acercarnos a su simbolismo intrínseco será más fácil si lo hacemos poniendo las dos santas especies -el pan y el vino- en relación con una de las más famosas parejas mitológicas de la tradición griega, la de Apolo y Dionisos (Nietzsche, Campbell, Fontenrose). [1]

Simbolismo solar del trigo. 

En cuanto a su simbolismo astrológico el trigo -y por tanto el pan- se asocia de forma natural y evidente con el sol, es el fruto solar por antonomasia (E. Zola, Fontenrose, Cambpell). Concretamente se asocia con el ascenso del sol pues el trigo madura cuando el sol está más alto en su curso anual, y por tanto representa en la naturaleza la mitad luminosa y ascendente del año, la luz.
 
Por si fuera poco el trigo maduro presenta el color dorado del mismo sol, lo que le convierte en el equivalente del oro entre los alimentos. Simboliza por tanto como aquel la riqueza material -piénsese en la importancia histórica que ha tenido guardar y conservar el trigo-. El cultivo -y domesticación- del trigo ha tenido también un papel fundamental en el desarrollo de la cultura e incluso en un sentido profano -desde el punto de vista de disciplinas como la arqueología o la antropología-  ha contribuido de forma decisiva a la superación del 'estado de barbarie' primitivo. Este papel de vector cultural lo pone inequívocamente en relación con el dios Apolo, que venció a las fuerzas del caos y que trajo la civilización a los hombres así como diferentes artes.   
 
Por último recordemos que el sol es el símbolo del orden del universo, del vigor y la virilidad -Yang-, la fuerza ordenadora del mundo y la sociedad, y con ello de la casta chatria, a la que está encomendado el gobierno de las sociedades humanas.  

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Simbolismo telúrico del vino. 

Pasemos a la uva -y al producto que se obtiene de ella, el vino-. Astrológicamente la uva hay que asociarla con la mitad descendente del año y la caída del sol, que es cuando madura, por tanto con la mitad oscura del año. A ello hay que añadir el nada despreciable hecho de que el vino se obtiene por fermentación del jugo de las uvas, proceso este que se produce en oscuridad/penumbra y tradicionalmente en el interior de la tierra -bodegas y cuevas-.   
 
Por último el dios Dionisos, como es bien conocido y siguiendo una idea que explotara abundantemente Nietzsche en sus primeras obras, es la antítesis de Apolo. Sabemos además que durante los meses oscuros del año Apolo estaba ausente de Delfos, lo cual es una de las pruebas que arguye Fontenrose para demostrar la relación entre Dionisos y el monstruo mítico Pyhton. 
 
De este modo Dionisos -Baco para los romanos- sugiere el caos y el desorden, la naturaleza salvaje -donde se reunían las bacantes- e incluso los estados bestiales, incompatibles con la vida en sociedad y la civilización, tal y como se manifiesta en los mitos en torno al frenesí extático de las bacantes -que en ocasiones acababan en crímenes de hombres o animales- y  en el desorden social -¿calculado?- que se permitía durante las bacanales -un tanto análogo al posterior carnaval-. Por tanto Dionisos es un dios telúrico que representa las fuerzas descontroladas del caos, lo que llamaríamos el polo material de la manifestación, en oposición al polo formal de la misma. 
 
En definitiva las uvas y el vino son, en tanto símbolo, la antítesis del trigo y el pan. Si estos representan la luz, el sol, el calor, en definitiva las fuerzas de la vida -el polo luminoso de la manifestación, Yang-;  el vino y las uvas representan su natural oposición, la oscuridad, lo telúrico, lo oculto y las fuerzas de la muerte -el polo Yin [2] de la manifestación-. 

El Polo como unificación y generación de los opuestos

Tenemos ya entonces ante nosotros los dos símbolos antitéticos: el pan y el vino. Y ambos símbolos se reúnen en la Eucaristía en la persona de Cristo -son su cuerpo y su sangre- quien por tanto los unifica en perfecta armonía y las trasciende, Él integra y equilibra ambos polos, o mejor dicho 'por Él y en Él' existe y se sostiene todo, la manifestación al completo en toda su pluralidad y aparente oposición.
 
[1] Buena parte de las consideraciones que siguen sobre estos dioses griegos nos han sido sugeridas a partir de la obra de J. Fontenrose, Python. Estudio del mito délfico y sus orígenes, ed. Sexto Piso.
 
[2] Recordemos que los términos Yin y Yang designaban en origen 'el lado sombreado, la umbría' y 'el lado soleado' de las montañas, respectivamente. 
 

lundi, 06 juillet 2020

Nous ne sommes pas de ceux qui estiment qu’on peut se désintéresser des atteintes portées à une tradition quelconque...

 
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Nous ne sommes pas de ceux qui estiment qu’on peut se désintéresser des atteintes portées à une tradition quelconque...
 
Nous ne sommes pas de ceux qui estiment qu’on peut se désintéresser des atteintes portées à une tradition quelconque, et qui sont même toujours prêts à se féliciter des attaques qui visent une tradition autre que la leur, comme s’il s’agissait de coups dirigés contre des « concurrents », et comme si ces attaques n’atteignaient pas toujours, en définitive, l’esprit traditionnel lui-même ; et le genre d’« apologétique » dont nous avons parlé ne montre que trop à quel point elles ont réussi à affaiblir cet esprit traditionnel chez ceux-là mêmes qui s’en croient les défenseurs.

Maintenant, il est encore un point qu’il nous faut bien préciser pour éviter tout malentendu : il ne faudrait certes pas penser que celui qui entend se maintenir dans une attitude rigoureusement traditionnelle doit dès lors s’interdire de jamais parler des théories de la science profane ; il peut et doit au contraire, quand il y a lieu, en dénoncer les erreurs et les dangers, et cela surtout lorsqu’il s’y trouve des affirmations allant nettement à l’encontre des données de la tradition ; mais il devra le faire toujours de telle façon que cela ne constitue aucunement une discussion « d’égal à égal », qui n’est possible qu’à la condition de se placer soi-même sur le terrain profane. En effet, ce dont il s’agit réellement en pareil cas, c’est un jugement formulé au nom d’un autorité supérieure, celle de la doctrine traditionnelle, car il est bien entendu que c’est cette doctrine seule qui compte ici et que les individualités qui l’expriment n’ont pas la moindre importance en elles-mêmes ; or on n’a jamais osé prétendre, autant que nous sachions, qu’un jugement pouvait être assimilé à une discussion ou à une « polémique ». Si, par un parti pris dû à l’incompréhension et dont la mauvaise foi n’est malheureusement pas toujours absente, ceux qui méconnaissent l’autorité de la tradition prétendent voir de la « polémique » là où il n’y en a pas l’ombre, il n’y a évidemment aucun moyen de les en empêcher, pas plus qu’on ne peut empêcher un ignorant ou un sot de prendre les doctrines traditionnelles pour de la « philosophie », mais cela ne vaut même pas qu’on y prête la moindre attention ; du moins tous ceux qui comprennent ce qu’est la tradition, et qui sont les seuls dont l’avis importe, sauront-ils parfaitement à quoi s’en tenir ; et, quant à nous, s’il est des profanes qui voudraient nous entraîner à discuter avec eux, nous les avertissons une fois pour toutes que, comme nous ne saurions consentir à descendre à leur niveau ni à nous placer à leur point de vue, leurs efforts tomberont toujours dans le vide.

08:30 Publié dans Traditions | Lien permanent | Commentaires (0) | Tags : tradition, traditionalisme | |  del.icio.us | | Digg! Digg |  Facebook

lundi, 29 juin 2020

Salut à la victoire !

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Salut à la victoire !

par Thierry DUROLLE

L’œuvre de Julius Evola aura marqué d’une empreinte indélébile la Droite européenne et nord-américaine. Et, bien tenu, Europe Maxima ne fait pas exception. Il reste encore des textes inédits en français, sans parler de plusieurs ouvrages qui ne sont plus réédités. Les prix de l’occasion pour certains de ces livres sont tout simplement exorbitants !

Les éditions Kontre Kulture ont beaucoup œuvré pour la redécouverte des livres rares. Leur réédition du maître-ouvrage Révolte contre le monde moderne fut une initiative sans doute attendue depuis fort longtemps, d’autant plus qu’il est fortement conseillé de commencer par cet ouvrage riche, ouvrage qui pose les fondations de la pensée évolienne.

C’est au tour de l’opuscule La doctrine aryenne du combat et de la victoire d’être réédité. Autrefois disponible en supplément du septième numéro de la revue Totalité, ce discours délivré en allemand le 7 décembre 1940 à Rome était devenu lui aussi difficile à se procurer.

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L’intérêt d’un ouvrage ne faisant pas partie des « classiques » de l’œuvre évolienne doit se trouver dans son format d’une part, et dans son contenu d’autre part. À l’heure où la lecture livresque rebute de plus en plus de monde, surtout parmi la jeunesse, un format court permet de focaliser l’attention et de ne pas effrayer le lecteur. Son contenu, ensuite, à l’instar d’un autre livre d’Evola sur la guerre, met en lumière l’aspect spirituel de la guerre.

En préambule, Julius Evola tient à faire le point sur les concepts a priori antagonistes, ou présenté comme tel par René Guénon par exemple, que sont « Action » et « Contemplation » chez les peuples aryens : « L’opposition entre action et contemplation était, en fait, inconnue des anciens Aryens. Action et contemplation n’étaient pas conçues par eux comme les termes d’une opposition. Elles désignaient seulement deux voies distinctes pour parvenir à la même réalisation spirituelle (p. 10). »

Puis de préciser que « [l]a tradition de l’action est typique des races aryano-occidentales. Mais cette tradition a progressivement subi une déviation (p. 10). » Chez ces peuples, la guerre renvoie à une lutte spirituelle cosmique mais à une échelle microscopique en quelque sorte : « D’une part, il y avait le principe olympien de la lumière, la réalité ouranienne et solaire; d’autre part, il y avait la violence brute, l’élément titanique et tellurique, barbare au sens classique du terme, féminin-démonique. Le thème de cette lutte métaphysique réapparaît de mille façons dans toutes les traditions d’origine aryenne (p. 11). »

 

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Evola, pour appuyer son propos, convoque ensuite plusieurs traditions d’origine aryenne. La première qu’il cite est la tradition spirituelle d’Europe du Nord, plus particulièrement celle que l’on qualifie de nordico-germanique. Impossible de faire l’impasse sur le Valhalla (la halle des morts tombés au combat) et des Einherjar de Wotan, ces guerriers dont le Destin final est de combattre lors du Ragnarök. À noter, qu’Evola passe sous silence le fait que, selon certaines sources, la moitié des morts tombés au combat revient à la déesse Freya, déesse qui revêt certes des aspects guerriers, mais qui de par son essence (elle est une déesse Vane, c’est-à-dire de la Fertilité) n’a rien d’ouranien ni de solaire…

L’islam est ensuite abondamment cité par Evola pour son aspect belliqueux, à la nuance près que le concept de « Guerre sainte (Djihad) » couvre à la fois une conception martiale (le petit Djihad) et une conception spirituelle (le grand Djihad). « La petite guerre sainte est […] la lutte physique, matérielle, la guerre menée dans le monde extérieur. La grande guerre sainte est la lutte de l’homme contre les ennemis qu’il porte en lui-même. Plus précisément, c’est la lutte de l’élément surnaturel en l’homme contre tout ce qui est instinctif, lié à la passion, chaotique, sujet aux forces de la nature (pp. 13-14). »

Enfin, l’auteur de Révolte contre le monde moderne s’attarde aussi sur la Bhagavad-Gita, texte d’une importance capitale pour lui. Effectivement le caractère actif et spirituelle de la Bhagavad-Gita ne fait aucune doute. « Si nous savons apercevoir ici la forme la plus haute de réalisation spirituelle par le combat et l’héroïsme, nous comprenons alors combien est significatif le fait que cet enseignement soit présenté dans la Bhagavad-Gita comme dérivant d’un héritage primordial aryen et solaire. En effet, il fut donné par le “ Soleil ” au premier législateur des Aryens, Manu, avant d’être gardé par une dynastie de rois sacrés. Au cours des siècles, cet enseignement fut perdu, puis de nouveau révélé par la divinité, non à un prêtre, mais à un représentant de la noblesse guerrière, Arjûna (p. 17). »

Evola évoque aussi ces esprits, ces doubles que sont les Daimons, Valkyries et Fravashi perses qui sont en lien avec la mort héroïque et le combat. Encore une fois, c’est l’exemple des Valkyries qui est le plus parlant.

En guise de conclusion, Julius Evola affirme que « bien des choses dépendront de la façon dont l’individu pourra donner une forme à l’expérience du combat : c’est-à-dire s’il sera en mesure d’assumer héroïsme et sacrifice comme une catharsis, comme un moyen de libération et d’éveil intérieur. Cette entreprise de nos combattants – intérieure, invisible, éloignée des gestes et des grands mots – aura un caractère décisif, non seulement pour l’issue définitive et victorieuse des vicissitudes de cette époque particulièrement troublée, mais pour donner une forme et un sens à l’ordre qui naîtra de la victoire. C’est dans la bataille elle-même qu’il faut réveiller et tremper cette force qui, au-delà de la tourmente, du sang et des privations, favorisera,avec une splendeur nouvelle et une paix toute-puissante, une nouvelle création (p. 25) ».

La doctrine aryenne du combat et de la victoire est un vibrant appel à l’action en soi et à l’extérieur de soi via le prisme de la guerre. De nos jours, en ce monde iréniste, le propos de Julius Evola semble dater d’un autre temps. C’est effectivement le cas puisqu’il s’agit d’un temps éternel en quelque sorte, celui d’un Âge d’Or. Pour le retrouver, il faut agir sur soi, mener une guerre intérieure (car les forces ténébreuses de l’Âge du Loup sont aussi en nous, chacun porte en lui un loup Fenrir), lutter contre le dragon, contre son propre dragon.

Thierry Durolle

• Julius Evola, La doctrine aryenne du combat et de la victoire, Kontre Kulture, 2020, 32 p., 9,50 €.

00:44 Publié dans Livre, Livre, Traditions | Lien permanent | Commentaires (0) | Tags : tradition, traditionalisme, julius evola, livre | |  del.icio.us | | Digg! Digg |  Facebook

samedi, 27 juin 2020

Frithjof Schuon versus René Guénon

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Frithjof Schuon versus René Guénon

 
Extrait d'un exposé intitulé "Guénon au combat, des réseaux en mal d'institutions" par Jean-Pierre Laurant
 
 
 
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jeudi, 04 juin 2020

Titus Burckhardt et l'École Traditionaliste

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Titus Burckhardt et l'École Traditionaliste
 
(via Facebook)
 
Titus Burckhardt, Suisse allemand, est né à Florence en 1908 et décédé à Lausanne en 1984. Il a consacré toute sa vie à l'étude et à l'exposition des différents aspects de la Sagesse et de la Tradition.
 
A l'âge de la science moderne et de la technocratie, Titus Burckhardt fut l'un des plus subtils et puissants interprètes de la vérité universelle, dans le domaine de la métaphysique aussi bien que dans celui de la cosmologie et de l'art traditionnel. Dans un monde où règnent l’existentialisme, la psychanalyse et la sociologie, il fut l'un des plus grands porte-parole de la philosophia perennis, cette “sagesse incréée” qui s'exprime dans le Platonisme, le Vedanta, le Soufisme, le Taoïsme et d'autres authentiques enseignements ésotériques et sapientiels. En termes de littérature et de philosophie, il fut un membre éminent de l’ “école traditionaliste” du vingtième siècle.
 
9782850760198-fr.jpgLe grand précurseur et initiateur de l'école traditionaliste fut René Guénon (1886-1951). Celui-ci fit remonter l'origine de ce qu'il appelait la déviation moderne à la fin du Moyen-Age et au début de la Renaissance, cette grande irruption de la sécularisation qui vit le nominalisme l'emporter sur le réalisme, l'individualisme (ou l'humanisme) remplacer l'universalisme, et l'empirisme bannir la scolastique. Une partie importante de l'œuvre de Guénon fut donc constituée par sa critique du monde moderne d'un point de vue implacablement “platonicien” ou métaphysique. Ceci fut pleinement développé dans ses deux remarquables ouvrages La Crise du monde moderne et Le règne de la quantité et les signes des temps. La face positive de l'œuvre de Guénon fut son exposition des principes immuables de la métaphysique universelle et de l'orthodoxie traditionnelle. Sa source principale fut la doctrine de la “non-dualité” de Shankara (advaïta), et son maître livre à cet égard L'homme et son devenir selon le Vedanta. Cependant, il se tourna aussi volontiers vers d'autres sources traditionnelles puisqu'il considérait toutes les formes traditionnelles comme des expressions diverses de la Vérité une et supra-formelle. Un dernier aspect de l'œuvre de Guénon fut sa brillante exposition du contenu intellectuel des symboles traditionnels, quelque soit leur religion d'origine. Voir à cet égard son livre Symboles fondamentaux de la science sacrée.
 
Érudit de renom profondément influencé par Guénon fut Ananda K. Coomaraswamy (1877-1947), qui, parallèlement à ses éminentes qualités et à ses talents personnels, eut le mérite de découvrir, relativement tard dans sa vie, le point de vue traditionnel, tel qu'il avait été exposé, si amplement et si précisément, par les livres de Guénon, et de se laisser parfaitement convaincre de son bien-fondé et sa justesse.
 
Il est important de noter que les écrits de Guénon, bien que d'une importance décisive, furent de caractère purement théorique et n'eurent pas la prétention de traiter de la question de la “réalisation”. En d'autres termes, leur objet fut généralement l’ “intellectualité” (ou la doctrine) et non directement la “spiritualité” (ou la méthode).
 
fs.jpgLe soleil se leva pour l'école traditionaliste avec l'apparition de l'œuvre de Frithjof Schuon (né à Bâle en 1907). Il y a trente ans, un thomiste anglais écrivit à son sujet: “Son oeuvre a l'autorité intrinsèque d'une intelligence contemplative.”(1) Plus récemment, un illustre universitaire américain a déclaré: “En profondeur et en ampleur, c'est un parangon de notre temps. Je ne connais pas de penseur vivant qui lui soit de loin comparable.”(2) T. S. Eliot émit une opinion semblable, lorsqu'il écrivit en 1953 au sujet du premier livre de Schuon: “Je n’ai rencontré aucun livre plus impressionnant en fait d'étude comparative des religions d'Orient et d'Occident."
 
L'œuvre de Schuon fit son apparition pendant la deuxième partie de la vie de Guénon. Jusqu'à sa mort, Guénon désigna Schuon (par exemple dans les Études Traditionnelles) comme “notre éminent collaborateur”. Schuon continua d'une façon encore plus saisissante la critique pénétrante et irréfutable du monde moderne, et atteignit des sommets insurpassables dans son exposition de la vérité essentielle - illuminatrice et salvatrice - qui se trouve au cœur de toutes les formes révélées. Schuon a donné à cette vérité supra-formelle le nom de religio perennis. Ce terme, qui n'implique pas le rejet des termes similaires de philosophia perennis et sophia perennis, suggère néanmoins une dimension supplémentaire infailliblement présente dans les écrits de Schuon. C'est que la compréhension intellectuelle entraîne une responsabilité spirituelle, que l'intelligence requiert un complément de sincérité et de foi, et que le "voir" (en hauteur) implique le "croire" (en profondeur). En d'autres termes, plus vaste est notre perception de la vérité essentielle et salvatrice, plus grande est notre obligation d'un effort de "réalisation" intérieure ou spirituelle.
 
L'oeuvre de Schuon débute par une étude d'ensemble, dont le titre même sert à planter la scène: L'Unité transcendante des religions. La liste de ses ouvrages ultérieurs inclue Language of the Self (sur l'Hindouisme), Images de l'Esprit (contenant un précieux exposé sur le Bouddhisme), Comprendre l'Islam, Castes et Races, Logique et Transcendance, et un large "compendium" d'aperçus philosophiques et spirituels intitulé L'Ésotérisme comme Principe et comme Voie.
 
41MHbuFMIiL._SX319_BO1,204,203,200_.jpgNous pouvons à présent revenir à Titus Burckhardt. Bien qu'il ait vu le jour à Florence, Burckhardt était issu d'une famille patricienne de Bâle. Il était le petit-neveu du célèbre historien de l'art Jacob Burckhardt et le fils du sculpteur Carl Burckhardt. Titus Burckhardt était d'un an le cadet de Frithjof Schuon, et ils passèrent ensemble à Bâle leurs premières années d'école à l'époque de la première guerre mondiale. Ce fut le début d'une amitié intime et d'une union intellectuelle et spirituelle profondément harmonieuse qui devait durer toute une vie.
 
Le principal exposé métaphysique de Burckhardt, qui fournit un complément admirable à l'oeuvre de Schuon, est l'Introduction aux doctrines ésotériques de l'Islam. Ce livre analyse d'une façon compréhensive et concise la nature de l'ésotérisme comme tel. Par une série de définitions lucides et sobres, il précise ce qu'est l'ésotérisme et ce qu'il n'est pas, puis examine les fondements doctrinaux de l'ésotérisme islamique ou soufisme, et termine sur une description inspirée de l’ “alchimie spirituelle” ou de la voie contemplative qui mène à la réalisation intérieure. Cet ouvrage établit Burckhardt comme l'interprète par excellence, après Schuon, de la doctrine intellectuelle et de la méthode spirituelle.
 
Burckhardt a consacré une grande partie de ses écrits à la cosmologie traditionnelle qu'il a perçue plutôt comme la “servante (ancilla) de la métaphysique”. Il en a formulé les principes dans un article important: “Nature de la perspective cosmologique” publié dans les Études Traditionnelles en 1948. Bien plus tard, il a traité de façon particulièrement complète tout le champ de la cosmologie — avec des références détaillées aux principales branches de la science moderne — dans un traité exhaustif: “Cosmologie et science moderne” (Études Traditionnelles, 1965; repris dans Science moderne et Sagesse traditionnelle [Archè, Milan ; Dervy, Paris ; 1986).
 
Non sans rapport avec son intérêt pour la cosmologie, Burckhardt avait une affinité particulière avec l'art et l'artisanat traditionnels et il se montra profond interprète de l'architecture, de l'iconographie, et d'autres formes de l'art et de l'artisanat traditionnels. Il souligna en particulier la façon dont ces derniers avaient été — et peuvent être encore — mis en valeur spirituellement: en tant qu'activités (ou métiers) transmettant, en vertu leur symbolisme inhérent, un message doctrinal; et aussi en tant que supports de réalisation spirituelle — bref, en tant que moyens de grâce. Ars sine scientia nihil. Il s'agit ici de scientia sacra et d'ars sacra, deux faces d'une même réalité. C'est le domaine, au sein des différentes civilisations traditionnelles, des initiations artisanales — par exemple, en ce qui concerne le Moyen-Age, le domaine de la maçonnerie opérative et de l'alchimie. L'oeuvre principale de Burckhardt en matière de cosmologie fut son livre magistral Alchimie: sa signification et son image du monde, lumineuse présentation de l'alchimie comme expression d'une psychologie spirituelle et comme support intellectuel et symbolique de la contemplation et de la réalisation.
 
frontImagesLink.jpgDans le domaine de l'art, le principal ouvrage de Burckhardt fut son livre Principes et méthodes de l'art sacré qui contient maints remarquables chapitres sur la métaphysique et l'esthétique de l'Hindouisme, du Bouddhisme, du Taoïsme, du Christianisme et de l'Islam, et se termine par un aperçu concret et pratique sur la situation contemporaine intitulé "Décadence et renouveau de l'art chrétien". Un abrégé d'ensemble des éléments essentiels de ce livre doit paraître pour la première fois dans The Unanimous Tradition, recueil d'articles d'auteurs traditionalistes rédigé par Ranjit Fernando (Institute of Traditional Studies, Colombo, 1991).
 
Pendant les années cinquante et soixante, Burckhardt fut directeur artistique de la maison d'édition Urs Graf à Olten près de Bâle. Pendant ces années, sa principale activité fut la préparation et la publication de toute une série de fac-similés de beaux manuscrits enluminés du Moyen-Age, en particulier les premiers manuscrits celtiques de l'Évangile, tels que le Livre de Kells et le Livre de Durrow (du Trinity College à Dublin) et le Livre de Lindesfarne (de la British Library à Londres). Ce fut un travail de pionnier de la plus haute qualité en même temps qu'un exploit d'édition qui connut immédiatement un accueil favorable de la part des experts comme de la part du grand public.
 
Son édition du magnifique fac-similé du Livre de Kells valut à Burckhardt une rencontre inoubliable avec le Pape Pie XII. Les Editions Urs Graf souhaitaient présenter un exemplaire de l'oeuvre à la sainte et princière personne du Pape, et on décida que nul n'était mieux qualifié pour ce faire que le directeur artistique Burckhardt. Aux yeux du Pape, Burckhardt était apparemment un gentilhomme protestant de Bâle. Le Pape lui accorda une audience privée à sa résidence d'été de Castel Gandolfo. Quand, dans la salle d'audience, la silhouette vêtue de blanc du Pape apparut soudain, ce dernier s'approcha de son visiteur de manière accueillante et lui dit en allemand: Sie sind also Herr Burckhardt? (“Alors vous êtes Monsieur Burckhardt?”) Burckhardt s'inclina, et quand le Pape lui offrit sa main portant l'anneau du pêcheur, il la prit respectueusement dans la sienne. Toutefois, en non-catholique qu'il était, il baisa, non l'anneau (comme il est de coutume chez les catholiques), mais les doigts du Pape. “Ce que le Pape permit en souriant,” ajoute Burckhardt.
 
Durant un moment, les deux hommes s'entretinrent ensemble de l'Age des Ténèbres et des manuscrits insurpassables des Évangiles qui avaient été produits avec tant d'amour et tant d'art à cette époque. Au terme de l'audience, le Pape donna sa bénédiction: "Du fond du coeur, je vous bénis, vous-même, votre famille, vos collègues, et vos amis."
 
9782844545671-475x500-1.jpgC'est pendant les années passées chez les Editions Urs Graf que Burckhardt présida à la publication de la collection "Hauts lieux de l'Esprit" (Stätten des Geistes). Il s'agit d'études historiques et spirituelles ayant pour objet les manifestations du sacré dans les grandes civilisations, dont le Mont Athos, l'Irlande celtique, le Sinaï, Constantinople et autres lieux. Burckhardt y donna sa contribution personnelle avec les livres Sienne, ville de la Vierge, Chartres, genèse de la cathédrale, et Fès, haut lieu de l'Islam. Sienne est une description émouvante de la grandeur, et finalement de la décadence, d'une cité chrétienne qui, du point de vue architectural, demeure encore aujourd'hui une sorte de joyau gothique. La plus intéressante partie de l'ouvrage est toutefois l'histoire de ses saints. Burckhardt consacre bon nombre de pages à Sainte Catherine de Sienne (qui n'hésita jamais à reprendre le Pape de son temps quand elle le jugea nécessaire) et à Saint Bernardin de Sienne (qui fut l'un des catholiques les plus célèbres à pratiquer l'invocation du Saint Nom et à prêcher au peuple la doctrine de son pouvoir salvateur).
 
Chartres est l'histoire de l'"idéalisme" religieux (au meilleur sens du terme) qui soutint la conception et la réalisation pratique des cathédrales du Moyen-Age, témoins ineffaçables d'une époque de foi à travers les siècles humanistes ultérieurs. Dans Chartres, Burckhardt expose le contenu intellectuel et spirituel des différents styles architecturaux, faisant non seulement la distinction à cet égard entre le gothique et le roman, mais aussi entre les différentes expressions du seul roman. C'est un exemple parfait de ce qu'est le discernement intellectuel.
 
41zqYW7VfjL._SX369_BO1,204,203,200_.jpgL'un des chefs d'oeuvre de Burckhardt est sans aucun doute son livre Fès, haut lieu de l'Islam. Alors qu'il était jeune homme, dans les années trente, Burckhardt passa plusieurs années au Maroc, où il noua des liens d'amitié intime avec plusieurs remarquables représentants de l'héritage spirituel maghrébin jusque-là subsistant. Ce fut de toute évidence une période de formation dans la vie de Burckhardt, et une large part de son message et de son style ultérieurs a pour origine ces premières années. Dès cette époque, il mit par écrit une grande partie de son expérience, sans la publier alors, et c'est seulement à la fin des années cinquante que ces écrits et ces expériences vinrent à maturité dans un livre définitif et magistral. Dans Fès, haut lieu de l'Islam Burckhardt raconte l'histoire d'un peuple et de sa religion, histoire qui fut souvent violente, souvent héroïque, et parfois sainte. Tout au long de cette histoire court la trame de la piété et de la civilisation islamiques, que Burckhardt décrit d'une manière sûre et lumineuse, tout en relatant maints enseignements, paraboles et miracles des saints de nombreux siècles, et en exposant non seulement les arts et artisanats de la civilisation islamique, mais aussi ses sciences "aristotéliciennes" et ses méthodes administratives. On trouve beaucoup à apprendre en matière de gouvernement des hommes et des sociétés dans la présentation clairvoyante que donne Burckhardt des principes qui sous-tendent les vicissitudes dynastiques et tribales, avec leurs échecs et leurs succès.
 
Dans un esprit proche de Fès, une autre oeuvre de maturité de Burckhardt est son livre La culture maure en Espagne. Comme toujours, c'est un livre de vérité et de beauté, de science et d'art, de piété et de culture traditionnelle. Ici, comme dans plusieurs de ses livres, il est question du romanesque, du chevaleresque, du poétique et du véridique de la vie pré-moderne.
 
Pendant ses premières années au Maroc, Burckhardt se plongea dans la langue arabe et assimila les classiques du soufisme dans leur texte original. Lors des dernières années de sa vie, il devait partager ces trésors avec un large public par ses traductions d'Ibn `Arabî (3) et de Jîlî (4). L'un de ses plus importants travaux fut à cet égard sa traduction des lettres spirituelles du célèbre Sheikh marocain Moulay al-`Arabî ad-Darqâwî (5). Ces lettres, un précieux recueil de conseils pratiques, constituent un classique de la spiritualité.
 
Le dernier grand ouvrage de Burckhardt fut son importante monographie L’art de l’islam. Les principes intellectuels et la fonction spirituelle de la création artistique — illustrés ici surtout dans ses formes islamiques — nous y sont clairement et richement présentés. Avec ce noble volume, l'incomparable corpus littéraire burckhardtien se clôt.
 
Notes:
 
(1) Bernard Kelly, in Dominican Studies (Londres), Vol. 7, 1954.
(2) Professeur émérite Huston Smith, 1974.
(3) La Sagesse des Prophètes (Fusûs al-Hikam), Albin-Michel, Paris, 1955.
(4) De l'Homme Universel (Al-Insân al-Kâmil), Derain, Lyon, 1953.
(5) Lettres d'un Maître Soufi, Archè, Milan; Dervy, Paris; 1978.
 
Liens:
 
 

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Le Traditionalisme en Turquie

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Tibet DIKMEN:

Le Traditionalisme en Turquie

Il est difficile de dire que le traditionalisme a été suffisamment discuté et diffusé dans la sphère intellectuelle turque. Malgré le fait qu’une majorité des livres traditionalistes importants aient été traduits en turc, la conscience de ce courant philosophique est assez limitée à une «élite» particulière. Bien que la plupart des œuvres de René Guénon, Frithjof Schuon, Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Martin Lings, Titus Burckhardt et Julius Evola soient toujours publiées par 'İnsan Yayınları', de nombreux Turcs ignorent à quel point l'école traditionaliste est un mouvement politico-philosophique actif, comment les traditionalistes sont connectés les uns aux autres, jusqu’où s'étendent les grandes et petites veines qui les alimentent, et à quelle distance les vaisseaux qui en résultent se propagent.

Rene Guenon - Modern Dünyanın Bunalımı.jpgRené Guénon est naturellement le premier nom traditionaliste à atteindre la Turquie. Le plus ancien document portant son nom remonte à 1938, dans l'intitulé d'un article de journal affirmant: «René Guénon, le philosophe français perdu depuis sept ans a finalement été retrouvé à la célèbre université Al-Azhar au Caire. Tout le monde à Paris est étonné par l’aventure étrange et curieuse du philosophe. » Cependant, cet article s'avère peu pertinent. Les œuvres intellectuelles de Guénon n'atteindront les intellectuels turcs qu'au début des années 80. Cela a commencé par la publication de petits articles dans un magazine conservateur appelé «Résurrection», appartenant à un parti islamo-conservateur qui a ensuite été fermé pour avoir refusé de participer aux élections trois fois d'affilée. À la suite de cette introduction, la traduction de ses livres a été entamé par Nabi Avcı, chroniqueur aux journaux Yeni Şafak, conseiller principal du Premier ministre Erdogan en 2003, ministre de l'Éducation nationale entre 2013-2016, puis ministre de la Culture et Tourisme jusqu'en 2017. Nous constatons déjà que des universitaires et intellectuels particulièrement bien placés ont tenté d'être les «précurseurs» du Traditionalisme en Turquie.

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Nabi Avci.

Après les traductions d'Avcı, des deuxièmes éditions ont été publiées, toutes chez 'les éditions ‘Insan', sous la direction du Prof. Dr. Mahmut Erol Kılıç, également écrivain à Yeni Şafak et académicien célèbre pour son travail sur Ibn-Arabi et René Guénon, actuellement ambassadeur de Turquie en République d'Indonésie. Jusqu'à très récemment, on pouvait observer que le contenu traditionaliste ne se trouvait que dans les arènes islamo-conservatrices telles que les facultés de théologie. Cependant, le courant anti-moderne vit, à ce jour, son apogée en Turquie. De nombreuses nouvelles traductions s'additionnent et les idées gagnent chaque jour plus d'interlocuteurs.

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Mahmut Erol Kiliç.

Outre que le traditionalisme devient une énorme influence pour les ordres soufis actifs, certains conservateurs ont commencé à essayer d'utiliser le traditionalisme comme une philosophie rigide et forte contre l'opposition laïque.

Un effort accru peut également être remarqué pour introduire l'école de la pensée à la jeune génération. GZT (la section jeunesse du journal Yeni Şafak que nous avions abordé plus tôt, un quotidien conservateur connu pour son soutien intransigeant au président Erdogan, entretenant des relations étroites avec le régime de l'AKP et fréquemment accusé pour discours de haine excessif et antisémitisme) a écrit un article approfondi et bien documenté sur le Traditionalisme destiné à la jeune génération, et a même réalisé une vidéo YouTube de 20 minutes expliquant l'héritage de Guénon. Cette `` gazette de la jeunesse '' qui, avec Yeni Şafak, appartient à Albayrak Holding, un conglomérat d'un milliard de dollars impliqué dans les télécommunications, l'immobilier, la production de moteurs, le textile et le papier, a également organisé une diffusion en direct avec Ibrahim Kalin (l'actuel conseiller en chef du président Erdogan), où il a sévèrement critiqué la modernité et recommandé à la jeune population turque de lire «L'Homme et la Nature» de Seyyed Hossein Nasr. De nouveaux articles sur les écrivains traditionalistes paraissent très fréquemment dans les revues de jeunesse de nombreuses universités allant d'Istanbul à Erzurum. On peut donc constater que, contrairement à l'Europe où il apparaît comme un courant dissident, le traditionalisme en Turquie se retrouve entrelacé dans la classe dirigeante, l'endroit auquel on s'attendrait le moins.

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Compte tenu de tous les différents facteurs, même si elles s’avèrent inconscientes et imprévues, une renaissance se produit dans la branche conservatrice de la Turquie et cela est directement liée au point de vue traditionaliste. Alors que les soufis et les ordres religieux ont tendance à se concentrer sur la tangente ‘pérennialiste’ plus passive, la "Révolte contre le Monde moderne'' de Julius Evola gagne en popularité auprès des militaristes: ceux qui adhèrent fermement à la devise "la Turquie n'est pas un pays avec une armée, l'armée turque est une armée avec un pays".

La croissance de l'influence traditionaliste a atteint une telle ampleur que Abdul-Wahid Yahya Guénon, fils de René Guénon, a été invité à Istanbul en 2015 pour recevoir le prix d'honneur de “Ami spécial” (décerné à ceux qui auraient grandement servi et contribué l'Islam) par une fondation soufie aux racines profondes (Kerim Vakfı). Au cours de son discours, le fils de Guénon a partagé des faits inédits sur son père. Le plus étonnant d’entre eux est le fait qu'un élève d'Albert Einstein aurait écrit une lettre à René Guénon déclarant que «son professeur était fortement influencé par ses travaux sur la métaphysique» et «qu'il les recommandait à ses élèves». Le fils de Guénon a également déclaré que même s'il était heureux que les œuvres de son père soient louées en Turquie, seulement 13 de ses 28 livres ont été traduits à ce jour.

N'oublions pas non plus l'opposition. L’opposition la plus forte à Guénon est venue de Zübeyir Yetik (du Milli Görüş d’Erbakan) qui a consacré tout un livre sur la critique des positions ésotériques et «suprareligieuses» de Guénon, intitulé «La suprématie de l’homme et l’ésotérisme guénonien».

Yetik affirme avec force que «les résultats des efforts visant à faire revivre le« patrimoine commun de l'humanité »sous le nom de« tradition », qui est constamment porté à l'ordre du jour par René Guénon et ses disciples, comme moyen alternatif de salut, est une triche et une escroquerie à ce sujet, portant préjudice à l’individu et à la société ». A côté de ces critiques, on peut également constater que les francs-maçons turcs ne sont pas non plus satisfaits de sa popularité. Selon une recherche effectuée par Thierry Zarcone, bien que la bibliothèque de la Grande Loge d'Istanbul disposait de nombreux livres de Guénon, ils l'ont délibérément ignoré et ont même fait preuve de consternation envers sa philosophie.

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Nous pouvons facilement remarquer l'attention croissante envers le traditionalisme, en particulier avec l'arrivée d'Ernst Jünger sur les étagères turques. Jünger est le plus récent penseur qui est entré dans cette «renaissance intellectuelle» en cours et, curieusement, le premier livre traduit était «Gläserne Bienen» (Abeilles de verre) en 2019, suivi de «In Stahlgewittern» (Orages d’acier) plus tard cette année-là. Ainsi, il a fallu 99 ans à Ernst Jünger pour atteindre un public turc. Nous pouvons donc conclure que le traditionalisme s'installe et crée des changements intellectuels significatifs dans différentes parties du monde, chacun dans des contextes indépendants et que la Turquie n'embrasse que récemment mais complètement cette vision du monde éternelle.

Sources :

https://www.gzt.com/mecra/gelenekselci-ekol-3426042v

http://www.insanyayinlari.com/

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3nseIBrYVhY

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=13K4--Hdup0

https://www.aa.com.tr/tr/kultur-sanat/einstein-babamdan-cok-etkilenmis/496404

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nabi_Avc%C4%B1

https://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albayrak_Holding

https://www.yenisafak.com/hayat/rene-guenon-ve-krizdeki-dusunce-2532911

https://www.religion.info/2003/01/26/rene-guenon-influence-en-iran-et-en-turquie/

https://books.google.be/books?id=zesfgcT_xtUC&pg=PA131&lpg=PA131&dq=traditionalisme+turquie+gu%C3%A9non&source=...

mercredi, 03 juin 2020

Soufi: état d'esprit, état d'être, état de conscience

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Soufi: état d'esprit, état d'être, état de conscience

par Marc Gandonnière

(via facebook)

On ne devrait pas limiter le mot Soufi à une appartenance à l'Islam, le mot Soufi peut désigner, si on nous laisse encore un peu d'initiative et de liberté avec les mots, un état d'esprit, un état d'être, un état de conscience. A cet égard je pourrais désigner un Soufi comme un Rose-Croix en puissance.

Il y a des hommes et des femmes qui sont du côté de l'être, on les croise, on les flaire, il est possible de les trouver partout dans toutes les cultures tous les groupes,pays ou races on a envie de les fréquenter pour le bien qu'ils vous font. Mais vous avez aussi les inquisiteurs quasi ontologiques, on tombe sur eux tout le temps et partout, enfin il aurait mieux fallu les éviter parce que souvent si vous êtes dans la première catégorie ils vous repèrent aussi vite ou plus vite et ce sont eux qui vous tombent dessus.

Les inquisiteurs peuvent très bien avoir les apparences de l'universalité, de l'ouverture, de la tolérance, c'est leur meilleure tenue de camouflage, mais leur manque d'étonnement, d'innocence, de créativité se dénotera tout de même assez vite. Dans ce cas là. il faut fuir à partir d'une certaine supériorité numérique, je veux dire par là quand on est entouré d'une meute de fanatiques car ils se regroupent en général très vite et autrement combattre, comme les chevaliers de l'Ordre de l'Etoile autrefois selon leur règle semblable en cela à celle des templiers. Mais pour se battre dans ces conditions il faut un entraînement intensif et un bon équipement. S'agissant de joutes oratoires ou écrites, cela s'appelle la recherche philosophique et la culture bien assimilée. La question que l'on rencontre alors est celle de la rencontre entre la philosophie et la théologie ou la religion et nous l'avons en Islam comme en christianisme et cela rejoint les interrogations autour de Saint Augustin que nous avons eu hier avec Remi Mogenet.

Le livre que j'ai cité déjà sur le soufisme, celui de Habib Sharifi. consacre tout un chapitre 9 à "Quels rapports le soufisme entretient-t-il avec la philosophie et avec le panthéisme ?". C'est très serré comme texte, et demande une sacrée culture religieuse comme philosophique mais c'est passionnant et cela décrasse bien la tête si je peux dire.

ob_7fac04_ob-2cb4ca-a6dlr4mcuaaehbr.jpgEn tout cas il y a une argumentation parfaitement bien menée et une vraie réponse à la question posée. Nous sommes loin d'un Islam irrationnel tel que notre Pape émérite Benoît l'a dénoncé assez raisonnablement dans son fameux discours de Ratisbonne (Regensburg). Il était dans le juste, mais parce que c'est cet Islam là qui domine et fait des ravages. Je m'approche pour donner envie de lire ce livre mais il faut suivre l'enchaînement des chapitres et le discursif au sein de chaque chapitre, même si, comme mystique, ce soufi se base sur une expérience qui dépasse le discursif, il en tire justement le meilleur au delà du meilleur de toute philosophie qui n'irait pas jusqu'à la mystique.

"Nous pouvons répondre désormais à notre question. Le soufisme n'est pas une philosophie, il est une manière de vivre destinée destinée à faire parvenir à l'illumination ; il s'efforce d'élever l'âme jusqu'à Dieu alors que la philosophie ne pourra au meilleur des cas, que lui en présenter l'idée." Il ne sera pas rare, par conséquent, ni étonnant de rencontrer un libellé soufi qui soit dans la catégorie des inquisiteurs et qui soit donc aux antipodes de cet art de vivre, cherchant à tout prix à ramener le soufisme dans le giron de la révélation Coranique plaçant le soufisme même avec le christianisme doctrinal dogmatique dans le même camp de défense d'une vérité révélée alors qu'il n'a et ne pourra jamais résoudre la contradiction dans le Verbe entre ces deux révélations exclusives éternellement l'une de l'autre...

Mansur-al-jallaj-Kashmiri-manuscript-19th-century.jpgJe dois revenir face à la contradiction qui m'a été faite sur le cas du mystique soufi Hallàdjj dans ce tournant du Xème. A noter puisque cela m'a été dit qu'il a été condamné aussi par des autorités libellées soufies ce qui porte au comble de la confusion sans explications précises. Nous sommes en cette année 922. Il a été crucifié et décapité ensuite, c'est dire tout de même dans cette mise à mort l'importance de la symbolique, comme chez nos révolutionnaires français. Je continue donc à penser qu'il a bien été sacrifié non comme un cas isolé d'un mystique délirant mais parce que nous sommes dans une période de tournant de l'Islam où il s'écarte de son ésotérisme tout à fait comme on le fait aussi en occident dans le Moyen Age chrétien... La doctrine de l'unité de l'existence a des relents panthéistes que la théologie musulmane ne pourra admettre.

On doit tout de même à ce moment de notre réflexion se déterminer dans une vision des choses et, de mon point de vue, reconnaître que les contradictions de ces époques n'étaient pas conciliables dans la Tradition ainsi formulée, alors que ces contradictions peuvent être résolues dans la modernité ou plutôt la post modernité, c'est à dire avec l'évolution dans leurs tâtonnements à la fois de la science et de la philosophie. Etre radicalement anti moderne est de toute façon intenable dans l'existence, psychologiquement, et vous rend assez inutile à vous-même et au monde pour se changer tous les jours davantage en Alceste grincheux. Ce qu'il nous faut c'est sortir de la modernité mortifère matérialiste, pour entrer dans une plus large compréhension et favoriser cette entrée dans une nouvelle manifestation de la Tradition, qui ne peut pas être autre chose, selon la compréhension d'Abellio, que la nouvelle gnose.

Le point de vue Traditionaliste, y compris dans l'ésotérisme qui s'affirme comme tel, est incapable de sortir de certaines contradictions ni d'ouvrir le moindre espace de compréhension au-délà de ses dogmes rabâchés en boucle dits Traditionnels à prétention ésotérique. C'est la limite et l'ambiguïté que l'on trouve surtout malgré tout l'apport de sa pensée d'un Guénon qui n'en finit plus de condamner radicalement la modernité et de lancer des Fatwas envers ce qu'il a dénoncé comme contre - initiation; c'est présent aussi chez Evola mais dans une proportion moindre, Evola, parce qu'il a toute une dimension artistique dans son cheminement, est bien plus respirable si je puis dire. Il aura fallu un immense penseur très intuitif au XX ème siècle, Raymond Abellio, pour briser les idoles de la dite Tradition ésotérique. Sa liberté provient sans doute de sa structure psychique Toulousaine et donc Cathare...

00:52 Publié dans Islam, Traditions | Lien permanent | Commentaires (0) | Tags : islam, tradition, traditionalisme, soufi, soufisme | |  del.icio.us | | Digg! Digg |  Facebook

mardi, 02 juin 2020

Traditionalism in Turkey

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Tibet DIKMEN:                                                       

Traditionalism in Turkey

It is difficult to say that Traditionalism has sufficiently been discussed and spread in the Turkish intellectual sphere. Despite the fact that a majority of the important Traditionalist books have been translated into Turkish , the awareness of this phylosophical current is quite limited to a peculiar ‘elite’. Although most of the works of René Guénon, Frithjof Schuon, Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Martin Lings, Titus Burckhardt and Julius Evola are still being published by ‘İnsan Yayınları’, many Turks ignore how the Traditionalist school is an active politico-philosphical movement, how the Traditionalists are connected with each other, where the large and small veins that feed them extend, and how far the vessels that extend from these range.

3115huqBuNL._SX344_BO1,204,203,200_.jpgRené Guénon is naturally the first Traditionalist name to reach Turkey. The oldest document bearing his name dates back to 1938, in the heading of a newspaper article stating : «  René Guénon, the French philosopher who was lost for seven years has been finally found at the famous Al-Azhar University in Cairo. Everyone in Paris is astonished by the philosopher’s weird and curious adventure. » However, this article proves irrevelant. The intellectual works of Guénon will only reach Turkish intellectuals at the beginning of the 80’s. It began with small articles being published on a conservative magazine called ‘Ressurection’, belonging to an islamo-conservative party that was later closed down for refusing to participate in elections thrice in a row. Following this introduction, the translation of his books were lead off by Nabi Avcı, who was a column writer at Yeni Şafak newsapapers, the chief advisor of Prime Minister Erdogan in 2003, the Minister of National Education between 2013-2016 and then the Minister of Culture and Tourism until 2017. We already notice that peculiarly high placed academicians and intellectuals have tried to be the ‘precursors’ of Traditionalism in Turkey.

1013774479_0 70 1024 624_1000x541_80_0_0_623e9478c094916d6d8896f2aba16416.jpg

Nabi Avci.

After Avcı’s translations, second editions have been published, all at ‘Insan Publishing’, under the editorship of Prof. Dr. Mahmut Erol Kılıç, also a writer at Yeni Şafak and an academician famous for his work on Ibn-Arabi and René Guénon, currently the Turkish ambassador to the Republic of Indonesia. Until very recently, we could observe that Traditionalist content was only to be found in islamo-conservative arenas such as Theology faculties. However, the anti-modern current is, as of today, living its apogee in Turkey. Many new translations are adding up and the ideas are gaining more interlocutors every day.

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Mahmut Erol Kiliç.

Besides Traditionalism becoming a huge influence for active Sufi orders µ, some conservatives have began to try using Traditionalism as rigid and strong philosophy against the secular opposition.

41hyBPE8C5L.jpgAn increased effort can also be noticed in introducing the school of thought to the younger generation.  GZT ( the youth section of the Yeni Şafak newspaper we had pointed out earlier, a conservative daily newspaper known for its hardline support of president Erdogan, having close relations with the AKP regime and frequently accused of  using excessive hate speech and anti-semitism) has written a thorough and well-researched article about Traditionalism aimed at the younger generation, and has even made a 20 minute YouTube video explaining the legacy of Guénon. This ‘youth gazette’ which, along with Yeni Şafak, belongs to Albayrak Holding, a billion-dollar conglomerate involved in telecommunication, real estate, engine production, textile and paper, has also organised a live stream with Ibrahim Kalin ( the current chief advisor of president Erdogan ) where he harshly criticised modernity and recommanded the young Turkish populations to read Seyyed Hossein Nasr’s ‘Man and Nature’. New articles about Traditionalist writers appear very frequently in youth magazines of many universities ranging from Istanbul to Erzurum. We can therefore observe that, unlike in Europe where it appears as a dissident current, Traditionalism in Turkey can be found intertwined in the ruling class, the place you would least expect it.

Considering all the different factors, even if it’s unconscious and unplanned, a renaissance is happening in the conservative branch of Turkey and that is directly linked with the Traditionalist point of view. While the Sufis and religious orders tend to focus on the more passive Perennialist tangent, Julius Evola’s ‘Revolt against the Modern World’ is gaining popularity along the militarists : those who comply firmly to the motto ‘Turkey is not a country with an army, the Turkish army is an army with a country.’

The growth of Traditionalist influence has reached such an extent that, Abdul-Wahid Yahya Guénon, son of René Guénon, has been invited to Istanbul in 2015 to receive the honorary prize of ‘Special Friend’ (given to those deemed to have greatly served Islam) by a deep-rooted Sufi foundation (Kerim Vakfı). During his speech, Guénon’s son has shared some previously unheard facts about his father. The most astonishing of these was the fact that a student of Albert Einstein wrote a letter to René Guénon stating that “his professor was greatly influenced by his works on metaphysics” and that “he recommended it to his students”. Guénon’s son also stated that even though he is happy that his fathers are praised in Turkey, only 13 of his 28 books have been translated so far.

f4e1e4969b0dc2e5c01e6fb89d3b14a3.jpgLet us not omit the opposition as well. The strongest opposition to Guénon came from Zübeyir Yetik ( from Erbakan’s Milli Görüş) who consecrated a whole book on critisizing Guénon’s  esoteric and ‘suprareligious’ positions, called “Man’s supremacy and Guenonian esoterism”.

Yetik strongly affirms that “The results of the efforts to revive the "common heritage of humanity" under the name of "tradition", which is persistently brought to the agenda by Rene Guénon and his disciples, as an alternative way of salvation, cheats and stalls on this subject, and is a damage to the individual and to society”. Alongside such critics, we can also observe that Turkish freemasons are not fund of his popularity either. According to a research made by Thierry Zarcone, eventhough the Grand-Lodge of Istanbul’s library had many of Guénon’s books at disposal, they somehow deliberately ignored it and even showed dismay towards his philosophy.

31JvSjfFXNL._AC_SY400_.jpgWe can easily take notice of the growing attention towards Traditionalism, particularly with arrival of Ernst Jünger on Turkish shelves. Jünger is the most recent thinker who has entered this ongoing ‘intellectual renaissance’ and oddly enough, the first translated book was ‘Gläserne Bienen’ (Glass Bees) in 2019, followed by ‘In Stahlgewittern’ (Storms of Steel) later that year. Thus, it took 99 years for Ernst Jünger to reach a Turkish audience. We can therefore conclude that, Traditionalism is still settling and creating significant intellectual changes in different parts of the world, each in independent contexts and Turkey, is only recently but thoroughly embracing this perennial worldview.

Source :

https://www.gzt.com/mecra/gelenekselci-ekol-3426042v

http://www.insanyayinlari.com/

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3nseIBrYVhY

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=13K4--Hdup0

https://www.aa.com.tr/tr/kultur-sanat/einstein-babamdan-cok-etkilenmis/496404

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nabi_Avc%C4%B1

https://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albayrak_Holding

https://www.yenisafak.com/hayat/rene-guenon-ve-krizdeki-dusunce-2532911

https://www.religion.info/2003/01/26/rene-guenon-influence-en-iran-et-en-turquie/

https://books.google.be/books?id=zesfgcT_xtUC&pg=PA131&lpg=PA131&dq=traditionalisme+turquie+gu%C3%A9non&source=...

samedi, 16 mai 2020

Dr. Alexander Wolfheze: La Vita Nuova

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La Vita Nuova

Ex: https://www.geopolitica.ru

 

Улетай на крыльях ветра
Ты в край родной, родная песня наша
Туда, где мы тебя свободно пели
Где было так привольно нам с тобою

Fly on the wings of the wind

To our native land, beloved song of ours

There, where we sung you in freedom

Where we were so over-free with you

- Aleksandr Porfiryevich Borodin, ‘Prince Igor’, Act II

(*) Author’s translation of an essay written for the website of the new Dutch patriotic-identitarian party IDNL (Identity Netherlands) - the English-language website of IDNL may be found at http://www.idnl.org/en/ .

‘On the Border of Two Worldsi

The standard of truth, in the final analysis,

resides in the internal necessity of consciousness,

and we must see the basic standard of good therein

- Nishida Kitaroii

At some point throughout the last decennia, most people have ceased to trust the ‘MSM’. Throughout the Western world, the output of corporate news outlets, press agencies and public broadcasters is now widely regarded as having no more relevance to real-world life and public sphere concerns than Pravda-style Soviet ‘double speak’ propaganda. At some point, Western citizens with even a modest capacity for autonomous reasoning will have switched off the television news and cancelled their newspaper subscriptions. According to their personal equation - residual trust in the public-mindedness of ‘the establishment’, patient anticipation of a self-corrective mechanism within ‘the system’ - the individual ‘breaking point’ of the news consumer will have varied. Around the Western world many news consumers already ‘tuned out’ from the MSM in the wake of its shameless support for the globalist wars of blatant aggression against Yugoslavia (1999) and Iraq (2003). In the Netherlands many people stopped trusting the ‘official line’ after the MSM’s ‘business as usual’ after the assassination of patriotic dissident Pim Fortuyn, just days before the 2002 parliamentary elections - elections he stood poised to win by a landslide. At last, even the most sheepishly apathetic news consumers reached their ‘saturation point’ during the ‘clown world’ MSM propaganda campaigns against the 2016 ‘national-populist’ anti-globalist upsets of ‘Brexit’ and ‘Trump’. In Western Europe, the subsequent blanket censorship of islamicist terrorism, immigrant grooming gangs and native mass-protests such as the French gilets jaunes caused a growing popular realization that the MSM is not merely complacent but also complicit in the accelerated dispossession policy that the globalist hostile elite is inflicting on the indigenous peoples of the West. This realization is most acute among the indigenous demographics that are most exposed to the daily effects of globalist-induced hyper-capitalism, social implosion and ethnic replacement: the working class, the rural/provincial population and the young generation.

51pSS7clhjL._SX311_BO1,204,203,200_.jpgBy now, even the most docile Gutmensch citizens of the West are turning to the online world of social and alternative media when they need substantial information about real-world events and developments. In the Netherlands, even the ‘hardcore’ readership of the governing VVD party’siii self-lobotomy De Telegraaf newspaperiv are now beginning to turn to the slightly less idiocratic populist online forum GeenStijlv for a minimum of real-life feedback. Even the most ‘die-hard’ regime-faithful green-left fans of state television NPOvi are now starting to occasionally take a sneak glance at the slightly less hallucinating news site TPOvii. The caricature echo chamber ideology of the boomer soixante-huitards, increasingly taken to its logical sado-masochism extremes by the boomers’ feminist-multiculturalist successors, has now become so far removed from actual reality that the ‘credibility gap’ between the MSM and the indigenous masses of the people has become unbridgeable.viii

The divide between the elites and peoples of the West is now so deep that it can no longer be glossed over by cosmetic policy measures designed to cope with mere ‘democratic deficits’ and ‘calculating citizens’. The betrayal of the West by its supposedly ‘democratically mandated’ but effectively ‘distant-controlled’ political elite can no longer be denied. As in other Western countries, in the Netherlands parliamentary democracy has failed (‘mainstream party’ cordon sanitaire of the patriotic opposition, formal abolition of the consultative referendum, bureaucratic imposition of anti-national ‘EU law’), judicial independence has been undermined (show trials against opposition leaders, drug mafia infiltration of law enforcement, legal immunity for criminal asylum fraudsters) and social cohesion has become a distant memory (forcibly imposed ‘diversity’ in social housing, anti-meritocratic ‘affirmative action’ in the labour market, tax-enforced favouritism of free-rider ‘single moms’ and ‘migrants’).ix All these tangible realities are effectively taboo subjects in the public sphere: open debate is a distant memory - blanket (self-)censorship is the ‘new norm’. Fear of falling foul of the politically correct party cartel line, which is easily enforced in the ‘small pond’ Netherlands through informal employment bans and public ostracism, makes it virtually impossible for any public figure to articulate a hard truth that is now starting to gain tacit acceptance among the general population: the fact that the nation’s power establishment has mutated into a hostile elite. This hostile elite is nothing less than the agent of the globalist occupation power at the level of the former Dutch nation-state: it is made up of an improvised conglomerate of local front men for trans-national interest groups. The most important of these - loosely coherent and opportunistically coalescing - interest groups are international high finance (most prominently ‘big banking’, serviced by the IMF), the trans-atlantic military-industrial complex (serviced by NATO) and the ‘New World Order’ project of the cultural-marxist intelligentsia (symbolized by the UN and implemented through a network of internationalist ‘human rights’ and ‘open society’ organizations). For the thoroughly brain-washed and conditioned Dutch population the ‘occupied territory’ status of the ex-Netherlands nation-state may be painfully difficult to accept, but the tangible reality leaves no room for doubt. To be fully aware of this reality means to see that the Dutch borders have been eradicated (‘Schengen’), that the Dutch currency has been abolished (‘Euro’), that the Dutch legal system has been superseded (‘EU law’), that the Dutch armed forces have been put under alien control (‘NATO’) and that the Dutch flag no longer flies undisputed (‘EU flag’).x

Above and beyond these in-your-face realities there is yet another very tangible reality that indicates die Verwandlungxi of the ex-Dutch elite - largely made up of the regentenxii plus the intelligentsia - is now complete. The fact that the ex-Dutch elite is now an integral part of the larger - truly trans-national - globalist hostile elite is best proven by its treacherous promotion of the deliberate replacement of the Dutch people. This long-term project of omvolking, synchronized with Umvolkung in Germany and le grand replacement in France as part of the neo-kalergian ‘European project’, aims at the replace the old indigenous people of the Netherlands, characterized by thrifty economic conservativism, organic social solidarity and freedom-loving independence of mind, by a new ‘melting pot’ populace better suited to the needs of globalism: low-cost labour, mass consumption, socially atomization and demo-ethnic electoral manipulation. In the Netherlands, this decades-long drawn-out project is now starting to filter through into the daily lives of all but the most retired living indigenous population. The social geography of the Randstadxiii is now showing a chaotic mix of what are, in fact, non-communicating ethnic ghettoes: small areas for down-town mass-tourism and some enclaves of boomer elite villa life and yuppie elite urban hedonism are maintained between exponentially expanding ethnic no-go zones in the older city districts and the inner suburban housing estates - the indigenous working classes have largely fled to the smarter semi-rural outer suburbs, only to be overtaken by mass immigration. Even out the Randstad, the impact of the hostile elite’s mass-immigration policies, recently formalized and accelerated through the Marrakesh Conference’s ‘Global Compact’, is becoming acute: most provincial cities and even many smaller towns are now showing the effects of the incoming ‘colour tide’. ‘Asylum-seeker’ facilities, including many ‘emergency locations’, ex-‘refugee’ housing policies of ‘proportionate dispersion’ and large-scale ‘guest labour’ employment in the agricultural sector are now causing crime waves and social tension even at the rural community level. Thus, in a small-sized - effectively semi-city-state - country like the Netherlands ‘white flight’ is not a realistic option, except for the privileged jet set that can afford drugs-money-inflated villa real estate prices and for the increasing number of entrepreneurs and agriculturalists who opt for emigration. At the street level, the real economy of the Netherlands is now increasingly dominated by the informally tolerated drugs trade, the tax-evading ‘ethnic business’ model and heavily subsidized business ‘start-ups’ by freely-housed ex-‘refugee’ settlers.

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The socio-economic burden (fiscal exploitation and legal dispossession of the indigenous people in favour of ‘immigrant’ colonists) and the psycho-cultural burden (enforced cognitive dissonance on top of structural disenfranchisement) imposed by the hostile elite’s ethnic replacement policy is causing native Dutch society to break down. The staggering rise in divorce, bastard birth and child abuse rates indicate the onset of final-stage social atomization. Equally astounding rates of drug, alcohol and porn addiction rates indicate a collective recourse to hedonist escapism. A wave of (‘piercing’- and ‘tattoo’-style) self-mutilation, (‘tinder’- and ‘bonga’-style) self-prostitution and (‘gamer’- and ‘insta’-style) self-isolation is destroying an entire generation of indigenous youngsters. A stifling atmosphere of political correctness does not allow these symptoms to be recognized for what they are: they are the warning signs of the approaching ‘White Death’ Dutch-style. The resulting cognitive dissonance, deliberately encouraged by social media algorithms, anti-traditional ‘schools’ and anti-religious ‘churches’, is causing psychological deformation at the collective level: denial reflex, tunnel vision, infantile regression and self-hatred are now widespread among the native Dutch population. This collective psychological conditioning finds its most evident outward expression in phenomena such as the ‘millennial snowflake’ (effectively a product of collective narcissism and societal feminisation) and the ‘social justice warrior’ (effectively a product of a multi-generation ‘Stockholm Syndrome’), phenomena that are exploited by the MSM to reinforce and accelerate the downward spiral of native Dutch society. The MSM are deliberately hastening this collective descent into social atavism by blanket censorship and discursive manipulation: free-rider colonists are called ‘refugees’, illegal aliens are called ‘dreamers’, gang-raping foreigners are called ‘lover boys’ and islamicist terrorists are called ‘disturbed individuals’. The MSM is now applying the accumulated knowledge of over a century social science research - ‘marketing strategy’, ‘behavioural psychology’, ‘social engineering’ - to deny the victimized and traumatized native population from the first and most fundamental prerequisite for collective recovery: consciousness.

This is where the New Right has a key role to play, not only in the Netherlands but throughout the Western world: its foremost aim is to awaken the collective consciousness of the Western peoples. To achieve this aim, which is meta-political, the New Right must realize that, at this moment in time, it stands on the border of two worlds: the border between a three-decades-long past of liberal-normativist globalism and an unknown future dispensation of unknown duration. At this point, a correct estimate of the New Right’s future-potential requires a correct assessment of its original purpose.

The New Right Revolution

Accipe quam primum - brevis est occasio lucri

‘Take it now, be the first - the opportunity for profit is brief’

- Martial

Couv-elements-32.jpgThe only serious discursive push-back against the MSM’s globalist Brave New World narrative comes from the New Right (French: Nouvelle Droite, German: Neue Rechte, Dutch: Nieuw Rechts). The New Right is a meta-political project of revolutionary counter-deconstruction, consisting of a loose agglomerate of dissident thinkers, speakers, writers and activists ever since the founding of the French think tank GRECE (Groupement de recherche et d'études pour la civilisation européenne, ‘European Civilization Research and Study Group’) on 17 January 1969. The New Right bases itself on the political-philosophical work of French thinkers such as Alain de Benoist, Guillaume Faye and Dominique Venner and is internationally supported by famous publicists such as Anthony Burgess, Mircea Eliade and Arthur Koestler.xiv In the Low Countries, the New Right’s are few and far between,xv but, here too, its main purpose remains the same: to achieve collective consciousness among the native peoples of the Benelux and to end the collective conditioning that has been imposed upon them by MSM manipulation and educational ‘dumbing down’.

This means that for the New Right the collective disengagement by the native masses from the MSM - the inevitable result of widespread mistrust of the ‘authorities’ and their ‘politically correct’ monologues - is cause for optimism. At last, the indigenous masses of the West are gaining a degree of ‘cognitive immunity’ to the ‘memetic viruses’ that the MSM have been infecting them with over the last four decades: the native peoples of the West are waking up to the fact that the MSM are ‘on the wrong side of history’ - that they are part of the hostile elite. In the Dutch context, there are several indications that the entire MSM narrative is now reduced to a paper-thin facade, as in the recent scrapping of the consultative national referendum and the recent introduction of EU censorship measures against digital ‘anti-immigration’ platforms. Clearly, the rulers no longer trust the MSM to sufficiently ‘inoculate’ the ruled. Even within the most complacent establishment circles of the Rhine-Meuse-Scheldt delta lands, the failure of the MSM control mechanism is now causing an occasional dissident noise, as in the demo-political analyses of the big business think tank Gefira, the social critiques of neo-conservative publisher De Blauwe Tijger and the anti-multicultural publicity campaigns of neo-Catholic foundation Civitas Christiana. More importantly, however, is the growing cognitive independence of the younger generation, which has grown up out of MSM reach: young indigenous people are now learning to think for themselves - and out of the box. The short-lived ‘Alt-Right’ outburst of 2015-17, which was vital in providing critical mass for the ‘Brexit’ and ‘Trump’ campaigns, was merely a preview of the kind of all-shattering Cultural Revolution that the digitally fluent and ideology-free young generation of the West is capable of. This is one of the reasons that the MSM has been pushing its ‘Russia collusion’ agenda: it is desperately trying to defuse the real-time bomb that is ticking under the globalist world order, viz. the revolutionary charge of the younger generation of the West. In the Netherlands, this ‘game’ is now being played for ever-higher stakes: the Dutch MSM is desperately trying to bring down the dissident political project of young Dutch politician Thierry Baudetxvi by a midget version of the CNN’s anti-Trump ‘Russia collusion’ campaign. Similarly directed developments are now visible across the entire Western world: the liberal-marxist globalist New World Order is in crisis. The Corona Crisis, which is currently forcing the globalist hostile elite into the uncharted territory of emergency economics (de facto bankruptcy, neo-Weimarian fiscality) and decisionist politics (de facto border closures, autarky measures), is putting the entire globalist project on a knife’s edge. The Corona Crisis of liberal-normativist globalism bears some eerie resemblances to the Chernobyl Crisis of marxist-leninist communism: self-inflicted disasters, followed by capacity overstretch media cover-up, total loss of face, long-term systemic strain and economic implosion. If it does not shift to a straight-forward totalitarian dictatorship soon - a possibility after the totalitarian foretaste brought about by the Corona Crisis - then the liberal-marxist New World Order may now very well be entering a phase of terminal decline. In that case, the West may now be edging towards total systemic failure - towards a revolution that nobody anticipated and that will have an unpredictable trajectory and outcome. It is important that the New Right grasps this opportunity and ‘catches on’.xvii An important question needs to be raised: what would - will, must - a New Right Revolution look like?

Irrespective of the answer - which will be different for each of the innumerable (National-Populist, Anarcho-Libertarian, Traditionalist, Futurist, White Nationalist, Eurasianist, etc.) factions of the New Right - one thing is clear: the New Right would be well advised to adjust its strategic position to take account of unexpectedly rapid developments. The New Right needs a degree of openness, flexibility and pragmatism to cope with radically and rapidly changing battlefield conditions. Some points deserving of the New Right’s attention:

omearaNRb.jpg(1) Widespread popular mistrust of the MSM can be exploited by the establishment of reliable - i.e. objective, non-factionalist - alternative media outlets. These would need to provide up-to-date news and rapid analyses as well as in-depth research journalism and wide-spectrum opinion pieces. These would need to adhere to the principle of cross-party solidarity for the sake of a ‘minimum program’ set of common goals such as anti-globalism, anti-liberalism, ethno-national self-determination and culture conservation. Within these parameters, the principle of total freedom of expression would have to be respected concerning all major divisive issues within the New Right: ‘JQ’, ‘Islam’, ‘alt-sexuality’, ‘climate’, ‘free market’, etc.

(2) A cautious welcome should be extended to establishment individuals and groups (i.e. people and organizations within the MSM and the academia) if and when they start to abandon the sinking ship of globalism. After decennia in the political wilderness - with its spokesmen and its activists subjected to professional marginalization and social ostracism - the New Right might be tempted to ‘return the favour’. But the great cause of the New Right, which is ensuring the future of the European peoples and European civilization, does not allow for such self-indulgence: (early) establishment deserters should be screened but then welcomed, co-opted and used.

(3) The New Right should take account of the real needs, grievances and concerns of the younger generation: this generation is, very literally, the future of the West - and the New Right. The New Right exists to serve them, not the other way round. The young people of the West, those who are now in college, now attending university, now entering the workforce and now starting families, face an entirely different reality than older generations of New Right thinkers, publicists and activists. Their socio-economic challenges include crippling ‘student debt’ servitude to the monstrous international bankers’ mafia, an impossible housing market in the grip of ‘boomer investors’ and neo-Victorian sub-subsistence wages on the migrant-diluted labour market. Their life-world experiences include mass-immigration-induced over-population (criminal-chaotic ‘diversity’, hyper-urban anomie, social-darwinist ‘reign of quantity), unprecedented ecological crisis (bio-diversity implosion, rapid climate change, environmental degradation) and border-line trans-humanism (anti-masculine education/medication, transgender propaganda, proto-AI ‘virtual reality’).

The New Right has a great ‘communication strategy’ advantage over its seemingly invincible MSM enemy: New Right has the luxury of non-dogmatic flexibility and non-prejudiced analysis. This advantage allows New Right to consider, adopt and absorb many older ideas and newer realities that the MSM - and the globalist hostile elite that it serves - is unable to ‘digest’. This means that the New Right can be truly progressive: it can act offensively where the MSM can only re-act defensively. The MSM - and the globalist hostile elite - has lost the meta-political strategic initiative, and is highly unlikely to ever regain it. But it is important that the New Right gains and maintains forward momentum - that it can dynamically handle quickly shifting realities. The New Right would do well to look for strategic opportunities that can arise from the meltdowns in morale and panic reflexes that are likely to occur as its MSM enemy abandons ever-larger portions of the public debate. The MSM ‘scorched earth’ policy on its now-abandoned ‘public debate’ ground - i.e. its pretence that its loss of the debate on issues such as ‘immigration’ and ‘multiculturalism’ can be followed by ear-deafening silence - should not discourage the New Right from rapidly following its retreating enemy: a beaten-but-not-destroyed enemy should not be given time to recuperate. Victories such as these should be celebrated with gusto - to the point of provoking the enemy into overreaching counter-moves.

Most importantly, the New Right should exploit cracks in the MSM front to further its main aim: stirring up the consciousness of the Western peoples. A breakthrough will come when the Western peoples become aware of the truly inhuman - what Traditionalists would term subhuman and demonic - nature of the globalist hostile elite. It should be repeated: the globalist hostile elite is not only hostile to the interests of the Western peoples and the values of Western civilization - it is hostile to all that is still good, beautiful and innocent in this world. Nowhere is this deepest and most inhuman of hostilities more evident than in the manner in which the globalist hostile elite attacks what is most precious and vulnerable in all human societies: children. But before the New Right can properly expose this deepest of all evils, before it can achieve full awareness of this evil among the Western peoples, it must re-examine its original - and historic - purpose. What is the thing that the New Right first saw as evil in the globalist hostile elite? What was the demonic evil that the New Right was meant to fight and destroy? It is time to re-examine these questions - time to return to the almost-forgotten ‘Molyneux Moment’ of the New Right.

The Molyneux Moment

The proper study of mankind is man

- Alexander Pope

246px-Richard_b_spencer_cropped_retouched.jpgIn the mid-‘10s, a new ethno-nationalist movement arose across the Western world: the so-called ‘Alt-Right’ started appearing besides - and replacing - the growing civic-nationalist ‘populist’ movement: together, these movements caused several significant anti-globalist phenomena - ‘Brexit’ in the UK, ‘Trump’ in the US, ‘Lega’ in Italy and ‘FvD’ in the Netherlands. The ‘Alt-Right’ movement focused on metapolitical mobilization, asymmetric ‘memetic’ warfare and digital anti-MSM guerrilla tactics - it deliberately stayed away from institutional politics. The ‘Alt-Right’ wave was effective but short-lived: it was stopped by the hostile elite’s well-coordinated counter-strategy of ‘doxxing’ (character assassination, employer pressure), digital censorship (‘deplatforming’, ‘shadow bans’) and violent intimidation (‘antifa’, ‘home searches’). Its formal end is marked by ‘Charlottesville’, i.e. the sabotage, through infiltration and provocation, of the ‘Unite the Right’ rally in August 2017. The short-lived ‘Alt-Right’ movement, which owed its impetus to the autodidactic and digitally proficient ‘post-MSM’ generation, provided a much-needed boost to the older New Right movement that it became part of - it provided new faces, new ideas and new abilities. One new face widely. but not entirely correctly, associated with the ‘Alt-Right’ was that of Irish-Canadian podcaster Stefan Molyneux, who ran - and still runs - the independent media channel Freedomain Radio. The ‘extreme right’ and ‘white nationalist’ frame to which he has been assigned by the MSM - including the Great Soviet Encyclopaedia-style outfit ‘Wikipedia’ - is so self-evidently ridiculous that it is almost laughable: Stefan Molyneux is a (semi-)anarcho-libertarian philosopher whose online shows focus on men’s rights promotion, anti-feminist social critique, psychotherapy and philosophical analyses of current affairs. His intelligent, sincere and eloquent approach of various substantive issues in breach of political correctness, including the ‘controversial’ links between race and IQ, feminism and mass-immigration, welfare dependence and matriarchal social conditioning, apparently caused so much unease within the MSM that they have banished Molyneux to one-size-fits-all Devil’s Island of the ‘extreme right’. Of course, this idealistic Papillon is not exactly ‘at home’ in ‘extreme right’ exile. In fact, in the New Right - particularly among its impatient ‘young guards’ - Molyneux’ idealistic (cooperative-pacifist) ethics and naive (anarcho-libertarian) ideology are regarded with some suspicion. But the New Right would do well to pay attention to what Molyneux has to say: as a serious thinker and an amusing debater he deserves not only the benefit of the doubt but also the courteous consideration that was once part and parcel of Anglo-Saxon sportsmanship in the public arena. The author contends that the New Right owes Molyneux a debt of gratitude.

NINTCHDBPICT000510586530.jpgIn the early and mid-‘10s, many young Westerners owed their ‘red pill’ moment to Stefan Molyneux: their online discovery of his systematic deconstruction of liberal-left political correctness allowed them to break out of the perceptive straightjacket that they were being squeezed into by parents, schools and MSM. Many of them may look back at that moment as no more than a ‘stepping stone’, but, with hindsight, it may very well be that that particular moment was much more than just a developmental ‘stage’ - it may have been a crucial turning point in the collective Weltanschauung revolution of a whole generation. It was the moment that many young Westerners freed themselves from their deeply internalized psycho-social conditioning through Molyneux simple recipe: sustained thinking, consistent truthfulness and ruthless self-examination. This combination is resurrecting the true direction of an old but much-misunderstood discipline: above all else, philo-sophy is the ‘love of wisdom’. It is possible to point out many gaps and shortcomings in Stefan Molyneux’ philo-sophy (e.g. his emotive appeals to ethical philosophy and his - typically Anglo-Saxon - neglect of transcendental philosophy), but he should not be denied praise for his authentically philo-sophical dissection of the psycho-social conditioning of contemporary Western ‘counter-culture’. At the core of Molyneux’ approach, sustained throughout his enormous and omnivorous oeuvre over decades, is the search for awareness - consciousness at the personal level above all. He operationalizes this approach by deep-digging analyses of the poisonous (cultural-marxist) ideological roots of the devolutionary conditioning of Western children. He points to the psycho-historical origins and psycho-social dynamics of contemporary Western society - a society that heavy-weight cultural-historical critiques, such as those of Peter Sloterdijk and Pim Fortuyn, have called ‘orphaned’ and ‘fatherless’. Molyneux points out the many negative but unnamed effects of ‘social progress’ and ‘individual freedom’: the anti-civilizational effects of hyper-feminism (activist anti-hierarchy, hedonist anti-rationalism, sadomasochist narcissism), the neo-slavery effects of totalitarian state control (fiscal exploitation of productive white males to subsidize ‘single mothers’ and ‘ethnic diversity’), the all-levelling ‘idiocracy’ that results from the ‘dictatorship of the feminist-multiculturalist proletariat’ and the cultural-marxist ‘permanent revolution’ against everything that retains a trace of masculine honour, white identity and Western civilization.

Molyneux’ anarcho-libertarian approach consistently emphasizes the (ethical, psychological) individual resolution of these disastrous effects: he emphasizes their (psycho-social) synchronic impact rather than their (cultural-historical) diachronic causality.xviii Molyneux de-emphasizes their collective impact: he, rather idealistically, regards any possible collective response as nothing more than the sum total of supposedly newly-rational and newly-enlightened individual responses. Most New Right thinkers would beg to differ, but it cannot be denied that Molyneux’ rational and reasonable ‘ideal world’ represents more than just a philosophical utopia: it also represents a truly Christian vision. Even if Molyneux is, at least nominally, committed to the - typically Anglo-Saxon - principles of strictly ‘secular’ reasoning and strictly ‘scientific’ calculus, his outcome approximates the perfect balance between total personal freedom and total individual responsibility that is aimed at in the old Christian ‘Imitation of Christ’.xix New Right criticism of Molyneux world vision is as understandable as it is misplaced: his vision may be problematic in terms of practical implementation, but it still is an integral part of the theoretical ideal model of Western civilization that the New Right is supposed to protect. To abandon this impossibly high-aiming ideal model - rather akin to a ‘living art’ fontana di Trevi al meriggio moment suspended in time-spacexx - would be to abandon Western civilization itself. In its capacity as the self-appointed protector of Western civilization, the New Right must (re-)create the real-world outer conditions and structures within which the inner life of the doubly traditional (Christian) and futurist (anarcho-libertarian) ideal model can be (re-)lived. This means that the New Right, as protector, guardian, crusader, is required to stand outside - and above that ideal model: it should create the conditions in which the Western peoples may live in - and up to - that ideal model. As a man builds and guards a house for his family, as a soldier maintains and guards a wall around his city, as a king establishes and guards a border around his people.xxiWithin that house, within that wall and within that border, the idea of equality, liberty and brotherhood can be lived in what Cultural Anthropology knows as the ‘female sphere’. But when it comes to maintenance, survival and defence on the outside, hierarchy, responsibility and discipline must prevail in what Cultural Anthropology knows as the ‘male sphere’. On the outside patriotism (allegiance to the country that one’s ancestors fought and died for), nationalism (allegiance to the people that one is born into), hierarchism (allegiance to the particular societal functions of one’s birth group) and inter-gender loyalty (mutual respect for the bio-evolutionary roles of the male as protector and the female as caretaker) and personal honour (pursuit of higher interests than one’s own) are indispensable survival strategies.

81KbXqyHR5L.jpgEven if Molyneux’ analyses focus on the inner sphere of Western civilization, they are still relevant to the New Right as the guardian of its outer sphere: every individual human guardian originates in the inner sphere - it is there that he is raised, motivated and equipped for his task. To the extent that the guardian lacks in character, motivation and equipment he is forced to account for the failings of the inner sphere: he is forced to become aware of the reasons for these failings. In the contemporary West, these failings are profound and elementary: they stem from an existential crisis. The contemporary West suffers from nothing less than an identity crisis, as evidenced by a simultaneous failure of bio-evolutionary continuity (the biological group - race, nation, lineage) and cultural transmission (the cultural forms, norms and values attached to the biological group). It is exactly at this point that Molyneux’ analyses are of great value to the New Right: he consistently traces the collective identity crisis of the West - failing parenthood and failing education at the individual level. It is exactly here that the globalist hostile elite is most guilty of deliberate maliciousness: the subtle combination of socio-economic manipulation, psycho-social deconstruction and anti-identitarian ‘diversity’ that it is forcing upon the Western peoples cause Western parenting and education to fail. Thus, the argument returns to what was said earlier on: nowhere is the inhuman hostility of the globalist elite towards the Western peoples more in evidence than in its insidious and cowardly attack on its most precious and most vulnerable group: the children of the West.

How do you exercise power over another human being? How do you corrupt [him]? How do you take his natural integrity, intelligence, and all the wonder that is the human mind, and turn it against itself and get it to eat itself and get it to be sort of a snake consuming its own tail? How do you wrap people up in neuroses, and how do you make them obedient? How to get them to subjugate themselves to your will without you even having to lift a finger, barely even an eyebrow? ...I view certain damages that are done early to the mind in life as pretty irrevocable. The mind is not so plastic that you could, say, for instance, be locked in a cupboard for your first twenty years and [grow] up as a normal human being. You do experience some particular phases in your brain development which are pretty central and may or may not be reversible, and generally the earlier the experiences the less reversible they are. (Molyneux, ‘How to Control a Human Soul’, Freedomain Radio podcast 15 December 2007)

The Demons of ‘68

Sexual promiscuity is the gratuity with which society soothes its slaves

- Nicolás Gómez Dávila

The time has come for the New Right to seriously reconsider Molyneux’ fundamental critique of the ‘progressive’ anti-ethics with which the globalist hostile elite has brainwashed no less than two generations of Westerners: ever since its ‘Counter Culture’ and ‘Sexual Revolution’ apotheosis of ’68 it has deliberately subjected Western children to social engineering projects of matriarchal anti-parenting and anti-education. Here it is of crucial importance to note that whenever a child abuse affair is highlighted by the MSM, it is almost always at the expense of the remnant institutions of Western Christendom - its reporting most particularly tends to target the Catholic Church and the Jehovah’s Witnesses. It rarely talks about the widespread and systematic abuse practices prevailing in the new institutions of the post-Christian soixante-huitard hostile elite, even if the child abuse practices of the elite’s globalist operations - from its grandest ‘UN’ (‘peace-keeping’) and ‘Hollywood’ (‘Weinstein’) fronts, across its many ‘NGO’ and ‘charity’ foundations, to its smallest anti-family schemes of ‘foster care’ and ‘daycare’ - far outweigh every that has ever gone before it in terms of ‘quantity’ as well as ‘quality’.

cb68.jpgQuantitatively by the judicial outlaw status of traditional family structures and marriage contracts through the legalization, even the encouragement, of what any sane person would immediately recognize as irresponsible, even obscene, ‘freedoms’: ‘free partner choice’, ‘no-fault divorce’, ‘same-sex marriage’, ‘artificial insemination’, ‘donor reproduction’ and ‘free-choice abortion’. In combination with the suppression of traditional social controls over pre-marital intercourse, extra-marital childbirth and free-choice single motherhood these ‘new freedoms’ were bound to result in nothing less than neo-matriarchal and neo-primitivist social implosion. The exponentially multiplying non-standard ‘new family’ forms – step-parenting, adoptive parenting, foster parenting, open family parenting - are mathematically certain to lead in one direction: child abuse.

Qualitatively by deliberate ignoring, denying, glossing over, ‘explaining away’ and even ‘excusing’ of what is self-evidently evil. It is here that is found the great difference between the present-day hostile elite of the Western world and all earlier and other elites: the present-day hostile elite is characterized by its cultural-nihilist Umwertung aller Wertexxii - the globalist hostile elite of today constitutes the ultimate anti-authority of world history. Its nihilist-revolutionary purpose is exclusively negative: it aims at an inversion of values that structurally reverses the gains of two millennia of Western civilization. It is here that its - tolerated, encouraged, implemented - systemic child abuse diverges from that of the remnant institutions of Western Christendom, most prominently the Catholic Church and the Jehovah Witnesses. Whatever the organizational and human failures of these Christian institutions, they still had at least one redeeming feature: their ethical reference frame condemned abuse - at least they still acknowledged the difference between good and evil and at least they still recognized the corrective mechanism of shame, guilt, repentance and penance. For and in the globalist hostile elite, which is militantly secular and totally relativist, no such reference point and no such corrective mechanism exists: it acknowledges no good and evil and it recognizes no need for redemption. On the slippery slope of ‘social tolerance’ and ‘individual freedom’ all the ideals of soixante-huitard Counter Culture and Sexual Revolution are bound to end in one place only: in the neo-primitivist hell of post-modern anti-civilization.

Woe unto them that call evil good, and good evil

that put darkness for light, and light for darkness

that put bitter for sweet, and sweet for bitter

- Isaiah 5:20

The systematic anti-family policies of the globalist hostile elite, subliminally weaponized by appeals to ‘individual freedom’ and systematically reinforced by MSM promotion of hedonist ‘permissiveness’, have a severe and lasting impact on the most precious and most vulnerable group in society: the children. In the soixante-huitard calculus of ‘new freedoms’, their interests are nowhere taken into account. This despite the well-documented disastrous effects of any departure from the traditional - and classically stable - Western family model: in Western societies, all non-monogamic, non-biology-based ‘new family’ experiments end with mathematical certainty in a civilization-destroying wave - a vicious cycle of economic deprivation, social marginalization, domestic violence, child abuse, substance abuse and long-lasting psychological trauma. Thus, the globalist hostile elite is directly responsible for the social implosion that the Western peoples have suffered since the beginning of the soixante-huitard ‘Long March through the Institutions’. It bears full responsibility for a decades-old, deliberate and calculated anti-family policy aiming at the systematic ‘deconstruction’ of Western civilization and the Western peoples - this is the explicit goal of cultural-marxism and the implicit goal of neo-liberalism. Both ideologies are entirely incompatible with the true interest of the children of the West.

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The soixante-huitard elite has now completed its ‘Long March through the Institutions’ - it now dominates the political arena (in the Netherlands through a ‘party cartel’ that unites virtually all nominally separate political parties in a common agenda), the judicial arena (in the Netherlands through the ‘D66 judiciary’xxiii focussed on socio-political utility rather than justice) and the economic arena (boomer pensionados, bonus banksters and anonymous investors). Its feminist-minority-SJW successor generation is already following in its footsteps. A full generation of doubly cultural-marxist and liberal-normativist anti-education and media indoctrination has created a historically unique new ‘cadre’: in its successor generation of hyper-resentful and total-opportunist feminist-minority-SJW homines novi the boomer elite has cultivated the kind of ‘zombi-man’ that is capable of delivering the final blow to Western civilization. This new cadre, now gradually taking over the political stage through ‘identity politics’ publicity stunts is qualitatively far inferior to even the most brain-dead boomers: its Fourth Generation feminists, minority-rights advocates and LGBTTIQQ2SA activists operate outside the older political premises of cultural baggage, historical continuity, professional qualifications and ethical standards. Under the impending rule of this new anti-Western anti-elite, the children of the West will effectively lack any kind of protection: they will be subject to ‘transgender’ surgery when they are in kindergarten, they will be subject to ‘behavioural’ medication in primary school and they will be subject to the sexual fantasies of ‘free thinking’ ‘family’ at home. Perhaps the ultimate challenge of the New Right will be to fight this anti-elite - to fight it with all its power and destroy it so that the children of the West can live. Because the ‘new man’ vision represented by this coming anti-elite refers to something that lies far beneath what Nietzsche foresaw in the 19th Century as ‘last man’ and what the Old Right foresaw in the 20th Century as ‘sub-man’: man as devil.

It were better for him that a millstone were hanged about his neck,

and he cast into the sea, than that he should offend one of these little ones

- Luke 17:2

The Antinomian State of Marxist Liberalism

A marxist system can be recognized by its judicial protection of criminals

and criminalization of political opposition

- Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn

Before cultural-marxist dogmas and liberal-normativists indoctrination erased the concepts of ‘sin’ and ‘penance’ from the collective conscious of the West, its Christian Tradition distinguished between two kinds of sin: the sin of omission, i.e. sin through inaction, and the sin of commission, i.e. sin through action. But structural and systematic inaction is exactly the guiding principle of the ideological model that dominates the post-modern West: liberal-normativism.xxiv The socio-economic and psycho-cultural policy of the globalist hostile elite that were discussed in the preceding paragraph can be understood as a function of this principle: a deliberate policy of neglect. When governance becomes anti-governance, when politics becomes anti-politics and when law becomes anti-law, then the state and the nation are effectively abandoned to the anti-national and trans-national interests that are served by the globalist hostile elite - then the globalist interests of ‘high finance’ (banking cartel, investment funds, multinational business conglomerates, media monopolies) and the ‘letter institutions’ (UN, EU, IMF, NATO) prevail automatically. The hostile elite’s decision not to protect the Western nations against these interests constitutes a sin of omission of unprecedented scope - it also equals treason. The anti-family policies and the suffering of the children of the West that were discussed in the preceding paragraph are the direct results of this deliberate treason. The ultimate responsibility for the social implosion that deprives Western children of the protection and security of stable and orderly family life as well as the mass immigration that exposes Western children to ‘diversity’ phenomena such as the ‘lover boy’xxv and the ‘grooming gang’ rests squarely on the shoulders of the globalist hostile elite. The relation between the hostile elite and the Western peoples is now the equivalent of the relation between the false shepherd that opens the sheepfold to the wolf - and of that between the cruel stepfather who abuses his defenceless stepdaughter.

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It should be noted that the child abuse now tolerated and facilitated by the hostile elite also extends to several non-indigenous ethnicities now residing in the West. The South Asian ‘grooming gangs’, effectively tolerated and facilitated by the British ‘authorities’, do not only target white girls but also Sikh girls: next to the much more numerous Hindu and Muslim communities, the Sikh community constitutes a relatively vulnerable minority group. It should also be noted that the ‘inverse colonization’ mass-immigration policies of the hostile elite are also causing massive child abuse among the many underage ‘migrants’ that are pushed along ‘migration routes’ and through ‘asylum procedures’. Here too, the non-implementation of the law causes child abuse: ‘open borders’ policy equals anti-politics. Thus, many Subsaharan African girls are sent to Europe by their families and clans through debt slavery/people smuggling operations - in transit, they are subjected to ‘standard usage’ (the possible consequences of which are anticipated through preventative anti-conception medication). Willingly and knowingly, their clans and families expose these vulnerable ‘unaccompanied minors’ to the tender mercies of unscrupulous ‘smugglers’ and the ‘hands-on help’ of ‘humanitarian’ workers and activist volunteers. This abuse - occasionally to the point of permanent ‘disappearance’ in transit - follows them all the way, and beyond, their end destination: the alternative media give testimony to the many ‘unorthodox’ ways in which SJW-driven ‘clerics’ and ‘charitable’ baby boomers ‘welcome’ asylum children and youngsters in their shelters and villas. A whole generation of ‘unaccompanied minors’ from Africa and Asia has already run this gauntlet - without the intervention of Western law enforcement, Western judiciaries and the Western MSM. These are the same deliberate anti-politics of not seeing, not hearing, not speaking and not acting that have enabled whole legions of ‘peacekeepers’, ‘development workers’ and ‘humanitarian emissaries’ to abuse vulnerable children throughout the Third World for decades now (UN Mozambique 1994, Oxfam Haiti 2019, etc.). All this because the Brave New World of liberal-normativism itself, and its staff, remain beyond question - and beyond the law.

But the globalist hostile elite is guilty of more than the sin of omission, which is the category that covers most of the above-mentioned outrages: it is also guilty of the sin of commission. The alternative media have long suspected the hostile elite of grand-scale and systemic child abuse within the Western heartland itself. Very occasionally, when the facts are too grotesque and too well-known to ‘kill with silence’, this suspicion is confirmed in the MSM: ‘Dutrout’, ‘Pizzagate’, ‘Weinstein’, ‘Epstein’. What remains of these fragmentary confirmations, after systematic procedure-sabotage, ‘judicial errors’, disappearing evidence and remarkably weak media attention, is a strangely oppressive atmosphere: the impression that there exists a ruthless elite of ‘untouchables’ that it stands above the law and can escape any form of earthly justice in an intangible space of anonymous power. What remains of this impression among the Western masses is a half-subconscious and vague suspicion of the truth that occasionally expresses itself in some unproven - improvable - ‘conspiracy theory’. It is the same suspicion that occasionally finds artistic expression in a popular book or a movie, from Rosemary’s Baby (Polanski, 1968) up to Eyes Wide Shut (Kubrick, 1999). This suspicion then widens to include the visible ‘puppets’ of hostile elite power, leaving unanswerable questions such as this: are the ruthless inhuman policies and betrayals of power puppets such as Clinton and Macron not propelled by some sort of ‘Epstein’-style blackmail mechanisms?

Very occasionally, however, this suspicion finds actual, real-life confirmation in a tiny fragment of MSM reporting. As it did in the Dutch De Parool newspaper on 14 September 2019, in an in-depth article entitled ‘Witness Testimony: Child Abuse in ‘Swimming Clubs’ during the Fifties’ - an article that showed a dark side the highest-circle Dutch elite power that is rarely even suspected. It exposed highly organized child abuse networks that were frequented by many government dignitaries, respectable citizens and war heroes with high titles and famous names about sixty years ago. It may very well give a taste of what happens behind the closed doors of ‘high society’, ‘lodge fraternities’ and ‘old boy networks’ all around the West. Even if the New Right cannot but despise the MSM for its general bias, censorship and cowardice, it is still necessary to acknowledge the fact that, occasionally, even the MSM may give a hint of the truth - as a broken watch still indicates the correct time once a day. For the sake of documentary evidence this essay concludes with the applicable Dutch-language sources of this - old, almost forgotten - paedophile scandal. New Right researchers around the world with sufficient stamina - and stomach - for such material may very find traces of similar scandals in their own countries. New Right readers should occasionally be reminded of the dark reality behind the shining surface of liberal-normativist ‘business as usual’ - if only for the sake of the many innocent victims of the hostile elite that have taken their tragic secrets to their graves. It now becomes necessary to ask the most important question: is what happened then, over sixty years ago, perhaps also happening now? The answer to that still unanswerable question is suggested by an indisputable fact: the fact that the hostile elite’s thoughts and aims have not changed - the fact that it clings to the same poisonous ideologies and that it pursues the same perverse interests:

le libéralisme est le mal, le mal à l’état pur, le mal essentiel et substantiel

‘liberalism is absolute evil: it is evil in its purest form, evil in essence and substance’

- Robert Steuckers

‘Crime and Punishment’

The greatest error of modernity is not the thesis that God is dead,

but the belief that the devil is dead

- Nicolás Gómez Dávila

The New Right is still barred from the corridors of power, but perhaps not for always. Perhaps one day it will confront the need to sit in judgment over its now seemingly invincible enemy - to seek justice on behalf of the hostile elite’s countless, now still hidden victims. Until that day comes - the day that the hostile elite is brought to justice for all the, often unimaginable, evil that it has inflicted on its most innocent victims - there remains the Higher Judgment that none can escape. But once upon a day, long ago, Christianity gave people the option of not awaiting the Last Judgment: the option of confessing their sins and doing penance here and now. Perhaps there are, even among the lost souls and erring spirits of the hostile elite, a few people that can still comprehend and grasp that option. They would do well to repent now: to confess what they have witnessed and to do public penance as accomplices - they may mitigate their judgment by coming forward voluntarily. By breaking the ‘circle of silence’ of the hostile elite they may assuage the silent anguish of its many victims and they may help their people stand up to the evil that automatically rules when good men fail to act. Thus, they may yet help to bring down the hostile elite and they may yet grant their people - and themselves - a new lease of life:

 

Ab nou cor et ab nou talen,

ab nou saben et ab nou sen,

et ab nou belh captenemen,

vuelh un bon nou vers comensar;

e qui mos bons nous motz enten,

ben er plus nous a son viven,

qu’om vielhs s’en deu renovelar

‘With a new heart and with a new desire

with a new knowing and with a new longing

and with a beautiful new undertaking

I wish to commence a good new verse

and who listens to my good new words

will surely gain himself a new life,

so that even an old man will find himself renewed’

- Raimbaut d’Aurenga (translation Alexander Wolfheze)

‘Retribution’

Assuming that the hostile elite as a whole has now erred too far to ever retrace the old Christian path of remorse, confession and penance and to rediscover the old value of love of country and nation, it should be assumed that the neglected, manipulated and abused children of the West can only rely on themselves - that they must recover what they are owed by themselves. But in doing so, they can learn from the example of other colonized, marginalized and manipulated nations. In an earlier essay, the author has already pointed out the fact that the repressive mechanisms now activated by the globalist hostile elite in the West have already been experienced by many other so-called ‘primitive peoples’ at an earlier stage of Modernity.xxvi These repressive mechanisms, most dramatically activated in the ‘inverse colonization’ that subjects Western peoples to tribute (‘welfare’, ‘subsidy’) payment to foreign settlers in their own home nations, are aimed at dispossession (taking away land and property), replacement (changing habitat and lifecycle) and deracination (eradicating history and culture). The women and children of the dispossessed peoples are hard hit: as their men are pushed back and replaced (‘affirmative action’, ‘interracial marriage’) their resources diminish and their security is compromised. As male protection falls away, are increasingly subject to violence (‘jihadists’) and outrage (‘rapefugees’) and as male demands fall away, they increasingly descend into self-destructive behaviour (‘pornification’, ‘free relations’). These bio-evolutionary patterns are well documented in cultural-anthropological research among the indigenous peoples of the America’s (the Native Americans, the Amazon Indians) and Oceania (the Australian Aboriginals, the New Zealand Maoris). The tragic fate of the ‘lost children’ of these overseas ‘first nations’ is now also becoming visible among European nations. As they confront existential threats they are forced into existential choices: a struggle for physical and psychological survival. They are forced to choose between annihilation and restoration.

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One of the universal human mechanisms to achieve the restoration of personal identity is compensation: compensation of childhood trauma through adult achievement - through the exercise of adult power. The exercise of adult power can be achieved at various existential levels and in different dimensions, but such exercise always needs to - positively or negatively - relate to birth identity, at the collective as well as the individual level. Where young people are confronted with a (socio-economic, psycho-cultural) disadvantage in birth identity, as in present-day disadvantageous white ethnicity, they are forced into - either positive or negative - compensation strategies. They are forced to account for - and so become aware of - their own manipulated and rejected historical identity and to measure it against the non-own dominant contemporary norm. Retribution, in whatever form - including artistic abstraction and cosmic projection - can be a legitimate compensation strategy. Sooner or later, the universal mechanisms of compensation and retribution will have to be revisited and reinvented by the ‘lost children’ of the West. The New Right encourages them to opt for an early rather than a late revisiting: there is no more time to learn by ‘trial and error’. The New Right aims at steering the process of consciousness-raising in a positive direction: the New Right aims at instilling a new sense of social responsibility (in family values and behavioural norms) and cultural identity (through alternative media and heritage transmission). In this regard, a message of hope is essential: young people deserve the prospect of a better future - if need be in deviance of expectation and against the apparent course of history. The step, following awareness, is self-determination: the right to a future that is radically different from the dismal past and the low-life present. This message of hope is not based on ‘wishful thinking’: it is based on hard-fact history. Again and again, human history has shown that individuals and groups can regain their stolen birthright and their lost heritage: these may be redeemed in defiance of common expectation and rational calculus. This is the ‘retribution’ that every individual and every group may attempt: they can avenge the wrongs of the past by daring action in the future.

A remarkable example of ‘retribution’, by a single special individual on behalf of a whole ethnic group, may be found in the work of Canadian Inuit (Eskimo) singer Tanya Tagaq. Her own tragic - and tragically typical - past is ‘resolved’ in a strange - one is tempted to say ‘archaeo-futurist’ - ‘song’ that occupies the impossible middle ground between a neo-shamanist ‘exorcism’ and post-modern ‘pop art’: ‘Retribution’ (2016). Starting from a semi-cosmic indictment that covers a history of ecocide, genocide and colonization and prophesizes vengeance by Gaia - ‘Mother Earth’ - herself, ‘Retribution’ gradually descends into a trance state that combines totemic reference, dream quest and animal projection. It projects the rape and violation of a whole nation onto a single person - and avenges it. The style, vocabulary and setting of ‘Retribution’ may be utterly alien to young people from other cultures, but the existential choices that it expresses are not: it unmistakably establishes the universal power of the ‘retribution’ principle. ‘Retribution’ deals with the universally available breakthrough to a New Freedom.

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Postscript: Towards a New Freedom

On the eve of World War Two, Dutch political analyst Jacques de Kadt (1897-1988) wrote his monumental work Het Fascisme en de Nieuwe Vrijheid, ‘Fascism and the New Freedom’ (1939). He interpreted and described the phenomenon of the ‘Fascist Revolution’, which he understood as a revolt of peoples and cultures against elites and civilizations, with a sensitivity and a subtlety that is now effectively impossible in Western ‘public debate’. He understood that the original and idealistic aspect of the early Fascist Revolution constituted a natural and healthy ‘immune response’ against the pervasive cultural-nihilism that already characterized pre-war ‘demo-liberalism’. De Kadt’s pre-war ‘demo-liberalism’ simply constituted an earlier incarnation of the historical-materialist ideology that has lately grown into fully-fledged totalitarian liberal-normativism: an ideology driven by one-dimensional ‘money thinking’ (the proto-type of neo-liberalism) and bloodless intellectualism (the proto-type of cultural-marxism). De Kadt recognized the failures of pre-war fascism as functions of its specific historical trajectory: its failure to achieve inter-class solidarity, its failure to incorporate scientific progress and its failure to face political reality resulted in a poisonous mix of cynical anti-intellectualism, mindless militarism and barbaric gangsterism. But De Kadt also warned against a premature dismissal of the original impulse of the Fascist Revolution: in his view, this revolution reflected no mere historical aberration, but rather a universally recurring corrective mechanism.

410o9m-KRfL._SX308_BO1,204,203,200_.jpgAfter eighty years, De Kadt’s analysis has not lost its validity. The globalist hostile elite ruling the early 21st Century is combining the failures of fascism with the failures of the other two failed historical-materialist ideologies of the 20th Century: (communo-)socialism and (neo-)liberalism. The hostile elite ruling the contemporary West on behalf of the now openly totalitarian New World Order project of globalism has achieved a remarkable fusion between the lowest decay forms of each of these three ideologies: the all-levelling resentment of socialism, the low-life anti-intellectualism of fascism and the malicious ‘money mind’ of liberalism. The children of the West deserve a different future: they deserve to see the day that the rule of the globalist hostile elite ends - the day that its pathological ideas and its demonic practices are eradicated from the surface of the planet for once and for all. The time has come for them to break out into their New Freedom:

 

 

And this will be the day -

This will be the day when all of God's children will be able to sing with new meaning:

Free at last!

Free at last!

Thank God Almighty - we are free at last!

- Martin Luther King Jr., ‘I Have a Dream’

Dutch-language Source References:

Berg, Helmut van de, Verboden foto’s: een Amsterdamse roman (‘Forbidden Photos: A Novel from Amsterdam’). Heerhugowaard: GigaBoek, 2005. Note: this book contains a non-fiction autobiography that was written under a pseudonym and published as a ‘novel’.

Ligtvoet, Frank, ‘Andere naam of niet - H401 is nog altijd Castrum Peregrini’ (Whatever its New Name - H401 remains Castrum Peregrini), Medium.com 17 september 2019.

Pen, Hanneloes, ‘Getuigenis: misbruik in “zwemclubs” in de jaren vijftig’ (Witness Testimony: Child Abuse in ‘Swimming Clubs’ during the Fifties), Het Parool 14 september 2019.

Notes:

i A reference to the title of the ‘politically incorrect’ Dutch-language treatise Op de grens van twee werelden by then-former Prime Minister Hendrikus Colijn, previously CEO for the Royal Dutch Shell company, belonging to the neo-Calvinist ARP, or ‘Anti-Revolutionary Party’ (in 1980, this party merged with other confessional parties, forming the still-governing CDA, or ‘Christian Democratic Appeal’). ‘On the Border of Two Worlds’ was written in June 1940, a month after the occupation of the Netherlands by the Third Reich.

41MiJq2+OcL._SX280_BO1,204,203,200_.jpgii Nishida Kitaro, A Study of Good - orig. ‘Zen no kenkyū’ (New York, Westport and London 1960) 131.

iii Although the formal power base of the Freemasonic-controlled liberal Volkspartij voor Vrijheid en Democratie (‘People’s Party for Freedom and Democracy’) has been reduced to just over a fifth of parliamentary seats during PM Mark Rutte’s leadership, it still is the country’s largest party, leading an improvised anti-patriotic ‘cartel’ coalition.

iv De Telegraaf (‘The Telegraph’) newspaper is the Netherlands’ largest daily newspaper - it is owned by the Belgian media consortium Mediahuis, which now controls most Dutch and Belgian print and online media outlets.

v GeenStijl is an independent blog-style Dutch online current affairs magazine characterized by its iconoclastic language and non-conformist reporting. The fact that its ‘populist’, ‘anti-establishment’ content remains firmly embedded in a civic-nationalist and libertarian framework effectively puts it into the ‘controlled opposition’ category.

vi The Nederlandse Publieke Omroep (‘Dutch Foundation for Public Broadcasting’) is the Dutch governmental organization that regulates and dominates the Netherlands’ traditional television and radio media. It tends to focus on subliminal cultural-relativist and secular-nihilist manipulation of the public through a systematic promotion of anti-traditional ‘infotainment’ and ‘idiocracy’-style consumerism. In this sense, the NPO-controlled ‘public media’ represent the cultural-marxist counterpart to the Mediahuis-controlled ‘commercial media’ (cf. note 4 above), accurately reflecting the ‘liberal-left’ globalist alliance that has now controlled the Netherlands for over four decades.

vii ThePostOnline is an independent Dutch online current the older form of ‘quality journalism’ that characterized the now-defunct civic-minded libertarian press. Its steadfast adherence to outdated libertarian and civic-nationalist ideas explain much of its continuing hostility to the Netherlands’ New Right.

viii For a short overview of the psycho-historical development of globalist hostile elite’s ideological narrative, cf. Alexander Wolfheze, Alba Rosa. Ten Traditionalist Essays about the Crisis of the Modern West (Arktos: Londen, 2019) 4-6.

71EUfRtApLL.jpgix For a Eurasianist appraisal of the current Dutch political landscape, cf. Alexander Wolfheze, ‘Dutch Democracy: a Warning from History’, Geopolitica 31 December 2017 (https://www.geopolitica.ru/en/article/dutch-democracy-war...).

x For an investigation of the new ‘occupied territory’ status of the Netherlands, cf. Alexander Wolfheze, ‘Identitarian Iconoclasm’, Identiteit Nederland 18 August 2019 (http://www.idnl.org/en/commentary-essays/identitarian-ico...).

xi A reference to the title Franz Kafka’s 1915 symbolist novel The Metamorphosis which describes the mysterious transformation of the novel’s formerly human protagonist into an enormous and monstrous vermin.

xii The Dutch term regenten originally referred to the semi-hereditary urban ruling class of the Dutch Republic. Some members of this old republican mercantile elite were ennobled during the 19th Century. The present-day descendants of this class, still entrenched in the country’s high finance and big business power circles, tend to think of themselves as co-equal with the older Dutch nobility, especially because some of its members married into the original nobility - this sentiment, however, is not shared by anybody else.

xiii A reference to the ‘Rim City’ megalopolis of the virtually continuous urban belt that surrounds the shrinking ‘Green Heart’ of Holland and includes the Netherlands’ four largest cities of Rotterdam, Amsterdam, The Hague and Utrecht - its total population of 8,2 million inhabitants accounts for about half of the total Dutch population.

xiv For an ‘Archaeo-Futurist’ assessment of the contemporary New Right, cf. Alexander Wolfheze, ‘Deep Right Rising’, Identiteit Nederland 26 September 2019 ( http://www.idnl.org/en/commentary-essays/deep-right-rising/).

xv The principle representative of the New Right in the Low Countries is undoubtedly Belgian (mostly French-language) publicist Robert Steuckers, whose decades-long campaign can be sampled in his personal blog (http://robertsteuckers.blogspot.com/) and through his contributions to Euro-Synérgies (http://euro-synergies.hautetfort.com/). The author has written three reviews of Robert Steuckers’ recent works Europa and Sur et autour de Carl Schmitt - these can be accessed through the author’s reference page at Geopolitica (https://www.geopolitica.ru/en/person/alexander-wolfheze).

xvi Thierry Baudet’s new patriotic-libertarian Forum voor Democratie (‘Forum for Democracy’) party, riding the Alt-Right wave, managed to wrangle its way into the national parliament during the 2017 elections (cf. n.9).

xvii For the author’s preliminary assessment of the New Right’s ‘Corona Crisis moment’, cf. Alexander Wolfheze, ‘Decamerone Redux’, Arktos Journal 4-7 April 2020 (https://arktos.com/2020/04/04/decamerone-redux-readers-di...).

41S6Q5whmXL._SX355_BO1,204,203,200_.jpgxviii For the deep cultural-historical background to the Crisis of the Modern West, which the author approaches through the concept of ‘Cultural Nihilism’, cf. Alexander Wolfheze, The Sunset of Tradition and the Origin of the Great War (Cambridge Scholars: Newcastle upon Tyne, 2018) - samples freely available (under the button ‘View Extract’) at http://www.cambridgescholars.com/the-sunset-of-tradition-... (now also in paperback version).

xix A reference to the title of the Devotio Moderna classic De Imitatione Christi (ca. 1420) by Dutch monastic Thomas à Kempis (ca. 1380-1471).

xx A reference to the zenith third movement ‘The Trevi Fountain at Noon’ of the symphonic poem Fontane di Roma (‘Fountains of Rome’) by Italian composer Ottorino Respighi (1879-1936).

xxi For a reappraisal of the Traditionalist concept of the ‘Guardian’, represented by Carl Schmitt’s concept of the Katechon in legal philosophy, through the lens of Aleksandr Dugin’s essay ‘The Solar Hounds of Russia’, cf. Alexander Wolfheze, ‘Broken Arrow’, Geopolitica 2 October 2018 (https://www.geopolitica.ru/en/article/broken-arrow).

xxii ‘Transvaluation of values’, a concept from the cultural-historical prognoses of German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900).

xxiii A reference to the left-liberal Democraten 66 (‘Democrats 66’) party dominated by the cultural-marxist institutional intelligentsia - it is infamous for its ultra-nihilist socio-economic agenda and publicly associated with sabotaging the country’s judicial system by non-implementation of law and order principles and by ignoring the ethnicity factor in crime statistics.

xxiv For a theoretical analysis of the normative-liberal ‘anti-state’ concept, cf. Alexander Wolfheze, ‘From the Arsenal of Hephaestus’, Geopolitica 10 January 2019 (https://www.geopolitica.ru/en/article/arsenal-hephaestus).

xxv In the Netherlands, ‘lover boy’ is a politically-correct euphemism for the local equivalent of the ‘grooming gang’ phenomenon that is increasingly dominating the life of vulnerable indigenous girls in Great Britain.

xxvi Cf. Alexander Wolfheze, ‘Operation Belisarius’, Identiteit Nederland18 August 2019 (http://www.idnl.org/en/commentary-essays/operation-belisa...).

 

mercredi, 13 mai 2020

La Tradition primordiale est en nous

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La Tradition primordiale est en nous

par Patrice Lemaître

Ex: https://www.nice-provence.info

Un nouveau livre de Paul-Georges Sansonetti est toujours un événement… Alors quand il y en a deux, l’événement devient ravissement.

COUV-Arcanes-polaires-WEB.jpgPaul-Georges Sansonetti, faut-il le préciser, est un spécialiste des mythes et des symboles, titulaire d’un doctorat de lettres traitant de l’ésotérisme des romans arthuriens. Il a également écrit de nombreux articles et conférences, notamment dans l’excellente revue hélas disparue, « Hyperborée ».

Deux ouvrages donc, du maître des runes et du Pôle, sont arrivés ces derniers mois dans les rayons des bonnes librairies.

Les deux ouvrages, bien que différents, traitent à leur manière de la quête permanente de l’auteur : le Pôle. Non pas le pôle géographique à la manière d’un Paul-Émile Victor, mais, s’il n’en est pas très éloigné, du symbole polaire de la Tradition primordiale chère à René Guénon. Ces deux ouvrages s’adressent donc, comme il est écrit dans l’un deux, « à celles et ceux qui refusent de perdre le Nord ».

L’idée directrice est que cette Tradition primordiale motrice de l’Âge d’Or est toujours présente, alors que se rapproche chaque jour un peu plus la fin du quatrième âge, ou Âge de fer, encore appelé Kali Yuga dans la cosmogonie hindoue. Elle fait partie de ce que Carl Gustav Jung appelait l’inconscient collectif. Elle est ancrée en nous depuis l’origine, mais cet ancrage se fait le plus souvent d’une manière ésotérique, c’est-à-dire cachée, et seuls les initiés ou de fins observateurs peuvent en percevoir les traces ou les allusions dans les œuvres profanes.

Le premier ouvrage, intitulé « Arcanes Polaires » (aux éditions Arqa), reprend en quinze chapitres, un éventail d’analyses portant sur des formulations diversifiées de la Tradition primordiale. On y trouve une étude de la doctrine des quatre âges, qui nous renvoie ensuite à un christianisme original et ésotérique, le mythe du Graal, les Templiers ou le chevalier Yvain y trouvant toute leur place.

Un chapitre concernant un roman étrange paru en 1925, « La sphère d’or » d’un auteur australien Erle Cox, précurseur des grands romans de science fiction, apporte un éclairage puissant et nécessaire à la lecture de ce livre malheureusement difficilement trouvable de nos jours mais dont le message reste parfaitement immanent.

ob_029cb2_couv-pg-sansonetti.jpgLe second, « Présence de la Tradition primordiale » (aux éditions Oeil du Sphinx), est un recueil de nombreux articles parus dans la défunte revue « Hyperborée ». Paul-Georges Sansonetti vient ici poser le doigt sur des œuvres que l’on pensait connaître, pour nous montrer toutes les traces que leurs auteurs y ont cachées plus ou moins volontairement. Nous revisitons ainsi des grands classiques. Tolkien bien sûr avec son « Seigneur des anneaux », mais aussi Howard Phillips Lovecraft, ou plus curieusement Alain Fournier et son « Grand Meaulnes ». Un grand chapitre est consacré à l’immense film de Stanley Kubrick « 2001, Odyssée de l’espace ». 

Poe, Meyrink se croisent également dans cet escalier menant droit… au Pôle. Car ici, comme dans le précédent ouvrage, la direction est la même : cap au Nord, la Grande Ourse, l’Hyperborée, patrie d’Apollon, d’où est partie la base principielle de nos civilisations, et qu’il est bon de remettre en mémoire en ces temps de fin de cycle.

Comme dirait Pierre-Émile Blairon, il serait bien de s’armer de « bagages pour franchir le gué », afin que, dans cette prochaine ère qui ne tardera pas à venir, les racines soient déjà prêtes pour entamer un nouveau cycle, la Tradition primordiale rassemblant toutes les données permettant de comprendre la raison d’être du fondement des civilisations anciennes, mais aussi à venir.

Patrice LEMAÎTRE.

Comment se procurer ces deux livres ?

Arcanes Polaires (éditions Arqa)
Présence de la Tradition primordiale
(éditions Oeil du Sphinx)

 

mardi, 12 mai 2020

Mysticism After Modernism: From Meme Magick to Evolian Populism

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Mysticism After Modernism:
From Meme Magick to Evolian Populism

mysticismaftermodernism-198x300.pngJames J. O’Meara
Mysticism After Modernism: Crowley, Evola, Neville, Watts, Colin Wilson & Other Populist Gurus
Melbourne, Australia: Manticore Press, 2020

“For me real and imagined, by the way, is just the same. Because the world is our imagination.” — Aleksandr Dugin [1] [1]

“The whole vast world is nothing more than the confused imaginations of men and women.” — Neville [2] [2]

A new book from James O’Meara is always a treat, but until that long-awaited collection of film reviews arrives, this will serve to assuage the hungry public. Astute readers here at Counter-Currents will immediately perceive that this is a new, slightly but cunningly revised edition [3] of Magick for Housewives: Essays on Alt-Gurus (Manticore, 2018). Although the title was intended as an homage to Crowley titles like Yoga for Yahoos and Yoga for Yellowbellies, I am told that the publishers found that too many potential buyers were unable to look past the thumbnail online and took it to be a work of “kitchen magic,” which is a new one on me but apparently is a real thing.

I myself miss the perky housewife of the original cover, an icon of American postwar ascendancy who not only alluded to the “ladies who lunch” that filled Neville’s audiences, [3] [4] but also connected it to the author’s End of An Era: Mad Men and the Ordeal of Civility [5] (Counter-Currents, 2017). Arguably the new cover, a moody, misty collage of the subjects, is more appropriate to the contents as a whole.

The subtitle also frees the book from any links to the late, mostly unlamented “alt-right.” Strange as it may seem to our grandchildren — or children — there was a time when anything “hip” was linked to the “alt” phenomenon; sort of like those funny haircuts in old pictures. Potential readers were left asking, along with Steve Bannon:

“But why does a guy who is that sophisticated get hooked up with Richard Spencer? [He’s] a goofball, and you can’t get in business with goofballs like that.” [4] [6]

For the new edition, the contents have been carefully revised, occasional misprints silently corrected, and an index of gurus added for the reader’s convenience.

Since all but the title essay — a synoptic look at the Hermetic tradition from Plotinus to Evola to Neville, demonstrating the author’s easy mastery of the field, which first appeared in Aristokratia IV — appeared in some form here on Counter-Currents, the high level of scholarship and presentation can be taken for granted. But what is the principle of selection for this motley crew, ranging from the infamous Crowley and the underground magic of Evola, to the misunderstood “popularizer” Alan Watts, then to modern chaos magic and Colin Wilson’s Outsider, finally back to the barely remembered midcentury phenomenon who called himself Neville?  As O’Meara explains it,

You can buy James O’Meara’s book The Eldritch Evola here. [7]

51OCsL3ZCNL.jpgIn the wake of the populist revolt against globalist tyranny, and its controversial tribunes like Trump, it’s time for a look at what can now be discerned as an equally new development, on the fringes of Western civilization, among what came to be known as “popular culture,” during the so-called pre- and post-war eras: a new kind of spiritual teacher or “guru,” one more interested in methods, techniques and results than in dogmas, institutions, or — especially — followers.

In the wake of even more recent developments, what O’Meara previously styled “alt-gurus” he now calls “populist gurus.” An equally good term, if we extend our temporal limits back into the 19th century, and acknowledge how geographically American this phenomenon is, [5] [8] might be what Arthur Versluis has dubbed “American gurus,” who espouse what he calls “immediatism.”

[Immediatism is] the assertion of immediate spiritual illumination without much if any preparatory practice within a particular religious tradition. Some call this “instant enlightenment.” [Its] origins precede American Transcendentalism, [6] [9] and whose exemplars include a whole array of historical figures, right up to contemporary New Age exponents. In this line, a figure like Timothy Leary, and other erstwhile psychedelic evangelists, play a significant role because what could be more immediate than the result of taking a pill? [7] [10]

Immediatism is based, in turn, on “an underlying metaphysics” which Versluis calls “primordialism”: “We as human beings have access to blissful awareness that is not subject to temporal or spatial restriction [and] is always present to us.” [8] [11] Since it is always present, it pops up from time to time in history, only to be occulted again by mainstream dogmatism, until rediscovered once more; it endures in time not by institutions but by texts and gurus, [9] [12] and above all by techniques: from Crowley’s convoluted and obscurantist rituals and doctrines to Wilson’s “pencil trick” and, perhaps most archetypally, Neville’s “simple method to change the future”; as Neville says repeatedly, “Go home and try it tonight — prove me wrong!”

So it’s no surprise that immediatism should be so prevalent today, and especially in the United States: in the Kali Yuga, where institutions are in decay, or, as in America, they never really existed.

Immediatism is sort of the Dark Twin of Traditionalism; or rather, seeing it from our Yankee perspective, it’s the Bright Twin. To Traditionalism’s innate pessimism — “You must submit to an orthodox tradition to have even a glimmer of a change, after arduous labor, to achieve enlightenment or even a fully human life; oops, looks there aren’t any around these days, too bad, better luck in the next kalpa” — Emerson, the original American Guru, asks bluntly:

The foregoing generations beheld God and nature face to face; we, through their eyes. Why should not we also enjoy an original relation to the universe? Why should not we have a poetry and philosophy of insight and not of tradition, and a religion by revelation to us, and not the history of theirs? [10] [13] Embosomed for a season in nature, whose floods of life stream around and through us, and invite us by the powers they supply, to action proportioned to nature, why should we grope among the dry bones of the past, or put the living generation into masquerade out of its faded wardrobe? The sun shines to-day also. [11] [14]

This may all seem too airy-fairy, but if you want a practical application, consider, as O’Meara does here, the role played by “meme magick” in the Trump phenomenon; it can also provide the key to understanding Steve Bannon’s surprising and complex relationship with Traditionalism.

Benjamin Teitelbaum, in his War for Eternity: Inside Bannon’s Far-Right Circle of Global Power Brokers, devotes considerable attention to Bannon’s idiosyncratic reading of Guénon and Evola. He never discusses Bannon’s American intellectual heritage, which is a pity, since it would help explain what he calls Bannon’s “horizontal Traditionalism”: rather than bemoaning the confusion of the castes in the modern world, and futilely wishing for a “return of kings” (with oneself, of course, as a king, or at least on the general staff), Bannon tips the hierarchy on its side, and puts his faith in the ordinary working-class Joe Schmoe (Bannon calls them “serfs”) as a perennial source of traditional values to counterbalance the elite’s secular globalism. It’s basically Jeffersonian “natural aristocracy” and a political application of Emerson’s primordialism. [12] [15]

But how does Evola fit in here, with all these mystical Yankee peddlers, these Melvillian confidence men, and lightning-rod salesmen? Was Evola not the proponent of capital-T Tradition with its hierarchies and fatalism?

Indeed; but before he became the darling of alt-rightists seeking “our Marcuse, only better,” before reading a word of Guénon, he was a magician; that is, neither a dogmatic theologian or a materialistic scientist, but an esotericist. That Evola is quoted as the epigraph of the work under review:

One can expect that one day religion, as well as theology itself, will become an experimental science, certainly an upheaval, not lacking interest, that leads us back to a proper view of mystical and traditional esotericism. [13] [16]

This was the “good” Evola. The “bad” Evola arose from what Pierlo Fenili, in an eye-opening article in Politica Romana — “The Errors of Evola” — calls the “wrong choice of traditions;” as Jocelyn Godwin explicates: [14] [17]

Fenili points out that of the four protagonists who were left at the end of the Western Empire in 476, only the Roman Senate and the Eastern Empire had authentic Roman roots. The other two players were the Church, whose origin was in the Near East, and the Germanic peoples of the north, and it was with these enemies of Romanity that Evola chose to align himself.

You can buy James O’Meara’s End of an Era here [5].

51mlLDdbThL._SX322_BO1,204,203,200_.jpgFrom this followed another error, “alienation from the ancestral tradition.” [15] [18] The true Western Tradition was

[Carried] onward by such figures, ignored by Evola [and loathed by Guénon], as. . . Boethius. . . who worked under a Gothic emperor to preserve all he could of Greco-Latin learning; Michael Psellus. . . the Byzantine Platonist; the early Humanists from Petrarch onwards, whom Evola dismisses as merely safeguarding the “decadent forms” of Antiquity; Ficino, who continued Boethius’s project by translating the works of Hermes, Plato, and the Neoplatonists; Pico della Mirandola with his defense of the dignity of man [which Evola] censured for its “rhetorical exaltation of individuality.” 

The choice is not between secular science and “Tradition” in the form of dogmatic religion. [16] [19] The true “Roman” tradition is the one that gave birth to the Renaissance, the Reformation, and the Enlightenment, the bug-bears of both Traditionalists and Neo-Reactionaries. Needless to say, this is the Platonic tradition — pro-science but anti-scientism, pro-spirituality but anti-“churchianity” — to which Emerson and the “American Gurus” belong.

And this is why Evola belongs here; Fenili insists that “the most important part of Evola’s creative oeuvre consist[s] of the works of esoteric, orientalist and philosophic character,” which include The Doctrine of Awakening, The Hermetic Tradition, and The Yoga of Power, which, together with Magic: Rituals and Practical Techniques for the Magus, are the works constantly cited by O’Meara to explicate and justify what he calls “America’s homegrown Hermeticism, native Neoplatonism, and two-fisted Traditionalism” — a more authentic Tradition than anything dreamed up in Guénon’s cork-lined bedroom.

Bringing these figures together illuminates a uniquely American and Modernist phenomenon, excavates a third stream — esotericism — between science and religion, and de-occultates the hidden passage from Evola’s magic to post-Trump populism.

There is another thread of continuity in the studies presented here. Starting from reminiscences of teenage years listening to early Sunday morning radio broadcasts of Alan Watts, through the dense accumulation of names and references, surfacing in the clear, easy mastery of his presentation of Neville as the greatest voice of hermetic tradition in the 20th century, we have here, intended or not, an intellectual biography, a more modest version of Evola’s Path of Cinnabar.

And so we can say, as Teitelbaum says of the Brazilian Traditionalist and populist Olavo de Carvalho:

Thinking in these terms. . . made his ostensible journey seem like no journey at all: his activities since discovering Traditionalism in the 1970s would instead appear variations on a theme rather than a dilettantish succession of gimmicks and reinventions. [17] [20]

Whitman, one of the great voices of American immediatism, comes to mind. “This is no book, cammerade [sic]. Who touches this touches a man. . .”

If you want to support our work, please send us a donation by going to our Entropy page [21] and selecting “send paid chat.” Entropy allows you to donate any amount from $3 and up. All comments will be read and discussed in the next episode of Counter-Currents Radio, which airs every Friday.

Notes

[1] [22] Quoted in Benjamin Teitelbaum, War for Eternity: Inside Bannon’s Far-Right Circle of Global Power Brokers (New York: HarperCollins, 2020), p. 153

[2] [23] “Neville’s Purpose Revealed,” in Let Us Go Into the Silence: The Lectures of Neville Goddard, compiled by David Allen (Kindle, 2016)

[3] [24] Described in the title essay, “Magick for Housewives: The (Not So) New (and Really Rather Traditional) Thought of Neville Goddard.”  Neville, by his own admission, was known as “The Mad Mystic of 48th Street.” The haute bourgeois ladies Tom Wolfe later called “Social X-Rays,” looking for a new thrill, would say to each other: “Oh, do come along and hear him, it’s free and he’s terribly funny!”

[4] [25] Teitelbaum, op. cit., p.267.

[5] [26] Watts were British, but Watts emigrated to the US and gained fame there, while Wilson always felt like an “outsider” in British culture and openly preferred Americans. Neville was from Barbados, emigrated to New York at seventeen, and was given citizenship after being drafted in World War Two. The outlier is Crowley, but he would be an outlier anywhere, and at least spent some time in the US.

[6] [27] Versluis traces it back to Plato, via Emerson: see American Gurus, Chapter 2, “Revivalism, Romanticism, and the Protestant Principle.” Camille Paglia also delineates a “North American Literary Tradition” that originates in the collision of American Puritanism with European Romanticism; see my review “The Native American Nietzsche: Camille Paglia, Frontier Philosopher [28].”

[7] [29] See his interview here [30].

[8] [31] American Gurus: From Transcendentalism to New Age Religion (Oxford, 2014), p 248.

[9] [32] Like Zen, a “special transmission outside the scriptures” – Heinrich Dumoulin, Zen Buddhism: A History. Volume 1: India and China, World (Wisdom Books, 2005), pp. 85-94.

[10] [33] Neville: “Religious progress is a gradual transition from a god of tradition to a God of experience.” (“Control Your Inner Conversations [34],” 4-26-1971.

[11] [35] “Nature” (1844).

[12] [36] “When I was drafted, called, and sent, it was with the command, ‘Down with the bluebloods.’ In other words, down with all church protocol, with anything that would interfere with the individual’s direct access to God. There is only one foundation upon which to build. That foundation is I AM, and there is no other.” Neville, “No Other Foundation [37],” 11-04-1968.

[13] [38] Julius Evola, “The New Spirit Movement”; originally published in Bilychnis, June, 1928.

[14] [39] See Jocelyn Godwin, “Politica Romana Pro and Contra Evola,” in Arthur Versluis, Lee Irwin, and Melinda Phillips (eds.), Esotericism, Religion, and Politics (Minneapolis, MI: New Cultures Press 2012). I don’t read Italian and haven’t read the article itself, so I am relying on Godwin’s presentation.

[15] [40] Guénon, for his part, never even pretended to be “Roman” and in fact despised the Classical world, no doubt a reaction to a typical French education; after years of trying to interest the Catholic Church in his ideas, he eventually converted to Islam. Why rightists think he has anything to contribute to their struggle is a mystery.

[16] [41] Commenting on 1 Corinthians, Robert Price notes that in the “Catholic anti-wisdom section” of Chapter 3 we find “once again, the opposite of [worldly] wisdom is not esotericism but simplicity. The pious attitude is that which regrets the sampling of the knowledge tree in Eden, the erection of the Babel tower. Such a one is happy to mortgage his faith to the Grand Inquisitor.” The Amazing Colossal Apostle: The Search for the Historical Paul (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 2012); compare Evola’s The Hermetic Tradition: Symbols and Teachings of the Royal Art (Rochester, Vt.: Inner Traditions, 1995), especially the “Introduction to Part One: The Tree, the Serpent, and the Titans.”

[17] [42] Teitelbaum, op. cit., p.260.

Article printed from Counter-Currents Publishing: https://www.counter-currents.com

URL to article: https://www.counter-currents.com/2020/05/hes-our-bannon-only-better-from-meme-magick-to-evolian-populism/

jeudi, 07 mai 2020

La Futuwah. La caballería espiritual islámica

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La Futuwah. La caballería espiritual islámica
por el profesor Fernando Soto
 
El término “Futuwah”puede ser entendido como “caballería espiritual”. Podemos comprenderlo entonces como el conjunto de atributos del “fatá”, atributos que están directamente vinculados a su realización espiritual.
 
Fatá es: El joven o adulto, en la plenitud de sus fuerzas, en el mediodía de su existencia, que está dispuesto a ofrecer su vida por ideales superiores, que han sido trazados de antemano por todos los profetas, y muy especialmente por el sello de la profecía, el profeta Muhammad (la paz y las bendiciones sean con él).
 
El término Futuwah empieza a ser utilizado en tierras del Islam, más precisamente en la región de Persia, y estaba asociado a grupos de jóvenes practicantes de artes marciales o ligado a gremios o ciertos oficios relacionados con armas. Esta es la primera forma en la que el término es utilizado, la segunda es una más profunda, y se vincula con círculos sufíes.
 
La importancia de la excelencia del comportamiento en la tradición islámica

71aBtyOvRwL.jpgExiste una idea de elite que es amiga de Allah (swt), la cual para acceder a ese grado, a pasado por sucesivos estadíos, en los cuáles su elevación espiritual es variada. La elite compuesta por obviamente, los profetas, pero también otras categorías como los "Siddiqin" (los verídicos), los "Shuhada" (testigos o mártires) o los "Salihin" (hombres de bien).
 
Existe un Hadiz ligado directamente a la capacidad del hombre de adorar a Dios a través de su comportamiento: "Es adorar a Dios como si Lo vieras, pues aunque no Lo veas, El te ve". Es la Divinidad misma quien afirma en el libro de libros, el Corán, que no ha hecho a los genios y a los hombres, sino para que Lo adoren. Y la excelencia en el comportamiento, es sin duda, la única via de dar testimonio de la creencia.
 
Dentro del sufismo, la idea de nobleza está vinculada no sólo al linaje sanguíneo, sino también a la nobleza que se manifiesta a través del comportamiento humano. Existe un célebre Hadiz del Profeta (saw): "He sido enviado para perfeccionar la nobleza del comportamiento". Es el Arcángel Gabriel quien le dice a Muhammad (saw): "Oh Muhammad, te he traído la perfección del comportamiento [...] consiste en que perdones al que ha sido injusto contigo, que des al que te niega su dádiva, que visites al que se ha desviado de tí, que te apartes del que da pruebas de incomprensión hacia tí, y que practiques el bien con el que actúa contigo por el mal". Es el Profeta el ejemplo de caballero, el modelo a seguir. Sin embargo, también lo es Abraham (Ibrahim) con su fuerza para destruir los ídolos, Moisés cuando le pide a Khidr (as) la posibilidad de ser su discípulo, para ser instruido en el "camino recto".
 
Los sufíes, intérpretes de una concepción profunda de Caballería

Es en Persia, como dijimos anteriormente,y más precisamente en la región del Jorasán,donde surge un sabio llamado Abu Abd Al Rahman Al Sulami. Al Sulami ( 1021) codifica para las generaciones posteriores en su obra "Futuwah" lo que vendría a ser un texto que contiene todas las virtudes, recopiladas través de distintas tradiciones (Hadiz y Corán especialmente) que se remontan al tiempo de los profetas y especialmente a la época del sello de la profecía, Muhammad (saw). En dicha obra hallamos comentarios, consejos y alusiones a otros maestros de la senda espiritual.
 
71hywy7qD3L.jpgIbn Arabi de Murcia, llamado el "Shaykh Al Akbar" (el más grande los maestros), también hizo uso de la tinta para plasmar a través de sus textos sobre Caballería espiritual enseñanzas que provienen de una profunda raíz Abrahámica. En su libro, cada profeta realiza la Futuwah, de un modo que varía, sin embargo, muestran a través de sus actos su amistad con la Divinidad, su proximidad a Allah (swt).
 
Según Hassan Al Basri (728) la Futuwah era una ciencia útil, que se reconocía por sus acciones, no por sus palabras.
 
Yunayd, otro sabio persa (910),dijo que la Futuwah consiste en abolir la visión (del yo, del ego) y romper todos los lazos (que impidan la relación directa con la Divinidad).
 
Respondiendo a Yunayd, Abu Hafs le contestó: "Lo que dices es muy hermoso, pero para mí la Futuwah consiste sobre todo en obrar con rectitud y en no exigir al prójimo que haga otro tanto."
 
Finalmente, para Suhrawardi (1191) la Futuwah es la médula de la Sharia (ley), de la Tariqa (camino) y de la Haqiqa (verdad).
 
Esperamos que este breve escrito sirva para entender un poco más acerca de la vida militar medieval islámica, y que ilumine algo el concepto de "caballero", desde una perspectiva musulmana.
 
Un caballero musulmán tenía un sentido ético y profundamente espiritual de la vida, una vida centrada en Dios, su ley y sus ejemplos a seguir. Eso era virtud caballerezca.

mardi, 05 mai 2020

On Titus Burckhardt's Symbolism of Chess

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On Titus Burckhardt's Symbolism of Chess

Troy Southgate

(ex: Facebook)

AVT_Titus-Burckhardt_3182.jpegIn The Symbolism of Chess, which Titus Burckhardt (1908-1984) had published in the Spring 1969 issue of Studies in Comparative Religion, the Traditionalist School thinker shares with his readers an interesting viewpoint on the relationship between free will and destiny.

As he explains, "At each stage of the game, the player is free to choose between several possibilities, but each movement will entail a series of unavoidable consequences, so that necessity increasingly limits free choice, the end of the game being seen, not as the fruit of hazard, but as the result of rigorous laws." That which appears to be the result of self-determination, therefore, eventually results in a player having to abide by an increasing number of rules. Burckhardt compares the manner in which free will is eventually governed by fate to the relationship between liberty and knowledge, arguing that for a chess player freedom is realised within the possibilities of the game itself: "In other words, freedom of action is here in complete solidarity with foresight and knowledge of the possibilities; contrariwise, blind impulse, however free and spontaneous it may appear at first sight, is revealed in the final outcome as a non-liberty."

Burckhardt went on to suggest that a correct interpretation of the link between liberty and knowledge finds its fulfilment through mankind's self-identification with the divine, and that "Spirit is Truth; through Truth, man is free; outside truth, he is the slave of fate." I believe that we can apply this way of thinking to a political context, too, particularly if you consider how the inhabitants of modern societies may be distinguished by their tendency to abrogate responsibility to the extent that members of a privileged minority can attain empowerment beyond their wildest dreams.

41zjc3UndLL._SX304_BO1,204,203,200_.jpgOnce states and empires began herding the masses beneath a single banner, many of those struggling to adapt to the game of life gradually discovered that the pieces on the chess board had already been set up on their behalf. In Burckhardt's example, a failure to conform with the rules has dire consequences and that also holds true for those who find themselves on the receiving end of the political establishment. The difference between his idea that spiritual liberty is attained by adhering to a primordial framework of truth, something that can be justified within that specific context, the very nature of the political system into which we are formally inducted at birth means that unless we retain the freedom to reject the game altogether our liberty remains non-existent. After all, I am perfectly sure that Burckhardt's competitor will have entered the tournament at his or her own discretion and yet from the very first move becomes subject to the parameters that have been carefully formulated by its architects.

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mercredi, 22 avril 2020

Depoliticize yourself

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Tibet DIKMEN:                                                             

Depoliticize yourself

In these modern times, every fundamental aspect of humanity (and beyond) has been politicized. The politicization of these fundamental assets of life has inevitably caused them to be claimed by different factions racing in the political arena. The stagnation caused by these ‘claims’ has made it impossible to provide concrete solutions to matters, that weren’t even supposed to be matters in the first place. As every subject that is politicized stagnates, important and authentic assets are being deliberately politicized so that their destruction can get carried out quicker : justice, economic freedom, environement and ecology, tradition and religion (from what’s left of it), family and gender, city planning and architecture,etc…

Let us also not forget that, which ever faction that manages to become mainstream, to get ‘democratically elected’ and gain seats, to officially brand itself under terms such as ‘left, centre, right,...’ or that gets any form of attention from the media, is directly or indirectly at the service of the dark side.

Both the right and the left wing belong to the same dragon.

Politics, in its modern concept, is the dragon that Archangel St-Michael is fighting, and is therefore a threat to the prevealing of Life.

Humans are biological creatures and thus, a part of the natural Whole.

Concepts and corrupted virtues that are forced upon us by self-entitled ‘democratical governments’ such as equality, human rights, liberty and more, are in their essence opposite to the natural order of the Universe. This has resulted in a gradual and somehow ‘unconscious’ quantification of the qualitative aspects of our lives.

It is always easier to delete numbers than to delete deep rooted abstract and metaphysical concepts. The destructive nature of democracy can also be seen outside and around us, its corrupt modern virtues are not only a foe for humanity but for the entire living things on this planet. From an objective point of view, humans are the ones who have the least suffered from this decay. However, this illusion is only temporary ; the one who is cutting the branch on which he sits, will only get a sense of his mistakes when he achieves his ultimate goal.

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In order to ‘ride the tiger’ and survive the civilisational and cultural crumble, some of the Traditionalist thinkers defend a ‘passive apolitiea’ stance. This stance rests on the perception that sooner or later, these modern heretics will auto-annihilate themselves by drowning in their own decay. However, even if they have forgotten it, these are biological beings and are directly linked to the whole. Even if cancerous, they are part of the organism. This would mean that when the time of auto-annihilation will come, they will annihilate the earth with themselves. This can be compared to a very modern phenomenon: the suicide bomber dies alongside the bomb that explodes. Taking the lives of those around him, and damaging the environment too. It is unnecessary for me to emphasize the consequences that 7.5 billion unconscious humans will cause on this tired planet. This behaviour is easily predictable and it’s footsteps can even be seen as of today. With the outbreak of this ‘debatable’ pandemia, some individuals have attempted to contaminate people by spitting and licking public infrastructure (A big number of such cases has been recorded in Belgium, USA and China). This may be the result of a failed individualistic mentality : ‘If I die, everyone should die with me.’

In order to prevent this global mental meltdown, an ‘active apolitea’ is necessary.

Idealistic men should leave former rivalry behind and gain consciousness and unity.

All political institutions, concepts, and autorities along with economical establishments should be boycotted. Anything that is a result of modernity should be boycotted, this can range from ditching ones TV from the window to refusing to ride a car. The entire space-time in which we are currently stuck in, should be denied. This will not only result in the individual reconnecting with the infinite but, will also detach the individual from the modern ‘volunteer slave’ mentality and give him the necessary awareness to fight it. Ideals and values connected to the infinite are the only truly effective weapons we can arm ourselves with.

As for societal order, a forced depopulation and degrowth must be enhanced. This will directly and/or indirectly help the planet recover from the deep wounds modern humans have inflicted it with their evergrowing hedonistic desires.

Some parts of the world population facing this ‘forced healing of earth’ will, eventually, gain consciousness of their ‘uselesness’ and will be aware that they take too much space. A big majority of the ‘useless’ will have to sacrifice themselves for the good of the ‘Universe, Nature and Whole’.

Those who are too selfish and/or scared of death, will rush to try to make themselves useful, some will manage to find hidden talents (that were prevented to arise due to a modern lobotomising lifestyle) and some who fail to do so, will have to embrace death. For the ones that meet the natural requirements to stay alive, will have to give back what has been forcefully taken. It is our duty as honorable critters to ask forgiveness and rebuild. But this time, it is not going to be about size or numbers for the Truth does not deal with such reductive concepts.

Humanity must gain awareness of its place in the natural order as soon as possible and (re)gain its decency and humility. Otherwise, doom awaits.

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A planet of waste

Self-destructive hedonism is not as modern as we may think. It has been the result of the « ego » since our dawn. However, the proportion that it has taken in current times is the result of an ‘enlightened ideal’ that the modern world is so proud with : Individualism. Splitting an organism into seperate entities, each thinking that the world revolves around them, and forcefully feeding their ‘ego’ like water-inflated chickens, has resulted in an entire century of degeneration.

This is a very well programmed ‘separatism’ agenda, first separating humanity from the Whole and then from itself. To maintain this unconsciousness  in the long-term, animalistic pulsions have been severly taunted and kept alive in order to boggle the mind. Furthermore neverding empty desires and reductive behaviour have been succesfully advertised with the help of technology. This also proves that technological advancement, which is a result of democratical progress, is also an enemy of existence once it reaches its ultimate goal. Feeding such a big population with such atrocities is not an easy task, a big portion of ‘life’ has therefore been compromised to meet the demand.

Countless industrial sites and mass-production around every corner of the planet are continuously expoliting the planet. (How much can something inside a barcoded plastic package be called food ?). A child expoliting his mother in order to feed his hedonism must be the biggest heresy of our age.

The necessary actions that must be undertaken in order to stop this, as we have stated above, will put an end to this excessive gluttony and over-exploitation. However, an enormous chunk of concrete waste alongside chemical and bio-engineered desolation will remain.

What to do with empty skyscrapers, brutal concrete blocks, uncountable amount of waste and dead bodies ?

mardi, 31 mars 2020

Gueïdar Djemal

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Gueïdar Djemal

par Georges FELTIN-TRACOL

Ex: http://www.europemaxima.com

Cette nouvelle chronique évoque une personnalité publique dite en novlangue « controversée » parce qu’elle représente une déclinaison politique quasi-inconnue en France de l’idée grande-européenne ou, plus exactement, du néo-eurasisme dans le monde post-soviétique.

Gueïdar Djemal naît le 10 juin 1947 à Moscou et meurt à l’âge de 69 ans le 5 décembre 2016 à Almaty au Kazakhstan. Azéri (c’est-à-dire turcophone chiite d’Azerbaïdjan) par son père, il est russe par sa mère. Après d’excellentes études au cours desquelles il apprend avec brio l’allemand, l’anglais et le français, il rejoint à la fin des années 1960 un cercle intellectuel informel moscovite conduit par Evgeny Golovine. Il y découvre l’œuvre de René Guénon et de Julius Evola. Ce cénacle non conformiste surveillé par le KGB qui y voit une association de farfelus asociaux accueille dans les années 1980 un jeune étudiant prometteur et sous peu polyglotte : Alexandre Douguine.

Dans le tumulte de la Pérestroïka, Gueïdar Djemal se distingue par ses positions tranchées. Bien qu’en délicatesse avec le régime communiste, il souhaite le maintien de l’Union Soviétique. Il participe en 1990 à la fondation à Astrakhan du Parti de la Renaissance islamique (PRI) qui s’affiche pan-soviétique. Il en devient le principal conseiller politique. À partir de 1991 – 1992, le PRI – bientôt qualifié de « mouvement terroriste » – participe à la guerre civile au Tadjikistan.

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De retour de la capitale russe, le directeur – fondateur de la revue Nationalisme et République, Michel Schneider, décrit dans le n° 9 de septembre 1992 sa rencontre avec Gueïdar Djemal, un « homme [qui] a la très forte personnalité des génies, ou des fous… […] D’une intelligence hors du commun, cette personnalité douée d’une réelle présence physique est un magnifique comédien, sachant jouer de tous les registres ». Il le perçoit finalement comme « un homme redoutable ».

En effet, membre vite viré du mouvement archéo-nationaliste Pamiat, Gueïdar Djemal qui dirige la revue russophone Tawhid (« Monothéisme ») et Wahdad (« Unité »), l’organe du PRI, veut prolonger les réflexions de Constantin Léontieff. Ce penseur du XIXe siècle prônait face à l’Occident romain-germanique une alliance entre l’islam et l’Orthodoxie, soit les retrouvailles des deux héritiers de Byzance, les Empires russe et ottoman. Gueïdar Djemal est l’un des théoriciens de l’eurislamisme, c’est-à-dire l’activisme en faveur d’un empire paneuropéen de Vladivostok à Dublin islamiste.

Président du Comité islamique de Russie, il entend aussi écarter le soufisme et l’islam saoudien pour mieux rapprocher les dimensions ésotérique du chiisme et géopolitique du sunnisme. En 1992, Gueïdar Djemal se rend ainsi à Khartoum au Soudan à l’invitation du penseur panislamiste Hassan al-Tourabi dans le cadre de la Conférence arabe et islamique populaire. Il influence durablement les oulémas russophones. Il n’est pas anodin que deux cents sages musulmans venus de Russie et des marches de l’ancienne URSS se rassemblent en août 2016 à Grozny à l’invitation du président tchétchène Ramzan Kadyrov. Malgré la pression, les menaces, puis la vive colère de Riyad, cette réunion s’achève par une fatwa qui exclut le wahhabisme de l’islam sunnite.

Gueïdar Djemal prévient en 2013 dans le quotidien Vzgliad : « Ceux qui croient que l’islamisme est un instrument maîtrisé par l’Occident se trompent. L’islam politique mène au contraire une lutte ouverte contre le système politique occidental. La Russie doit comprendre qu’elle n’a pas intérêt à suivre l’Occident sur ce front. » Dans Pour le Front de la Tradition (Ars Magna, 2017), Alexandre Douguine explique dès 1991 que « Tawhid est la revue de l’avant-garde métaphysique islamique fondamentaliste fondée et animée par le grand penseur et métaphysicien de notre époque, Gueïdar Djemal. On y considère l’islam sous la lumière initiatique et géopolitique, eschatologique, raciale, ethnique, économique, scientifique, artistique. C’est un curieux et génial mélange d’avant-garde intellectuelle et de traditionalisme radical (p. 143) ». Il n’hésite cependant pas à intégrer dans sa vision du monde la « lumière du Nord hyperboréenne ». Il est significatif que son premier essai paru en 1981 s’intitule L’Orientation du Nord.

Ce proche de l’ancien philosophe communiste français converti à l’islam Roger Garaudy lance en février 2009 à Iekaterinbourg dans une perspective ouvertement révolutionnaire et contre les nationalistes ethniques « petits »-russes une Union internationale de soutien aux travailleurs migrants. « Ce mouvement va œuvrer pour la défense des couches les plus déshéritées de la société russe, annonce-t-il. Il intègre également la société civile favorable à la renaissance des idées internationalistes. C’est pourquoi aucun critère ethnique, confessionnel ou de citoyenneté n’est requis pour y participer. »

Ces dernières années, il se félicitait que de plus en plus de Russes d’origine slave se convertissent à l’islam. Dans le journal national-patriotique Zavtra du 12 mars 2002, cet ennemi juré de l’OTAN affirmait que « l’union avec près d’un milliard d’hommes, formant aujourd’hui un front d’opposition à l’hégémonisme américain se révèle nécessaire, sinon la Russie n’est tout simplement pas capable de survivre en tant que sujet de la grande Histoire ». Pour lui, la conversion de la Russie – déjà membre observateur à l’Organisation de la coopération islamique – à la foi mahométane lui permettra « d’enrayer son processus de décadence nationale provoqué par l’Occident ». Un temps conseiller politique du général Alexandre Lebed (14,73 % à la présidentielle de 1996), il sert d’intermédiaire entre les autorités russes et les indépendantistes tchétchènes, et permet la fin de la première guerre de Tchétchénie.

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Auteur de sept ouvrages dont un recueil de poèmes, Une fenêtre sur la nuit, et en 2003, La révolution des prophètes, Gueïdar Djemal confirmait encore à Michel Schneider que « la lutte en cours n’oppose pas tant l’ethnoparticularisme à l’universalisme musulman que deux types antinomiques de mondialisme : le mondialisme américain horizontal et le mondialisme islamique, sacral et vertical. En réalité, le mondialisme américain domine avec succès les ethnoparticularismes qui, en fin de compte, se mettent à le servir et se transforment en éléments fonctionnels de ses stratagèmes ». Il classera plus tard les forces politiques du monde moderne en trois groupes antagonistes : les libéraux, les traditionalistes et les radicaux.

Gueïdar Djemal demeura toujours fidèle à sa conception d’une puissance islamo-orthodoxe russo-soviétique alliée au tiers monde musulman. Il désapprouva par exemple l’intervention militaire française au Sahel et invita son gouvernement à s’implanter durablement en « Françafrique ». Son fils, Orkhan Djemal, fait d’ailleurs partie des trois journalistes russes assassinés en République centrafricaine en juillet 2018.

Gueïdar Djemal restera un personnage paradoxal. Ce traditionaliste convaincu combattait le « monothéisme de marché » au nom d’un autre monothéisme tout aussi dangereux. Preuve supplémentaire que le cosmopolitisme se manifeste sous bien des aspects.

Georges Feltin-Tracol

• Chronique n° 33, « Les grandes figures identitaires européennes », lue le 25 février 2020 à Radio-Courtoisie au « Libre-Journal des Européens » de Thomas Ferrier.

vendredi, 27 mars 2020

Evola and Italian Philosophy, 1925–49: Three Biographical and Bibliographical Essays

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Evola and Italian Philosophy, 1925–49: Three Biographical and Bibliographical Essays

by Gianfranco de Turris, Stefano Arcella & Alessandro Barbera

Translation by Fergus Cullen

The following essays all appeared in Vouloir 119–121 (1996), the supplement to the revue Orientations, edited by Robert Steuckers. They centre on Julius Evola’s relations with the two major figures of Italian philosophy in the interwar period.

In “Evola, ultime tabou?” (pp. 1–3), Gianfranco de Turris asks if the rehabilitation enjoyed by such philosophers as Giovanni Gentile, previously denounced as Fascist, might be afforded to Evola. He briefly sketches the case in his favour: unlike the marginal crank of post-War imagination, Evola seems to have maintained relations with such figures of the first rank as Gentile and Benedetto Croce. In “Gentile/Evola: une liaison ami/ennemi…” (pp. 3–5) Stefano Arcella examines Evola’s fertile collaboration with Gentile and Ugo Spirito on the Enciclopedia Italiana. And in “Quand Benedetto Croce ‘sponsorisait’ Evola” (pp. 5–7) Alessandro Barbera investigates the Croce connection, looking in some detail at the correspondence between Evola, Croce, and the publisher Laterza.

French originals:

1—http://www.archiveseroe.eu/evola-a48672110

2—http://www.archiveseroe.eu/gentile-a126198308

3—http://www.archiveseroe.eu/croce-a126196870

PDF of this translation:

https://www.academia.edu/42191919/Evola_and_Italian_Philo...

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Gianfranco de Turris

Evola: the Last taboo?

by Gianfranco de Turris

gdtlivre.jpgWe will surely remember 1994 better than 1984, which Orwell immortalised by writing his celebrated apocalyptic book predicting an ultra-totalitarian world in which we all would have been irredeemably crushed. We will not remember it solely for the political event of 27 March in Italy, but above all for the consequences that this “reversal” might (I insist on the conditional!) have in the cultural sphere. Whatever one may thing of the victory of Berlusconi and his allies, it has already had a first result: the organisation of a colloquium dedicated to the personality of Giovanni Gentile; it was held in Rome on 20 and 21 May 1994 on the initiative of the leftist municipal council (which does honour to the Italian left, as does the other colloquium it dedicated to Nietzsche). We remember he whom we always defined as the “philosopher of Fascism,” fifty years after his death, when he was assassinated by a commando of communist partisans in Florence on 15 April 1944. After having beaten a long and sinuous intellectual course, many post-Marxist philosophers, such as Colletti, Marramao and Cacciari, claimed him for an authentic figure of the left, at least in a decent part of his work.

So Gentile recovers all his dignity for the “official” culture in Italy: of course, this concerns first of all Gentile the philosopher, and not the man and political militant. All the same, his rehabilitation as a philosopher marks a step forward in the liberation of spirits. So the last taboo for Italian intellectuals remains Julius Evola, as Pierluigi Battista nicely put it in the columns of Tuttolibri. Now, this year we also commemorate the twentieth anniversary of Evola’s death (11 June 1974). For Gentile, Italian official culture has at last come to accept, after a half-century and only some years before the year 2000, the position and importance of the “actualist” and Fascist philosopher. For Evola, on the contrary, a silence is always held, even is, imperceptibly, one feels that something is in the process of changing.

Luciferian Dilettante

Evola, in official culture, is thrown from one extreme to the other: on the one hand, he’s a demon, the Devil, an almost Luciferian personage, an ultra-racist to whom salvation is never to be granted; on the other, he’s culture’s sock-puppet, the inexact dilettante, unscientific and superficial, a clown of esotericism, “il Divino Otelma.” In interesting ourselves in him, we then risk toppling into the laughable, unless a more authorised voice begins to speak of him.

So there is still much work to be done on Evola, whether it be as a thinker of multiple interests, as an organiser of colloquia and promoter of intellectual initiatives between the Wars, as a man of culture and innumerable contacts, who received many suggestions from his contemporaries and gave in his turn.

During the twenty years that have passed since his death, few things have been done on his work and person in Italy; and these were the work of a small number of those who had always referred to Evola. We’ve found neither the time nor the manpower. It’s a bitter truth; but it’s so. It suffices to consider archival research: to reconstitute the facts and ideas, to fill in the “voids” in the life and in the evolution of Evolian thought, we need the documents; and these are still not all archived. The documents exist: it suffices to go and search where one thinks they might be found…

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For example, we don’t have access to the complete documentation on the relations between Evola and the Italian philosophical world of the ’20s and ’30s: Croce, Gentile, Spirito, Tilgher… We only finally know what Evola recounts of himself in his “spiritual autobiography,” The Path of Cinnabar. Ultimately, we know what we can deduce of his positions on diverse philosophical systems and on what we surmise intuitively. In general, we only know the views and opinions on Evola of the historians and academics who have especially studied that period of Italian culture: and they say that Evola was an isolated, marginal figure; that his ideas were not taken into consideration; that he was a singular, if not folkloric, figure. But do these opinions really correspond to reality?

We believe that we can today affirm that things were not so simple: that Evola was more relevant in his epoch than we’ve believed him to be. And we affirm this on the basis of a series of indications, hidden until today. The Roman weekly L’Italia settimanale is cataloguing these indications for the first time in a special supplement, in the hope of provoking debate and research.

Sponsored by Croce?

Evola maintained far more complex relations with Croce and Gentile that we’ve believed for many decades. Can we imagine an Evola “sponsored” by Croce? An Evola, collaborator with the Enciclopedia Italiana, patronised by the Mussolinian regime and directed by Gentile? An Evola close to Adriano Tilgher? An Evola in direct contact with Ugo Spirito? We can now divine that these relations were pursued more than we imagined them; but we have neither formal proofs nor the documents that definitively attest to them. The “isolated figure” was not, ultimately, isolated; the marginalised personage, as well, was not marginalised as we wished to say; the intellectual who, under Fascism, had amounted to not much, or missed out on everything, had been, ultimately, of more impact that we’d thought him. I think that we must seek out and recognise our fault: that of not having contemplated this sooner, and having given a truncated picture of Evola; with a complete vision of Evolian words and deeds, we may be able to refute many commonplaces. This won’t be possible unless the Croce Archives at Naples and the Gentile Foundation at Rome agree to let us consult the documents they hold and that concern the relations of Croce and Gentile with Evola.

Better late than never. The future will tell, after our work is done, whether Evola will always be, for progressivist culture, a taboo, will be the Devil, a clown…

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Stefano Arcella

Gentile and Evola: Friends and Enemies

by Stefano Arcella

The relations between Evola and Gentile have always been seen from the perspective of conflict, from the perspective of profound differences between the respective philosophical orientations of the two men. Evola, in his speculative period (1923–7), elaborated a conception of the absolute individual, representing a decisive overcoming of idealist philosophy in all its multiple formulations—notably those of Croce’s idealism and Gentile’s actualism. Evola, in reaching the end of his speculations, already approached the threshold of tradition, understood and perceived as openness to transcendence, and towards esotericism (as an experimental method for the knowledge and realisation of the self). His speculative period had thus been a necessary step on his path towards Tradition.

For all that, in the history of the relations between these two thinkers, there is an element that has remained utterly unknown before now: if we make ourselves aware of it, we acquire a clearer, more direct and more complete vision of the bond that united these two men—enemies to all appearances. This element is the correspondence between Evola and Gentile, which we can now consule, thanks to the courtesy the Fondazione Gentile has shown. This correspondence dates to the years 1927–9, to the time during which Evola directed the revue Ur, a publication aimed at working out a science of the Self, and which was subsequently titled a “revue of esoteric science.”

It was at this time that Gentile, with his collaborators, prepared a work of great scientific importance: the Enciclopedia Italiana, of which he was the first director. The first volume of this gargantuan work, commissioned by the Mussolinian regime, was produced in 1929. The following tomes appeared quarterly.

The most significant letter, at least from an historico-cultural perspective, is that sent by Evola to Gentile on 2 May 1928 (the year in which Imperialismo pagano was published). This letter is on paper with the letterhead of the revue Ur; it thanks Gentile heartily for having acted upon his wish to collaborate on the Enciclopedia Italiana; and Evola, in what follows, makes reference to his friend Ugo Spirito regarding the areas that might fall within his expertise.

This collaboration is confirmed in a letter of 17 May 1929, in which Evola reminds Gentile that the latter entrusted the writing of certain entries to Ugo Spirito, who in turn entrusted them to him. In this letter, Evola doesn’t specify precisely which entries are concerned, which makes our researches more difficult. Currently, we have identified with only one entry with certitude, relating to the term “Atanor,” signed with the initials “G.E.” (Giulio Evola).

These points can be verified in the volume Enciclopedia Italiana: Come e da chi è stata fatta, published under the auspices of the Istituto dell’Enciclopedia Italiana in Milan in 1947. Evola is mentioned in the list of collaborators (Evola, Giulio, p. 182); and also mentioned are the initials which he used to sign the entries of his expertise (G. Ev.), as well as the specialism in which his expertise was incorporated: “occultism.” This term designates the specialisation of the Traditionalist thinker, and not an entry in the Encyclopaedia. Furthermore, the citations, which this little introductory volume indicates beside the matter treated, suggest the volume on which Evola collaborated especially: it was vol. V, published in 1930, whose first entry was “Assi,” and last “Balso.”

Currently, we seek to identify precisely the notes prepared by Evola himself for this volume. We account for the fact that a good number of entries weren’t signed, and that the preparatory material for the Encyclopaedia must constantly be recategorised and put in order under the auspices of the Archivio Storico dell’Enciclopedia Italiana, because these masses of documents were dispersed in the course of the Second World War. Indeed, one part of the documentation had been transferred to Bergamo under the Social Republic.

Another element lets us verify Evola’s participation in this work of broad scope: Ugo Spirito mentions the name Evola in a text of 1947 among the writers of the Encyclopaedia in the domains of philosophy, economy and law. Identical indications are found in vol. V of 1930.

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On the basis of his data, further considerations are in order. The fact that Evola wrote to Gentile on paper with the Ur letterhead, on 2 May 1928, is not random.

Evola was not a man who acted at random, above all when he might be put in contact with a philosopher of Gentile’s standing, a figure of the first rank in the Italian cultural landscape of the era. Evola then didn’t present himself to the theoretician of actualism in a personal capacity, but as the representative of a cultural thread which found its expression in Ur, the revue of which he was the director. Evola hereby attempted to formalise esoteric studies and sciences within the bounds of the dominant culture, at the historical moment at which Mussolinian Fascism triumphed. This purpose is divined immediately when one knows that the discipline attributed especially to Evola in the Encyclopaedia was “occultism.”

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Giovanni Gentile

Gentile then accepts Evola’s collaboration, which represents, in fact, an avowed recognition of the qualifications of the theoretician of the absolute individual, as well as an indication of the attention given by Gentile to the themes treated in Ur, beyond the convictions that oppose one man to the other, and the irreducible differences of a philosophical order that separate them. Evola’s collaboration on the Encyclopaedia directed by Gentile proves that the latter counted him among the first rank of scientific minds, the cultural prestige of which was incontestable in the Italy of that epoch. From these epistolary exchanges between Evola and Gentile, we can deduce, today, a lesson which the two philosophers bequeath us in concert: they both show themselves capable of harmoniously integrating coherences to which they are strangers—coherences which contradict their own principles—which attests to an openness of spirit and a propensity for dialogue; to fertile confrontation and to collaboration, even and above all with those who express a marked otherness in character and ideas. Coherence is a positive force: it is not the rigidity of him who shuts himself up in sterile isolation. A fair play upon which it suits to meditate at this moment, at which some shout their heads off for a new inquisition.

For fifty years, we have witnessed an uncritical, misguided and unfounded demonization of our two thinkers; we’ve observed a gulf of incomprehension, of barriers which, happily, we might begin to break today, in view of the processes of transformation at work in the world of culture. All the same, the degradation of cultural debate in the aftermath of anti-fascism or party spirit is an unhappy reality of our era. To reverse the trend, it suits to return the spotlight on these bonds between Evola and Gentile—between two philosophers belonging to entirely different and opposite schools—in order to launch a debate at the Italian national level; to re-examine the roots of our recent history; to recuperate what has been unjustly stifled since 1945 and scrubbed from our consciousness in a burning fever of damnatio memoriae.

In conclusion, besides the path that the consultation of the Laterza archives offers us to explore the relations between Croce and Evola, we would also like to consult the letters of Croce; but alas, the Croce Archives have told us in so many words that “those letters are not consultable.” These are politics diametrically opposed to those practiced by the Fondazione Gentile, which itself permits one to consult, without difficulty, the letters of which I’ve informed you.

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Alessandro Barbero

When Benedetto Croce “Sponsored” Evola

by Alessandro Barbero

Julius Evola and Benedetto Croce. In appearance, these two thinkers are very distant from one another. That said, for a certain period of their coexistence, they were in contact. And it wasn’t an ephemeral episode, but a link of long standing, lasting for almost a decade, from 1925 to 1933. To be more precise, we should say that Croce, in this relation, played the part of “protector,” and Evola the role of “protégé.” This relation began when Evola entered the prestigious Areopagus of authors at the publisher Laterza of Bari.

In the ’30s, Evola published many works with Laterza, which have been reissued post-War. Now, today, we still don’t know the details of these links within the publisher. In fact, two researchers, Daniela Coli and Marco Rossi, have already furnished us in the past with intelligence on the triangular relation between Evola, Croce and the publisher Laterza. Daniela Coli approached the question in a work published ten years ago with Il Mulino (Croce, Laterza e la cultura europea, 1983). Marco Rossi, for his part, raised the question in a series of articles dedicated to the cultural itinerary of Julius Evola in the ’30s, and published in Renzo de Felice’s review Storia contemporanea (6, December 1991). In his autobiography, The Cinnabar Path (Scheiwiller, 1963), Evola evokes the relations he maintained with Croce, but tells us very little, ultimately: far less, in any case, than we can divine today. Evola wrote that Croce, in a letter, did him the honour of appraising one of his books: “Well ordered, and underpinned by reasoning quite exact.” And Evola adds that he knew Croce well, personally. The inquest leads us straight to the archives of the publishers at Bari, currently deposited at the State archives of that town, which might consent to furnish us with far more detailed indications as to the relations having united these two men.

The first of Evola’s letters that we find in Laterza’s house archives isn’t dated, but must trace to the end of June 1925. In this missive, the Traditionalist thinker replies to a preceding negative response, and pleads for the publication of his Teoria dell’individuo assoluto. He writes:

It is assuredly not a happy situation in which I find myself, I, the author, obliged to insist and to struggle for your attention on the serious character and interest of this work: I believe that the recommendation of Mr. Croce is a sufficient guarantee to prove it.

Theory of the Absolute Individual

The liberal philosopher’s interest is also confirmed in a letter addressed by Laterza to Giovanni Preziosi, send on 4 June of the same year. The publisher writes: “I have had on my desk for more than twenty hours the notes that Mr. Croce sent me concerning J. Evola’s book, Teoria dell’individuo assoluto; and he recommends its publication.” In fact, Croce visited Bari around 15 May; and it was on this occasion that he transmitted his notes to Giovanni Laterza. But the book was published by Bocca in 1927. That was the first intervention, of a long series, by the philosopher in Evola’s favour.

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Some years later, Evola returned to knock at the door of the Bari publisher, in order to promote another of his works. In a letter sent on 23 July 1928, the Traditionalist proposed to Laterza the publication of a work on alchemical Hermeticism. On this occasion, he reminded Laterza of the Croce’s intercession on behalf of his work of a philosophical nature. This time once more, Laterza responded in the negative. Two years passed before Evola reoffered the book, having on this occasion obtained, for the second time, Croce’s support. On 13 May 1930, Evola wrote: “Senator Benedetto Croce communicated to me that you do not envisage, in principle, the possibility of publishing one of my works on the Hermetic tradition in your collection of esoteric works.” But this time, Laterza accepted Evola’s request without opposition. In the correspondence of that era between Croce and Laterza that one finds in the archives, there are no references to this book of Evola’s. This is why we may suppose that they had spoken of it in person at Croce’s house in Naples, where Giovanni Laterza has in fact stayed some days previous. In conclusion, five years after his first intervention, Croce succeeded finally in getting Evola into Laterza’s catalogue.

The third expression of interest on the part of Croce probably originated in Naples, and concerns the reedition of Cesare della Riviera’s book, Il mondo magico degli Heroi. Of the dialogues relative to this reedition, we find a first letter of 20 January 1932, in which Laterza complains to Evola of having failed to find notes on this book. A day later, Evola responds and asks that he be procured a copy of the original second edition, that he might cast an eye over it. Meanwhile, on 23 January, Croce wrote to Laterza:

I have seen in the shelves of the Biblioteca Nazionale that book of Riviera’s on magic; it’s a lovely example of what I believe to be the first edition of Mantova, 1603. It must be reissued, with dedication and preface.

The book ended up being published with a preface by Evola and his modernised transcription. A reading of the correspondence permits us to admit the following hypothesis: Croce had suggested to Laterza to entrust this work to Evola. The latter, in a letter to Laterza dated 11 February, gave his view and judged that “the thing was more boring that I’d thought it would be.”

The Anthology of Bachofen’s Writings

The fourth attempt, which was not welcomed, concerned a translation of selected writings by Bachofen. In a letter of 7 April 1933, to Laterza, Evola wrote:

With Senator Croce, we once mentioned the interest which might receive a translation of passages selected from Bachofen, a philosopher of myth much in vogue today in Germany. If this thing interests you (it might eventually join the “Modern Culture” series), I can tell you what it concerns, taking into account the opinion of Senator Croce.

In fact, Croce was preoccupied by Bachofen’s theses, as a series of articles from 1923 demonstrates. On 12 April, Laterza consults the philosopher: “Evola wrote me that you had spoken of a volume that would compile passages selected from Bachofen. Is it a project that we ought to take into consideration?” In Croce’s response, dated the following day, there is no reference to this project; but we ought to account for one fact: the letter has not been conserved in its original form.

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Benedetto Croce

Evola, in any case, had not rejected the idea of producing this anthology of Bachofen’s writings. In a letter of 2 May, he announces that he proposes “to write to Senator Croce, that he might remind him of to what he had alluded” in a conversation between the two. In a second letter, dated to 23, Evola asked of Laterza if he in turn had asked the opinion of Croce, while confirming that he’d written to the philosopher. Two days later, Laterza declares not “to have asked Croce for his opinion” regarding the translation, because, he adds, “he fears lest he approve of it.” This is clearly a deceit. In fact, Laterza had asked the opinion of Croce; but we still don’t know what this opinion was, nor what had been decided. The anthology of selected writings of Bachofen was finally produced, many years later, in 1949, by Bocca. From 1933, the links between Evola and Croce seem to come to an end, at least from what the Laterza house archives permit us to include.

To find the trace of a reconciliation, we must refer ourselves to the post-War period, when Croce and Evola almost met once more in the world of publishing, but without the Traditionalist thinker noticing. In 1948, on 10 December, Evola proposed to Franco Laterza, who had just succeeded his father, to publish a translation of a book by Robert Reininger, Nietzsche e il senso de la vita. After having received the text, on 17 February, Laterza wrote to Alda Croce, the daughter of the philosopher: “I enclose to you a manuscript on Nietzsche, translated by Evola. It seems to me a good work; might you see if we can include it in the ‘Library of Modern Culture’?” On 27 of the same month, the philosopher responds. Croce considers that the operation might be possible; but he provides a few reservations all the same. He postpones his decision till Alda’s return, who was a few days in Palermo. The final decision was taken in Naples, around the 23 March 1949, in the presence of Franco Laterza. The opinion of Croce is negative, seemingly under the influence of his daughter Alda. On 1 April, Laterza confirms to Evola that “the book was much appreciated [without specifying by whom] on account of its quality,” but that, for reasons of “expediency,” it had been decided not to publish it. The translation appeared much later, in 1971, with Volpe.

This refusal to publish puzzled Evola, who didn’t know the real whys and wherefores. A year later, in some letters, returning the issue to the table, Evola raised the hypothesis of a “purge.” This insinuation irritated Laterza. Following this controversy, relations between the writer and the publisher cooled. In the final analysis, we can conclude that Evola was introduced to Laterza thanks to Croce’s interest in him. He left on account of a negative opinion offered by Alda, Croce’s daughter, on one of his proposals.

mardi, 24 mars 2020

Interview de Monsieur K à l'occasion de la réédition de "Révolte contre le monde moderne" de Julius Evola

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Interview de Monsieur K

à l'occasion de la réédition de "Révolte contre le monde moderne" de Julius Evola

 
L’équipe d’E&R Lille recevait Monsieur K le 21 décembre 2019 pour une présentation du livre de Julius EVOLA « RÉVOLTE CONTRE LE MONDE MODERNE », et a profité de sa présence pour lui poser quelques questions diverses et variées.