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vendredi, 02 septembre 2011

Aux sources de l'islamisme allemand contemporain

Wolfgang KAUFMANN:

Aux sources de l’islamisme allemand contemporain

 

L’islamisme allemand contemporain trouve ses racines chez les volontaires musulmans levés contre l’URSS de Staline

 

Depuis un discours controversé du Président fédéral Wulff, on discute de plus en plus intensément en Allemagne pour savoir si l’islam est propre à ce pays ou non. Les débatteurs ne sont à l’unisson que sur un point: l’islam est désormais présent en terre germanique. La même remarque vaut pour l’islamisme. Ce qui conduit tout naturellement à la question: comment l’islamisme est-il arrivé en Allemagne?

 

Vu l’immigration de plusieurs millions de Turcs musulmans, on peut supposer que l’islamisme présent aujourd’hui en terre allemande provient de cette vague migratoire. Toutefois, on doit bien constater que l’infiltration initiale d’un islamisme en Allemagne n’est pas un effet de l’immigration, après 1945, de travailleurs de confession musulmane. Deux livres publiés récemment le démontrent:

Stefan MEINING,

Eine Moschee in Deutschland. Nazis, Geheimdienste und der Aufstieg des politischen Islam im Westen, Verlag C. H. Beck, München, 2011, 316 pages, 19,95 euro.

 

&

 

Ian JOHNSON,

Die vierte Moschee. Nazis, CIA und der islamische Fundamentalismus, Verlag Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart, 2011, 360 pages, 22,95 euro.

 

Ces deux livres sont parus quasi simultanément, leurs titres se ressemblent fort et leurs couvertures également: ce qui pourrait faire penser à une action concertée. Cependant, à la lecture, on s’aperçoit quand même qu’il s’agit d’un hasard.

 

Les deux ouvrages décrivent le même phénomène. Stefan Meining, rédacteur du magazine politque “Report München”, dépendant de l’ARD, se concentre sur la responsabilité des services allemands dans l’émergence de l’islamisme, tandis que Ian Johnson, Prix Pulitzer, met surtout l’accent sur celle des services secrets américains. La lecture de ces deux ouvrages nous donne une belle image d’ensemble et nous permet de constater, en plus, que l’islamophilie peut prendre de multiples visages. La direction nationale-socialiste —rien moins!— fut la première a faire venir délibérément en Allemagne des représentants de la haute hiérarchie de l’islam politique, à commencer par Hadj Mohammed Amin al-Husseini, Grand Mufti de Jérusalem et chef religieux de la communauté musulmane de Palestine. Le motif de cette démarche se trouve dans la ferme résolution de Hitler lui-même, de son Ministre des affaires de l’Est Alfred Rosenberg, ainsi que des chefs de la Wehrmacht et de la Waffen-SS, d’utiliser et d’engager l’islam comme arme secrète contre l’URSS. Dans le cadre de cette politique, plusieurs centaines de milliers de musulmans du Caucase et d’Asie centrale ont été, jusqu’en 1945, enrôlés dans des unités de volontaires comme la “Division SS musulmane Nouveau Turkestan”. Ces unités avaient tout naturellement beoin d’un accompagnement politique et religieux.

 

La plupart de ces légionnaires musulmans, qui ont eu la chance, après la défaite de l’Allemagne, de ne pas avoir été rapatriés de force et d’avoir ainsi échapper à la mort par fusillade, se sont installés à Munich et ses environs. Parmi eux: quelques imams qui avaient auparavant servi dans les unités de la Wehrmacht ou de la Waffen-SS. Trois cents de ces “oubliés” fondèrent en 1953 la “Religiöse Gemeinschaft Islam” (“Communauté religieuse islamique”). Dès ce moment, le jeu a repris car le gouvernement fédéral allemand avait, lui aussi, l’intention d’utiliser à son profit les émigrants de confession musulmane. L’acteur principal de cette politique, côté allemand, fut le “Ministère fédéral des expulsés, réfugiés et victimes de la guerre”. A cette époque-là, ce ministère était placé sous la houlette de Theodor Oberländer (membre du parti “Gesamtdeutscher Block”/”Bund der Heimatvertriebenen und Entrechten” – “Bloc pour toute l’Allemagne”/”Ligue des Expulsés et Spoliés”). Pendant la guerre, Oberländer avait été le commandeur d’une unité spéciale de la Wehrmacht, la “Bergmann”, au sein de laquelle servaient d’assez nombreux volontaires musulmans venus du Caucase. L’objectif d’Oberländer était d’utiliser la “Religiöse Gemeinschaft Islam” pour faire éclater l’Union Soviétique en provoquant une révolte généralisée des peuples non russes, ce qui aurait entraîné, comme effet second, la réunification de l’Allemagne dans les frontières de 1937. C’est la raison pour laquelle, par l’entremise d’Oberländer, l’association musulmane de Munich a reçu le soutien financier du gouvernement fédéral allemand.

 

L’islam politique a été une arme pendant la Guerre Froide

 

Parallèlement aux tentatives ouest-allemandes d’enrôler l’association musulmane de Bavière, la CIA, et son organisation satellite, l’AMCOMLIB (“American Committee for Liberation from Bolshevism”) commencent, elles aussi, à s’intéresser aux exilés ex-soviétiques et musulmans de Munich et de sa grande banlieue. Or les Américains paient beaucoup mieux que les Allemands: les membres de la “Communauté Religieuse Musulmane”, fixés à Munich, vont progressivement se faire recruter pour agir dans le cadre de la guerre psychologique menée par les Etats-Unis. Ils vont commencer par une collaboration au micro de “Radio Liberty” où ils vitupèreront contre la politique soviétique à l’égard des nationalités et de la religion islamique. L’islam politique allemand s’est donc transformé en un instrument américain dans la Guerre Froide, chargé de “tordre le cou” au communisme athée, avec, pour corollaire, d’amener à une révision générale des conséquences de la seconde guerre mondiale.

 

Les ex-légionnaires anti-soviétiques, qui se laisseront embrigader dans les services allemands ou américains, ne se présenteront pas, à l’époque, comme des fondamentalistes musulmans, à l’instar de ceux que nous connaissons aujourd’hui: ces anciens soldats de la Wehrmacht ou de la Waffen-SS s’étaient assimilés au mode de vie allemand; ils aimaient boire de l’alcool et se livrer à de joyeuses libations; leurs femmes et leurs filles ignoraient délibérément les prescriptions vestimentaires islamiques; toutes les autres consignes religieuses n’étaient pas davantage prises au pied de la lettre. Chose curieuse et digne d’être rappelée: c’est justement cette liberté par rapport aux prescrits rigoureux de la religion musulmane qui va provoquer une mutation décisive de la situation. Elle a eu lieu à l’occasion de la première “conférence islamique d’Allemagne”, tenue le 26 décembre 1958 dans la salle paroissiale catholique Saint-Paul à Munich.

 

Lors de cette manifestation, pour la première fois, des étudiants très croyants et très rigoristes, venus des pays arabes, rencontrent les émigrés issus des régions islamisées de l’URSS. Au départ, il n’y a pas de confrontation directe entre les deux groupes: tous s’accordent pour que soit réalisé un premier objectif, celui de construire un lieu central de prière à Munich. Pour y parvenir, ils créent au début du mois de mars de l’année 1960, une “Commission pour la Construction de la Mosquée”. Le directeur de cette commission, que les participants ont élu, n’était pas un ancien légionnaire issu du Turkestan ou du Caucase mais l’Egyptien Said Ramadan, figure de proue du mouvement des “Frères musulmans” qui était aussi, à l’époque, secrétaire général du “Congrès islamique mondial”. La raison principale qui a justifié l’élection de Said Ramadan fut qu’on espérait qu’il ramènerait des subsides en provenance des pays arabes pour la construction de l’édifice religieux. C’est ce qu’il fit. Mais, simultanément, il entama une campagne de dénigrement des anciens légionnaires des armées allemandes, parce que leur mode de vie n’était plus “pur”, ce qui conduisit à leur marginalisation totale.

 

Au bout de ce processus d’éviction, qui se situe en mars 1962, les protagonistes arabes d’une interprétation pseudo-traditionaliste et rigide de l’islam ont pris le contrôle de la Commission, qui, quelques mois plus tard, allait se dénommer “Islamische Gemeinschaft in Süddeutschland” (“Communauté Islamique d’Allemagne du Sud”). Depuis le 4 décembre 1982, elle s’appelle, en bout de course, “Islamische Gemeinschaft in Deutschland”. Depuis lors, l’organisation établie à Munich a servi de plaque tournante à un réseau islamiste qui n’a cessé de croître à la manière d’un rhizome sur tout le territoire de la République fédérale, sans que les autorités allemandes ne s’en alarment outre mesure.

 

Celles-ci n’ont montré de l’intérêt pour ce réseau qu’à partir du 11 septembre 2001, lorsque le troisième président en fonction, le Syrien Ghaleb Himmat, fut soupçonné de terrorisme: d’après les renseignements fournis par le “Financial Crimes Enforcement Network”, une instance dépendant du Ministère américain des finances, il aurait fonctionné comme fournisseur de fonds pour al-Qaïda.

 

Wolfgang KAUFMANN.

(article paru dans “Junge Freiheit”, Berlin, n°35/2011; http://www.jungefreiheit.de ).

 

jeudi, 01 septembre 2011

La légende de Friedrich Hielscher

 

Hielscher.jpg

La légende de Friedrich Hielscher

Dr. Peter BAHN

La fondation d’une “Église” panenthéiste au XXe siècle et ses fausses interprétations ultérieures

Pendant des décennies, la vie et l’œuvre de l’auteur, philosophe religieux et érudit, le Dr. Friedrich Hielscher (1902-1990) a donné lieu à toutes sortes de fausses interprétations spéculatives. Cela est particulièrement vrai avec le genre de littérature “ésotérique” populaire, dans laquelle Hielscher a sans cesse été le sujet des plus folles spéculations et assertions. Au début des années 60, une “légende Hielscher” extrêmement négative était déjà née, à laquelle des embellissements encore plus hardis ont été régulièrement ajoutés jusqu’à aujourd’hui. Cette légende est, cependant, pratiquement à des années-lumière des véritables actions et intentions de Hielscher, et est dépourvue de toute référence à la réalité.

Pour pouvoir aller au fond de ces spéculations, et pour déterminer leurs sources d’origine, il est d’abord nécessaire d’examiner le cours de la vie de Hielscher. Concernant les années jusqu’en 1954, cela peut être assuré avant tout au moyen de son autobiographie (1). Concernant la période de temps ultérieure, il existe — dans la littérature, du moins — seulement des morceaux fragmentaires et dispersés d’information dont l’accès est difficile (2). Par contre, les archives existantes relatives à Hielscher sont beaucoup plus riches, en particulier sa production littéraire (3) et sa correspondance avec Ernst Jünger, qui dura de 1926 à 1986 (4).

Fils d’un marchand de textiles, Friedrich Hielscher était né le 31 mai 1902 à Plauen, dans le Vogtland, et grandit à Guben, en Niedersaulitz. À l’âge de 17 ans, il sortit diplômé du Lycée Humaniste de Plauen. Immédiatement après ses examens finaux, il rejoignit une unité des Corps Francs qui prit part aux combats de résistance contre les groupes polonais en Haute Silésie (5). Son unité fut plus tard incorporée dans l’armée allemande. En mars 1920, Hielscher refusa de participer au putsch de Kapp, et quitta l’armée (6). Il commença ensuite à étudier le droit à l’Université de Berlin et suivit aussi des cours à la Faculté des Sciences Politiques (7). Ces études de sciences politiques l’amenèrent en étroit contact avec Theodor Heuss, avec qui il se lia d’amitié pour la vie (8). À Berlin, Hielscher rejoignit le corps de duellistes étudiant “Normannia”, et jusqu’aux années 70 il fut une autorité active pour l’histoire du groupe, ainsi qu’un conférencier recherché concernant l’Assemblée de Kosen (9).

Alors que la courte période dans les Corps Francs fut marquée beaucoup plus par des aspirations à l’indépendance et à l’aventure que par des visions politiques concrètes (10), pendant le cours de ses études à Berlin Hielscher devint graduellement plus politisé. Après une affiliation temporaire au Reichsclub du Parti du peuple allemand national-libéral (11), il gravita vers les cercles des “gauchistes de la droite” et des “nouveaux nationalistes”. Ces petits cercles, qui tournaient autour de certains journaux et de projets de publications, cherchaient à combler le fossé entre l’arrière-plan intellectuel du mouvement des travailleurs socialistes et celui du nationalisme traditionnel (12). En même temps, il croisa le chemin de personnalités comme le philosophe culturel Oswald Spengler (13) et la sœur de Nietzsche, Elizabeth Förster-Nietzsche, cette dernière rencontre étant due aux nombreuses visites de Hielscher aux archives de Nietzsche à Weimar du fait de son travail promotionnel (14). En 1926, Hielscher termina son cursus par une thèse intitulée Die Selbstherrlichkeit : Versuch einer Darstellung des deutschen Rechtsgrundbegriffes (La souveraineté : un essai de présentation de la base de la loi allemande), pour laquelle il se vit décerner un double doctorat, summa cum laude, en philosophie du droit et en histoire du droit (15). Mais il trouva que son travail ultérieur, bureaucratique et réglementé, en tant que clerc juridique, était un tel supplice qu’en novembre 1927 il fut déchargé de la fonction publique à sa propre requête (16). Pendant le reste de sa vie, il vécut comme un universitaire — tant bien que mal — avec les bénéfices de publications, de cours et de commissions de recherche occasionnelles.

Hielscher, qui avait entre-temps développé un étroit contact personnel avec Ernst Jünger, fut à partir de 1926 un collaborateur actif aux divers journaux liés au « nouveau nationalisme » national-révolutionnaire. Son premier essai parut à la fin de 1926 dans le magazine Neue Standarte-Arminius : Kampfschrift für deutsche Nationalisten. Avec son titre, Innerlichkeit und Staatskunst (Intériorité et art étatique), il indiqua dès le début qu’il ne se préoccupait pas d’activité politique superficielle, car les choses n’en étaient pas « au commencement d’un nouveau départ, mais plutôt à la fin du vieil effondrement » (17). Cet effondrement ne pouvait être surmonté que par une nouvelle « foi (...) qui portera l’avenir allemand et sans laquelle le nouveau travail ne sera pas commencé » (18).

Avec l’accent mis par ce premier texte sur l’importance fondamentale d’une nouvelle foi, un trait avait déjà émergé dans l’œuvre de Hielscher qui allait rapidement s’intensifier, et qui resterait prédominant jusqu’à la fin de sa vie. Hielscher ne pensait “politiquement” que d’une manière secondaire et transitoire ; il se préoccupait beaucoup plus de tirer un nouvel “art étatique” des concepts religieux. Cela était déjà clair à la fin des années 20 au vu de sa correspondance avec Ernst Jünger. En conséquence, en novembre 1929 il envoya à Jünger une “déclaration de foi” (Bekenntnis) idéologico-religieuse, et dans une autre lettre quelques semaines plus tard il parla de la nécessité de la naissance d’une « Église invisible » qui serait efficace en termes de foi tout comme de politique (19). Vivant à l’époque dans la solitude d’un presbytère de la région de Lausitz, où un ancien ami d’école servait comme pasteur protestant, Hielscher travaillait sur son livre Das Reich, qui fut publié en 1931 (20). Celui-ci fut précédé par les premiers numéros d’un périodique du même titre que Hielscher avait édité depuis septembre 1930. Un cercle d’adeptes, loyal à Hielscher en tant que spiritus rector, se forma progressivement autour du journal et à partir des lecteurs du livre, qui avait provoqué un débat considérable. Jusqu’en 1933 ce cercle fut essentiellement tiré des rangs du Mouvement de la Jeunesse et des groupes de jeunesse nationaux-révolutionnaires (21).

L’unité de foi et de politique postulée par Hielscher, d’« intériorité et art étatique », ne fut pas sans conséquence sur la structure et l’activité de son cercle. Dans les années entre 1932 et 1935, l’association grandit, selon les mots de Hielscher, à la foi « comme une résistance contre la populace, et comme une Église » (22). Hielscher considéra toujours le mouvement national-socialiste comme une « populace », contre qui il se trouvait en opposition diamétrale pour des raisons idéologico-religieuses. En fait, le cercle autour de Hielscher se voyait à la fois comme une « Église embryonnaire » avec les activités rituelles correspondantes, et comme un « État embryonnaire » avec la tâche de résister au national-socialisme (23), bien qu’il soit peu probable que tous les membres politiquement actifs du cercle aient participé avec la même intensité aux aspects religieux du groupe. En tout, le groupe était formé d’environ cinquante personnes, dont les noms peuvent être déterminés à partir des archives relatives à Hielscher (24).

Les activités du cercle, à la fois comme « Église » et comme groupe de résistance, étaient menées sur la base d’un système idéologico-religieux extraordinairement complexe. Ceci n’avait pas été emprunté par Hielscher à d’autres sources sous une forme finie, mais fut développé successivement à partir d’axiomes fondamentaux spécifiques. D’importance centrale était l’idée de la foi comme « base de l’action » incontestable, et donc de leitmotiv essentiel pour toute action humaine (25). À un niveau subordonné à cette signification de la foi en général (c’est-à-dire, d’une foi en tant que telle), Hielscher plaçait sa propre théologie concrète avec sa vision particulière sur Dieu, les dieux, et l’homme — une vision qu’il définissait comme « païenne ».

Le point de départ était la perception panenthéiste de Dieu comme « l’Éternel, en qui tout est contenu » (26). Ainsi, Dieu n’était pas extérieur au monde, mais au contraire le monde était en Lui ; il n’était pas le Créateur, mais plutôt celui qui (à partir de lui-même) crée continuellement. Hielscher reliait cela à diverses notions. De la compréhension du monde par Nietzsche comme “volonté de puissance”, il extrapolait l’idée de devenir un « avec le monde éternellement en devenir » (27). De cela pouvait « être perçue … une conscience de Dieu » (28). En même temps, il revenait spécifiquement à la pensée de l’hérétique et érudit du début du IXe siècle, Jean Scot Erigène, d’après qui, « Dieu est tout ce qui est éternel et tout ce qui est advenu » (29). Erigène décrivait aussi Dieu comme une « unité multiple à l’intérieur de lui-même » (30). Cette idée domina exclusivement et complètement les convictions religieuses de Hielscher et de son cercle jusqu’à la fin des années 30, avant d’être élargie (avec des conceptions qui étaient systématiquement dérivées du penseur susmentionné) pour inclure des « dieux » ou des « messagers célestes », qui en tant que « particularités » (Besonderungen) personnelles du « tout-puissant et seul vrai Dieu » apparaissaient comme médiateurs entre ce dernier et les êtres humains. À cet égard, des éléments polythéistes trouvés dans la pensée classiciste allemande (en particulier dans les œuvres de Gœthe et de Hölderlin) — mais habillés par Hielscher en dieux de la mythologie germanique (« Wode », « Thor », « Loki », « Freya », « Sigyn », etc.) — furent repris et incorporés structurellement (31). En tant qu’« âme », l’être humain aussi n’était rien d’autre que l’une des « particularités » émanant de la plénitude du seul vrai Dieu. Pour Hielscher, cela conduisait en conséquence à un rejet des conceptions occidentales modernes de l’individu autonome : chaque « âme » (c’est-à-dire chaque être humain) reçoit « sa propre essence à tout moment de Dieu » (32).

De ces conceptions de base, à partir du début des années 30 le cercle Hielscher développa un système de croyance qui se différenciait continuellement par de nouvelles manifestations, ainsi que par une pratique liturgique avec des cérémonies pour le cycle de l’année et le cours de la vie. Avec l’inauguration du nouvel appartement de Hielscher à Falkenhain près de Berlin le 27 août 1933 vint la première « observance » (Andacht) officielle de l’« Église ». Celle-ci fut dès lors considérée comme la véritable date de fondation de l’Église, que Hielscher nomma la Unabhängige Freikirche (UFK), l’Église Libre Indépendante (33). Cela fut suivi par des élaborations liturgiques, orientées exclusivement d’après les études folkloriques, mythologiques et historico-religieuses faites par les membres du groupe ; ces études étaient presque exclusivement à diffusion interne. En 1941, ils réussirent à terminer une série annuelle de rituels païens constituée de 24 cérémonies (34). Chaque cérémonie était consacrée à l’un des 12 dieux germaniques, et était combinée (comme Ernst Jünger le laissa entendre dans une entrée de son Journal de Paris en octobre 1943, écrite après une rencontre avec Hielscher) avec diverses correspondances symboliques — signes, arbres, fleurs, animaux, aliments, boissons, « couleurs inhérentes » et « couleurs apparentes » (Wesensfarben und Erscheinungsfarben) (35). En même temps, en tant que chef de l’UFK, Hielscher accomplit aussi des cérémonies de baptême et de mariage pour des membres de son cercle, suivies plus tard par les premières funérailles du groupe (36).

 

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Structurellement, la liturgie des services religieux spécifiques de l’UFK — avec leurs invocations, prières, chants, et lectures — contenait aussi des éléments qui pouvaient clairement être trouvés, de cette manière ou d’une manière similaire, parmi les communautés de la foi chrétienne. Les différences sont essentiellement en termes de contenu, qui dans l’UFK se distinguait par le panthéon des dieux germaniques avec le « seul vrai Dieu » au-dessus de lui. Mais il y avait quelque chose d’autre. Dans son autobiographie, Hielscher se décrivit expressément — traçant une distinction explicite avec Ernst Jünger — comme un « mystique » (37). La signification imprégnant les cérémonies à l’intérieur de l’UFK se trouvait donc dans un contexte très spécifique. Hielscher soulignait en conséquence qu’avec ces cérémonies, « l’Église célébrerait la domination du céleste dans cet espace et dans ce temps » (38) et parlait de « revenir de la cérémonie pour [faire] nos devoirs quotidiens avec une énergie et un pouvoir nouveaux » (39). Cela faisait penser à une compréhension mystique de la religion, voyant l’expérience contemplative intérieure du numineux comme une source d’énergie, particulièrement pour le croyant individuel prenant part aux cérémonies.

Pour Hielscher et son cercle, la résistance contre le national-socialisme se nourrissait à des sources religieuses. C’était beaucoup moins une critique des mesures politiques individuelles prises par le régime NS — bien qu’ici aussi, Hielscher développa diverses positions dissidentes, dont la discussion sort du cadre de cet essai — qu’un rejet de principe. À cause de son manque de connexion transcendantale, le règne NS était vu par le cercle Hielscher comme un niveau décadent d’État, une forme de règne de la populace qui — en particulier à cause de son idéologie raciale biologique — était devenue asservie à la « matière » et à ce qui est purement matériel. Pour Hielscher, l’infiltration et la subversion depuis l’intérieur semblait être un chemin praticable de résistance, bien qu’à la lumière de la faiblesse numérique de son cercle cette stratégie se heurta rapidement à des facteurs limitants. Si des membres du cercle Hielscher parvinrent à occuper des positions de niveau intermédiaire dans l’armée, dans le contre-espionnage, et dans les SA et les SS, très peu de choses — en plus de rassembler des informations et d’offrir occasionnellement une aide à des victimes individuelles de la persécution politique — purent être faites.

Une exception fut l’influence exercée sur l’Ahnenerbe, l’organisation de recherche SS fondée le 31 juillet 1935, et dont Wolfram Sievers, un jeune ami de Hielscher et aussi un membre de l’UFK, parvint à devenir l’administrateur (40). Au-delà de son but originel de faire progresser l’étude de la « préhistoire spirituelle » (Geistesurgeschichte) (41), l’Ahnenerbe, un objet de prestige pour Heinrich Himmler, se subdivisa graduellement en de nouveaux départements de recherche consacrés à l’histoire de l’art, aux sciences naturelles, à la médecine, et même à la technologie (42). En résultat de l’implication ultérieure des départements médicaux dans les expériences humaines barbares conduites par les SS, Sievers, qui en dépit de sa désapprobation religieusement motivée de ces incidents s’était trouvé incapable d’agir ouvertement contre eux, fut condamné à mort au procès de Nuremberg et pendu (43). Hielscher — qui avait même reçu, sous la protection de son ami (44), des commissions de recherche temporaires de l’Ahnenerbe concernant des matières folkloriques et historico-culturelles — tenta sans succès jusqu’à la fin d’obtenir une grâce pour Sievers. Immédiatement avant l’exécution, il rendit visite à Sievers en prison et célébra une cérémonie d’adieu religieuse avec lui, en accord avec les observances de son Église païenne (45). C’est cet événement en particulier qui donna lieu plus tard à un grand nombre de spéculations extravagantes.

Quand c’était faisable, Hielscher tira avantage de ses activités pour l’Ahnenerbe, qui étaient occasionnellement combinées avec des voyages de recherche, pour aider des gens qui étaient politiquement ou racialement persécutés (46), et pour cultiver des contacts avec divers groupes de la résistance antinazie (47). En septembre 1944, il fut arrêté par la Gestapo en liaison avec l’assassinat manqué de Hitler par le comte von Stauffenberg, emprisonné pendant quelques mois, et torturé. Ce fut l’intervention de Sievers à cette époque qui conduisit à sa libération sous « condition de servir au front », et qui lui sauva finalement la vie (48).

Après 1945, le cercle Hielscher cessa toute activité politique et se concentra exclusivement sur des recherches religieuses cadrant avec les paramètres de l’UFK. Basant sa perspective sur une vision cyclique de l’histoire et employant une terminologie saisonnière, Hielscher pensait que l’humanité se trouvait dans un « hiver » historique (qui avait commencé vers 1800 avec la Révolution française et la montée de l’industrialisation) au milieu duquel on devait procéder d’une « impossibilité de l’État » fondamentale, nécessitant une construction conceptuellement nouvelle de l’État. En contraste, « l’Église dans l’hiver » était vue comme la « racine du printemps, et la première étape du Reich » (49), et le nouveau centre de ses recherches apparaissait comme la prochaine étape logique. Pendant des décennies, cela resta le travail de l’UFK. Et tout comme elle l’avait fait durant le Troisième Reich, sous la République Fédérale d’Allemagne l’UFK maintint une isolation presque complète vis-à-vis de l’extérieur. Des années 50 jusqu’aux années 80, l’activité de l’UFK fut caractérisée par des « journées de l’Église » annuelles, des célébrations internes, et l’accumulation d’une masse de compositions internes qui existent sous forme hectographique ; celles-ci traitent surtout de questions de théologie et de philosophie de l’histoire (50). L’âge avancé de ses membres (car des membres nouveaux et plus jeunes pouvaient difficilement être introduits) et 2 crises de l’« Église », en 1969-70 et 1983-84 (51), affaiblirent finalement un cercle qui n’avait jamais été particulièrement fort — à tel point que dans les années précédant la mort de Hielscher en mars 1990, l’UFK était principalement composée de lui-même et de son épouse Gertrud.

En conclusion, on peut souligner que Hielscher, qui sortit du courant national-révolutionnaire politiquement motivé de la période de Weimar, s’était déjà tourné à la fin des années 20 vers des thèmes religieux d’une manière intensifiée, et qu’en résultat de cette tendance il avait créé sa propre Église « païenne ». À première vue, l’UFK semble comparable à de nombreuses autres initiatives religieuses völkisch contemporaines, mais elle différait de celles-ci par sa formulation d’un système théologique strictement axiomatique et par un rejet consécutif de toutes les conceptions raciales-biologiques, et donc matérialistes. Hielscher et son cercle désapprouvèrent le système NS depuis le début, mais tentèrent de faire usage de leurs positions par l’infiltration d’institutions spécifiques (l’Ahnenerbe en particulier), dans le cadre d’un effort de résistance. En faisant cela, Hielscher entra en conflit mortel avec la Gestapo. Après 1945, il se retira presque complètement de la vue du public, et à part ses activités avec la société de duellistes étudiants et la publication de son autobiographie, il s’employa seulement à cultiver les pratiques mystiques-contemplatives de son Église.

À la place de cette histoire exacte, qui peut être vérifiée complètement par les preuves et les archives littéraires, à partir de 1960 une toile de fausses interprétations, de spéculations et de formulations légendaires commença à se développer, qui n’avait plus aucun rapport avec la vie et l’œuvre réelles de Hielscher. Cependant, il est nécessaire d’aborder la question, car une grande partie de ce que le grand public, à l’intérieur et à l’extérieur de l’Allemagne, connut sur Hielscher dans les dernières décennies a été influencée et embrouillée par ces formulations légendaires. Une analyse impartiale de Hielscher — et particulièrement de son système théologique, qui contient quelques éléments très remarquables — peut difficilement avoir lieu tant qu’un roncier de mythes négatifs obstrue l’accès nécessaire.

À l’origine de la formulation légendaire se trouvait le livre Le matin des magiciens, par Louis Pauwels et Jacques Bergier, publié en France en 1960 et bientôt traduit dans diverses langues. L’intention de base des auteurs était de souligner certains aspects de la réalité terrestre qui restent en-dehors de l’actuel modèle d’explication rationaliste et positiviste. Sur cette toile de fond, ils soulignaient — et pas d’une manière détaillée, finalement — divers cotés "
obscurs" et "bizarres" de l’histoire intellectuelle du XXe siècle et suggéraient des références historiques (réelles ou spéculatives). L’arrière-plan supposément ésotérique ou « occulte » du national-socialisme était d’un intérêt particulier. Il était inévitable que dans ce contexte, les prédilections de Heinrich Himmler pour la mythologie germanique et pour les rituels des Männerbünde traditionnels, l’histoire des Châteaux de l’Ordre du NS, et les activités de recherche appropriées de l’Ahnenerbe aient aussi été mentionnées (52).

À cause de la cérémonie d’adieu maintenant bien connue avant l’exécution de Wolfram Sievers — absolument pas mentionnée par Hielscher dans son autobiographie —, Hielscher se trouva lui-même dans les vues de Pauwels et Bergier. Ils le présentèrent d’emblée comme le « maître spirituel » de Sievers (53), ce qui avait bien sûr une certaine plausibilité du fait de l’appartenance de Sievers au cercle de résistance à motivation religieuse de Hielscher. Mais devant l’histoire organisationnelle suffisamment documentée de l’Ahnenerbe (54), beaucoup plus aventurée était l’assertion factuelle dans le même paragraphe que la création de son organisation aurait pu en fait procéder d’une « initiative privée » de Hielscher (55), qui avait de plus noué une « amitié mystique » avec l’explorateur suédois Sven Hedin. Ce que nous devons faire de cette « amitié mystique » — qui n’est mentionnée ni dans l’autobiographie de Hielscher (où il parle souvent volontiers et abondamment de ses rencontres et amitiés avec diverses personnalités) ni dans sa production littéraire — est une question que Pauwels et Bergier laissent sans réponse. Néanmoins le détour imaginatif vers les premières explorations de Hedin en Asie Centrale cadrait opportunément avec l’élaboration d’une « doctrine secrète » nationale-socialiste, apparemment influencée par l’Extrême-Orient, dont la genèse et l’établissement étaient supposés avoir été substantiellement influencés par Sven Hedin – et par Hielscher (56).

En fait, Pauwels et Bergier concédaient quelques phrases plus tard que Hielscher ne fut jamais un national-socialiste, mais affirmaient qu’un lien existait à travers sa communauté « avec les doctrines ‘magiques’ des grands maîtres du national-socialisme » (57). Mais c’est précisément par cette attribution d’idées « magiques » à Hielscher que Pauwels et Bergier révélaient en fait combien ils en connaissaient peu sur son système religieux-cosmologique, car Hielscher s’était toujours fermement opposé au concept et à la pratique de la « magie ». Il insistait particulièrement là-dessus dans son autobiographie, qui fut disponible dès 1954 (et qui était donc parfaitement accessible à Pauwels et Bergier). Dans celle-ci, dénotant une différence caractéristique entre sa vision du monde et celle de Ernst Jünger, il qualifiait sa perspective personnelle de mystique, alors que celle de Jünger était magique (58). Et il y avait encore une autre source pour ce rejet de la magie qui était rigoureusement déduit du système religieux-cosmologique de Hielscher, d’après lequel il n’est pas possible pour l’être humain « d’approcher les dieux, de s’attribuer leur bénédiction, de s’élever jusqu’à eux » (59). Le 11 décembre 1956, Hielscher écrivit à Friedrich Georg Jünger, le frère d’Ernst Jünger, que la magie était la « tentative inadaptée, mais toujours coupable, d’utiliser des moyens terrestres, à savoir ceux de la sorcellerie, pour mettre le Céleste à son service ». La magie blanche était encore plus répréhensible que la magie noire, car le magicien « blanc » était coupable de « désirer soumettre un bon esprit », au lieu d’un mauvais esprit, « à sa propre volonté » (60).

Mais Pauwels et Bergier ne s’intéressaient pas à tout cela. Bien éloignés de toute source concernant la vie et l’œuvre de Hielscher, ils lui attribuaient finalement « un rôle important dans l’élaboration de la doctrine secrète [nationale-socialiste] » (61), cette froide et cruelle doctrine supposément transmise par Sven Hedin à partir de l’Asie, qui se trouve derrière les événements politiques et qui selon les auteurs pourrait aussi expliquer les actions des protagonistes du national-socialisme et en particulier des SS. Une conjecture grandiose de ce genre, tirée du néant et diffusée internationalement à travers le livre de Pauwels et Bergier en grandes éditions, établit un sol fertile idéal dans les années suivantes pour des spéculations encore plus hardies et des affirmations de plus en plus téméraires concernant le rôle de Hielscher pendant l’ère NS.

Un exemple typique à cet égard est le livre The Spear of Destiny (La lance du destin) de l’auteur britannique Trevor Ravenscroft, dans lequel Hielscher — bien sûr à nouveau sans l’ombre d’une preuve et en résultat de la « méthode » des racontars sans mesure — est une fois de plus décrit comme ayant été le chef spirituel de l’Ahnenerbe, et « la plus importante figure en Allemagne après Adolf Hitler lui-même » (62). « Le Führer », d’après Ravenscroft, demanda à Hielscher de le conseiller « dans toutes les matières occultes », et dans l’éventualité d’une victoire allemande dans la seconde guerre mondiale, Hielscher « aurait bien pu devenir le Grand Prêtre d’une nouvelle religion mondiale qui aurait remplacé la Croix par le Svastika » (63). Finalement, Ravenscrof imaginait aussi que Hielscher lui-même était celui qui avait développé un mystérieux « rituel de l’air suffoquant » par lequel des membres sélectionnés des SS « prêtaient serment d’allégeance irrévocable aux puissances sataniques » (64). Le fait que même dans la seconde édition révisée de son livre (65), Ravenscroft écrivait encore « Heilscher » au lieu de « Hielscher » est probablement indicatif de la connaissance des faits et des sources par cet auteur et quelques autres de ce genre.

Un autre auteur de langue anglaise, Gerald Suster, approcha le sujet d’une manière similaire. Dans un livre portant le titre sensationnel : Hitler : Black Magician, il se sentit obligé d’écrire que Hielscher avait déjà fondé l’Ahnenerbe en 1933, après quoi elle reçut une reconnaissance « officielle » en 1935 (66). D’après Suster, Hielscher influença les SS en particulier, et à un degré beaucoup plus élevé que ce qu’on en savait généralement » (67). Suster aussi n’avait pas l’ombre d’une preuve pour ces affirmations, sans même parler de sources pouvant être vérifiées par une bibliographie ou par des archives. La bibliographie de son livre de 222 pages tient en moins de 2 pages. Bien que la bibliographie ne contenait ni l’autobiographie de Hielscher ni la littérature spécialisée sur l’Ahnenerbe, l’édition britannique du Matin des magiciens de Pauwels et Bergier, publiée en 1964, se trouve être une fois encore l’une des sources principales (68).

Les mêmes associations spéculatives, faisant pour la plupart des références directes et explicites à Pauwels/Bergier et Ravenscroft, peuvent aussi être trouvées dans le volumineux livre Das Schwarze Reich, signé de l’auteur « E.R. Carmin », manifestement un pseudonyme, ce dernier affirmant révéler l’influence considérable de toutes sortes de sociétés secrètes sur la politique du XXe siècle. Le livre parut en 1994 chez un petit éditeur de Rhénanie, passa d’abord relativement inaperçu, mais connut une large diffusion 3 ans plus tard lorsqu’il fut publié en édition de poche par la célèbre Heyne Verlag de Munich. « Carmin » non seulement reprit les habituelles formulations légendaires de ses antécédents littéraires, comme l’« amitié mystique » entre Hielscher et Sven Hedin, mais prit soin de concocter — comme ingrédient original et additionnel à la florissante légende Hielscher — des liens entre l’Église clandestine de Hielscher (dont, cependant, il ne connaissait pas le nom) et le désir d’Alfred Rosenberg de créer une Église nationale du Reich (69). En passant, « Carmin » décrit aussi le principal ouvrage historico-philosophique de Hielscher, Das Reich, comme un « roman » (70), jetant une lumière révélatrice à tous égards sur ce genre de recherche « historique » contemporaine.

Une contribution complètement unique à la « légende Hielscher » qui non seulement s’inspira de spéculations antérieures mais aussi contribua fortement à celles-ci fut faite par l’auteur chilien et ardent admirateur de Hitler, Miguel Serrano, avec son livre El cordon dorado : Hitlerismo esoterico. Ce dernier parut en espagnol en 1978 et fut publié dans une traduction allemande en 1987. Dans ce livre, Serrano expose en détail une ligne complète de tradition spirituelle, incluant les doctrines de l’hindouisme, de l’alchimie médiévale, des Templiers, des Cathares et des Rosicruciens, qui conduit directement à un national-socialisme interprété d’une manière « ésotérique » dans lequel un Adolf Hitler survivant continue à vivre au Pôle Sud. Au milieu de tout cela, Hielscher, parmi tous les gens respectueusement appelés « les initiés » par Serrano, était placé à la même hauteur que les « chefs supérieurs et inconnus de l’Hitlérisme » et même élevé au niveau d’un « chef spirituel des SS » (71).

L’appendice bibliographique de Serrano manquait lui aussi de toute trace de l’autobiographie de Hielscher, des autres textes publiés par Hielscher, et du matériel approprié qui se trouve dans les archives. Mais le Matin des magiciens se trouve encore une fois parmi les sources données, cette fois-ci dans sa traduction espagnole de 1963 (72). Cela souligne à nouveau le rôle joué par Pauwels et Bergier pendant des décennies comme fournisseurs de slogans pour un genre complet de littérature. Les diverses tentatives de diaboliser la vie et l’œuvre de Hielscher en termes d’un bizarre ésotérisme « noir » (comme dans les ouvrages de Pauwels et Bergier, Ravenscroft, Suster et « Carmin ») recoupent ici la tentative de Serrano de l’utiliser dans le contexte d’un hitlérisme « ésotérique » et « tantrique ».

Complètement négligé était par contre tout examen des positions réelles de Hielscher, et particulièrement des éléments fondamentaux de son système religieux-cosmologique. Au mieux, des fragments et des lambeaux conceptuels furent extraits, volontairement mal interprétés et insérés dans des contextes historiques contemporains auxquels ils étaient en fait diamétralement opposés. Cela est particulièrement vrai dans le cas du peu qui était connu (comme ce qui venait du journal de Ernst Jünger) concernant l’Église libre païenne de Hielscher, et qui fut plus tard interprété avec empressement comme une indication de « rites » satanistes et de « doctrines secrètes ». Le refus strict et permanent de Hielscher de permettre un plus large accès aux dogmes et à la liturgie de son Église était — de son point de vue — logique et bien-fondé. Il était basé sur la supposition que c’était précisément à la lumière des expériences négatives avec le Troisième Reich que le petit cercle de ses fidèles devait être protégé, et qu’en général seules quelques personnes étaient assez mûres en esprit et en caractère pour saisir le système de croyance axiomatiquement construit de l’UFK, intuitivement aussi bien que mentalement.

Involontairement, cependant, cette position clandestine encouragea la croissance illimitée de légendes et se révéla finalement comme contre-productive. C’est seulement après un examen minutieux, basé sur les sources existantes, sur les motivations, les fondements spirituels et les pratiques réelles du cercle de Hielscher — qui existait encore dans les années 80 — que ces formulations légendaires seront écartées et permettront l’étude d’un aspect fertile et très intéressant de l’histoire intellectuelle du XXe siècle.


Peter Bahn (traduit d’allemand en anglais par Michael Moynihan et Gerhard)

Cet essai est originellement paru sous le titre « Die Hielscher-Legende : Eine panentheistische ‘Kirchen’-Gründung des 20. Jahrhunderts und ihre Fehldeutungen » dans le journal allemand Gnostika, N° 19 (octobre 2001), pp. 63-76. Cette nouvelle version, traduite en anglais et avec des références bibliographiques élargies, est publiée par TYR avec l’aimable autorisation de l’auteur.

NOTES

[1] Cf. Friedrich Hielscher, Fünfzig Jahre unter Deutschen [Cinquante ans parmi les Allemands], Hambourg, Rowolt 1954.

[2] Ici les articles suivants doivent être mentionnés en particulier : Marcus Beckmann, « Dem anderen Gesetz gehorschen : Zum Tode Friedrich Hielschers », in Fragmente 6 (1990), pp. 4-13 ; Werner Barthold, « Die geistige Leistung Friedrich Hielschers für das Kösener Corpsstudentum », in Einst und Jetzt : Jahrbuch des Vereins für corpsstudentische Geschichtsforschung, vol. 36 (1991), pp. 279-82 ; Karlheinz Weissmann, « Friedrich Hielscher : Eine Art Nachruf », in Criticon 123 (janvier/février 1991), pp. 25-28 ; Peter Bahn, « Glaube–Reich–Widerstand : Zum 10. Todestag Friedrich Hielschers », in Wir selbst : Zeitschrift für nationale Identität, Nos 1-2 (2000), pp. 21-33; Peter Bahn, « Ernst Jünger und Friedrich Hielscher : Eine Freudschaft auf Distanz », in Les Carnets Ernst Jünger, N° 6 (2001), pp. 127-45.

[3] C’est le Dépôt Friedrich Hielscher dans les Archives du District de Schwarzwald-Baar (Willingen-Schwenningen) ; un index électronique des archives est actuellement en préparation. Abrégé SBDA à partir de maintenant.

[4] Celle-ci se trouve parmi les documents Ernst Jünger aux Archives de Littérature Allemande à Marbach ; il y a aussi d’autres lettres de Hielscher dans d’autres collections de papiers non-publiés, comme ceux concernant Friedrich Georg Jünger.

[5] Cf. Hielscher, Fünfzig Jahre, pp. 21-29.

[6] Cf. Hielscher, Fünfzig Jahre, p. 31.

[7] Cf. Hielscher, Fünfzig Jahre, pp. 33-35.

[8] Cf. Hielscher, Fünfzig Jahre, pp. 45-47.

[9] Friedrich Hielscher, Fünfzig Jahre, pp. 35-38, et Barthold, 1991. Concernant les activités de Hielscher dans la société de duellistes, voir aussi Hermann Rink, « Friedrich Hielscher » in Thomas Raveaux et Marcus Beckmann, eds., Veritati : Festschrift für Friedrich Hielscher zum 85. Geburtstag (Würzburg: auto-édition, 1987), pp. 19-22.

[10] Cf. Hielscher, Fünfzig Jahre, pp. 21-22.

[11] Cf. Hielscher, Fünfzig Jahre, pp. 41-44.

[12] Concernant ce courant en général, et le rôle – partiel et marginal – de Hielscher, Cf. entre autres : Karl O. Paetel, Versuchung oder Chance ? Zur Geschichte des deutschen Nationalbolchewismus (Göttingen, Musterschmidt, 1965 ; new ed., Koblenz, Bublies, 2000) ; Otto-Ernst Schüddekopf, Nationalbolchewismus in Deutschland 1918-1933 (Frankfurt/Berlin/ Vienna : Ullstein, 1972) ; Louis Dupeux, Nationalbolchewismus in Deutschland 1918-1933 : Kommunistische Strategie und konservative Dynamik (Munich, Büchergilde Gutenberg, 1985) ; Suzanne Meinl, Nationalsozialisten gegen Hitler : Die nationalrevolutionäre Opposition um Friedrich Wilhelm Heinz (Berlin, Siedler, 2000). Le texte standard biographique/bibliographique sur ce sujet est Armin Mohler, Die Konservative Revolution 1918-1932 : Ein Handbuch, 3ème éd., élargie avec un volume supplémentaire contenant aussi des corrections (Darmstadt : Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1989). Hielscher, que Möhler décrit correctement comme « bâtisseur de système » typique parmi les nationaux-révolutionnaires, est détaillé à la p. 450.

[13] Cf. Hielscher, Fünfzig Jahre, pp. 82-83.

[14] Cf. Hielscher, Fünfzig Jahre, p. 84.

[15] Cf. Hielscher, Fünfzig Jahre, p. 105. Sa thèse, qui contenait beaucoup de références à la pensée de Nietzsche et de Spengler, parut sous forme de livre en 1930, publiée par Frundsberg-Verlag, Berlin.

[16] Cf. Hielscher, Fünfzig Jahre, p. 111.

[17] Cf. Friedrich Hielscher, « Innerlichkeit und Staatskunst », in Neue Standarte-Arminius: Kampfschrift für deutsche Nationalisten, numéro du 26 décembre 1926, pp. 6-8. Cité ici et plus bas d’après la réimpression aux pp. 335-38 de Jahrbuch zur Konservative Revolution 1994 (Cologne : Anneliese Thomas, 1994), p. 335.

[18] Cf. Hielscher, 1926 (1994), p. 337.

[19] Cf. les lettres de Hielscher datées du 28 novembre 1929 et du 12 janvier 1930, dans les documents Ernst Jünger aux Archives de Littérature Allemande.

[20] Cf. Friedrich Hielscher, Das Reich (Berlin, Das Reich, 1931).

[21] Sur la formation du cercle Hielscher et ses efforts pendant la dictature NS, Cf. Rolf Kluth, « Die Widerstandgruppe Hielscher » in Pusl : Dokumentationschrift zur Jugendbewegung, N° 7 (déc. 1980), pp. 22-27.

[22] Cf. Hielscher, Fünfzig Jahre, p. 237.

[23] Cf. Friedrich Hielscher, « Die Entwicklung unserer Kirche » [Le développement de notre Église], texte aux SBDA, documents Hielscher, N° 73, p. 1-2.

[24] Cf. Friedrich Hielscher, « Bericht über die unterirdische Arbeit gegen den Nationalismus » [Rapport sur le travail souterrain contre le national-socialisme], texte aux SBDA, documents Hielscher, N° 140 (avec index des personnes appartenant au cercle).

[25] Cf. Friedrich Hielscher, Die Selbstherrlichkeit : Versuch einer Darstellung des deutschen Rechtsgrundbegriffes (Berlin, Frundsberg, 1930), pp. 63-64.

[26] Cf. lettre de Hielscher datée du 28 novembre 1929, dans les documents Ernst Jünger aux Archives de Littérature Allemande.

[27] Cf. Hielscher, Die Selbstherrlichkeit, 1930, p. 83.

[28] Cf. Hielscher, Die Selbstherrlichkeit, p. 81.

[29] Cf. Johannes Scotus Eriugena, Über die Einteilung der Natur, trad. Par Ludwig Noak (Hambourg, Felix Meiner 1994), p. 325.

[30] Cf. Eriugena, Über die Einteilung der Natur, p. 324.

[31] Cf. « Die 1. Klasse des heidnischen Glaubensunterrichts während der Schule » [La première classe de l’enseignement religieux païen à l’école], texte aux SBDA, documents Hielscher, N° 15 (probablement écrit par Hielscher).

[32] Cf. la lettre de Hielscher à Alfred Schäffer datée du 23 janvier 1931, dans la collection Walter Ehlers aux Archives de Littérature Allemande.

[33] Cf. SBDA, documents Hielscher, N° 81, et le document public du notaire de Triberg daté du 6 juillet 1966 concernant une déclaration sous serment de Hielscher sur la fondation de la « Unabhängige Freikirche » en 1933 (copie en possession de l’auteur).

[34] Cf. Friedrich Hielscher, « Die Entwicklung unserer Kirche », p. 2.

[35] Cf. Ernst Jünger, Strahlungen II : Das zweite Pariser Tagebuch, „Kirchhorster Blätter : Die Hütte im Weinberg“, édition de poche (Munich, Deutscher Taschenbuchverlag 1988), pp. 172-73 (entrée du 16 octobre 1943). Ernst Jünger lui-même ne fut jamais membre de l’Église de Hielscher, mais fut l’une des quelques personnes extérieures informées de son existence et de son développement par son vieil ami Hielscher. Les diverses lettres et pièces jointes de Hielscher à Jünger jusqu’aux années 1980 doivent être notées à cet égard (Cf. la correspondance Ernst Jünger-Friedrich Hielscher dans les documents Ernst Jünger aux Archives de Littérature Allemande).

[36] Cf. Hielscher, « Die Entwicklung », p. 2.

[37] Cf. Hielscher, Fünfzig Jahre, p. 117.

[38] Cf. Friedrich Hielscher, « Der Aufbau der Kirche » [La construction de l’Église], texte N° 16 dans les documents Hielscher aux SBDA, p. 18.

[39] Cf. Hielscher, « Der Aufbau », p. 18.

[40] Cf. Michael H. Kater, Das Ahnenerbe der SS 1935-1945 (Stuttgart : Deutsche Verlagsanstalt, 1974), p. 38.

[41] Cf. Kater, 1974, p. 27. Sur les connotations originelles du nom de l’institution, voir l’article de Joscelyn Godwin sur Hermann Wirth dans ce numéro de TYR.

[42] Cf. Kater, Das Ahnenerbe, p. 215.

[43] Pour une évaluation critique du rôle de Sievers, Cf. Kater, Das Ahnenerbe, pp. 317-19, et la description antérieure plus positive de Sievers dans Alfred Kantorowicz, Deutsches Tagebuch, Pt. 1 (Munich, Kindler, 1959), pp. 496-507.

[44] Cf. Kater, Das Ahnenerbe, p. 323.

[45] Cf. Hielscher, Fünfzig Jahre, p. 453-54.

[46] Cf. Hielscher, Fünfzig Jahre, p. 444-47.

[47] Cf. Friedrich Hielscher, « Die Hielscher-Gruppe 1933-1945: Bericht über die unterirdische Arbeit gegen den Nationalsozialismus », dans Jahrbuch zur Konservative Revolution 1994 (Cologne : Anneliese Thomas, 1994), p. 329-34, ainsi que la description par Kluth (1980).

[48] Cf. Hielscher, Fünfzig Jahre, p. 402-26.

[49] Cf. Friedrich Hielscher, « Die Entwicklung », p. 3.

[50] Les textes se trouvent dans les documents Hielscher aux SBDA.

[51] Le matériel sur la cause et le cours des « crises de l’Église » qui furent liées à la scission peut être trouvé en grande quantité sous les mots-clés « 1. Kirchenkrise » et « 2. Kirchenkrise » dans les documents Hielscher aux SBDA. L’« Église Libre », qui fut dissoute dans les années 90, émergea de la « première crise » sous la direction du Dr. Rolf Kluth, directeur temporaire des Bibliothèques d’État et Universitaire de Brême et membre du cercle Hielscher depuis les années 30 ; en comparaison, la « seconde crise » ne conduisit pas à la formation d’un nouveau groupe, mais plutôt à l’implosion de l’UFK.

[52] Louis Pauwels et Jacques Bergier, Aufbruch ins dritte Jahrtausend : Von der Zukunft der phantastischen Vernunft, édition de poche (Munich, Heyne 1982), pp. 379-90. Ce matériel apparaît aux pp. 200-10 de l’édition américaine, publiée sous le titre de The Morning of the Magicians (New York, Stein & Day, 1963).

[53] Cf. Pauwels et Bergier, Aufbruch..., p. 389. Apparaît à la p. 206 de l’édition américaine.

[54] Ici le travail classique de Kater (1974) doit être cité en particulier. Cette histoire bien documentée de l’Ahnenerbe, cependant, est limitée par la large omission d’une analyse des projets de recherche spécifiques menés par l’Ahnenerbe, que ce soit dans le domaine de l’histoire intellectuelle ou dans celui des développements technologiques spécifiques.

[55] Cf. Pauwels et Bergier, Aufbruch , p. 389. Apparaît à la p. 206 de l’édition américaine.

[56] Ibid.

[57] Ibid.

[58] Cf. Hielscher, Fünfzig Jahre, pp. 115-17.

[59] Cf. Hielscher, Fünfzig Jahre, p. 115.

[60] Lettre dans les documents Friedrich Georg Jünger aux Archives de Littérature Allemande.

[61] Cf. Pauwels et Bergier, Aufbruch..., p. 390. Apparaît à la p. 207 de l’édition américaine.

[62] Cf. Trevor Ravenscroft, Die heilige Lanze : Der Speer von Golgotha, 2° éd. (Munich, Universitas 1996), p. 265. Apparaît à la p. 259 de l’édition américaine de The Spear of Destiny (New York, G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1973).

[63] Ibid.

[64] Ibid.

[65] The Spear of Destiny parut originellement en Grande-Bretagne en 1972 et ne fut pas traduit en allemand avant 1988 !

[66] Cf. Gerald Suster, Hitler : Black Magician, 2° éd. (Londres, Skoob, 1996), p. 182.

[67] Cf. Suster, Hitler, p. 184.

[68] Cf. Suster, Hitler, pp. 211-12.

[69] Cf. E.R. Carmin, Das Schwarze Reich : Geheimgesellschaften und Politik im 20. Jahrhundert, édition de poche (Munich, Heyne 1997), pp. 143, 701.

[70] Cf. Carmin, Das Schwarze Reich, p. 700.

[71] Cf. Miguel Serrano, Das Goldene Band: Esoterischer Hitlerismus, German edition (Wetter, Teut-Verlag 1987), p. 245.

[72] Cf. Serrano, Das Goldene Band, p. 373-98.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

NOUS APPELONS TES LOUPS

Nous appelons tes loups
Et appelons ta lance
Nous appelons les Douze
A descendre du ciel jusqu’à nous.
Avant tout nous t’appelons Toi.
Maintenant vient la chasse sauvage,
Maintenant que la corne retentisse,
Pour que les morts ne se lamentent pas.
L’ennemi est tombé
Avant le lever du jour.

La proie n’a pas de nom,
L’ennemi n’a pas de visage,
La carcasse pas de descendance,
Juste est le tribunal.
La moisson est passée,
La paille est vendue chaque jour,
Les corbeaux maintenant réclament
La part qui leur est due.
La chasse a commencé :
Maintenant, Seigneur, ton salut
Nous soutient !

- Friedrich Hielscher

(traduit de l’allemand en anglais par Gerhard et Michael Moynihan)

Article paru dans la revue américaine « TYR », volume 2, 2003-2004 (publiée par Joshua Buckley et Michael Moynihan ; un numéro par an).

 

mercredi, 31 août 2011

Brentano, el eslabon perdido de la filosofia contemporanea

Brentano, el eslabón perdido de la filosofía contemporánea

                                                                                                                    Alberto Buela (*)

 

Su vida y sus influencias [1]

 

ClemensBrentanok_1803.jpgFranz Clemens Brentano (1838-1917) es el filósofo alemán de ancestros italianos de la zona de Cuomo, que introduce la noción de intencionalidad en la filosofía contemporánea. Noción que deriva del concepto escolástico de “cogitativa” trabajado tanto por Tomás de Aquino como por Duns Escoto en la baja edad media. Lectores que, junto con Aristóteles, conocía Brentano casi a la perfección y que leía fluidamente en sus lenguas originales.

Se lo considera tanto el precursor de la fenomenología (sus trabajos sobre la intencionalidad de la conciencia)  como de las corrientes analíticas (sus trabajos sobre el lenguaje y los juicios), de la psicología profunda (sus trabajos sobre psicología experimental)  como de la axiología (sus trabajos sobre el juicio de preferencia).

Nació y se crió en el seno de una familia ilustre marcada por el romanticismo social. Su tío el poeta Clemens Maria Brentano(1778-1842) y su tía Bettina von Arnim(1785-1859) se encontraban entre los más importantes escritores del romanticismo alemán y su hermano,  Lujo Brentano, se convirtió en un experto en economía social. De su madre recibió una profunda fe y formación católicas. Estudió matemática, filosofía y teología en las universidades de Múnich, Würzburg, Berlín, y Münster. Siguió los cursos sobre Aristóteles de F. Trendelemburg Tras doctorarse con un estudio sobre Aristóteles en 1862,Sobre los múltiples sentidos del ente en Aristóteles, se ordenó sacerdote católico de la orden dominica en 1864. Dos años más tarde presentó en la Universidad de Würzburg, al norte de Baviera, su escrito de habilitación como catedrático, La psicología de Aristóteles, en especial su doctrina acerca del “nous poietikos”. En los años siguientes dedicó su atención a otras corrientes de filosofía, e iba creciendo su preocupación por la situación de la filosofía de aquella época en Alemania: un escenario en el que se contraponían el empirismo positivista y el neokantismo. En ese periodo estudió con profundidad a John Stuart Mill y publicó un libro sobre Auguste Comte y la filosofía positiva. La Universidad de Würzburg le nombró profesor extraordinario en 1872.

Sin embargo, en su interior se iban planteando problemas de otro género. Se cuestionaba algunos dogmas de la Iglesia católica, sobre todo el dogma de la Santísima Trinidad. Y después de que el Concilio Vaticano I de 1870 proclamara el dogma de la infalibilidad papal, Brentano decidió en 1873 abandonar su sacerdocio. Sin embargo, para no perjudicar más a los católicos alemanes —ya de suyo hostigados hasta  llegar a huir en masa al Volga ruso por la “Kulturkampf” de Bismarck [2]— renunció voluntariamente a su puesto de Würzburg, pero al mismo tiempo, se negó a unirse a los cismáticos “viejos católicos”. Pero sin embargo este alejamiento existencial de la Iglesia no supuso un alejamiento del pensamiento profundo de la Iglesia pues en varios de sus trabajos y en forma reiterada afirmó siempre que: «Hay una ciencia que nos instruye acerca del fundamento primero y último de todas las cosas, en tanto que nos lo permite reconocer en la divinidad. De muchas maneras, el mundo entero resulta iluminado y ensanchado a la mirada por esta verdad, y recibimos a través de ella las revelaciones más esenciales sobre nuestra propia esencia y destino. Por eso, este saber es en sí mismo, sobre todos los demás, valioso. (…) Llamamos a esta ciencia Sabiduría, Filosofía primera, Teología» (Cfr.: Religion und Philosophie, pp.72-73. citado por Sánchez-Migallón).

Se desempeñó luego como profesor en Viena durante veinte años (entre 1874 y 1894), con algunas interrupciones. Franz Brentano fue amigo de los espíritus más finos de la Viena de esos años, entre ellos Theodor Meynert, Josef Breuer, Theodor Gomperz (1832-1912). En 1880 se casó con Ida von Lieben, la hermana de Anna von Lieben, la futura paciente de Sigmund Freud. Indiferente a la comida y la vestimenta, jugaba al ajedrez con una pasión devoradora, y ponía de manifiesto un talento inaudito para los juegos de palabras más refinados, En 1879, con el seudónimo de Aenigmatis, publicó una compilación de adivinanzas que suscitó entusiasmo en los salones vieneses y dio lugar a numerosas imitaciones. Esto lo cuenta Freud en un libro suyo El chiste.

En la Universidad de Viena tuvo como alumnos a Sigmund Freud, Carl Stumpf y Edmund Husserl, Christian von Ehrenfels, introductor del término Gestalt (totalidad), y, discrepa y rechaza la idea del inconsciente descrita y utilizada por Freud. Fue un profesor carismático, Brentano ejerció una fuerte influencia en la obra de Edmund Husserl, Alois Meinong (1853-1921), fundador de la teoría del objeto,  Thomas Masaryk (1859-1937) KasimirTwardowski, de la escuela polaca de lógica y Marty Antón, entre otros, y por lo tanto juega un papel central en el desarrollo filosófico de la Europa central en principios del siglo XX. En 1873, el joven Sigmund Freud, estudiante en la Universidad de Viena, obtuvo su doctorado en filosofía bajo la dirección de Brentano.

El impulso de Brentano a la psicología cognitiva es consecuencia de su realismo. Su concepción de describir la conciencia en lugar de analizarla, dividiéndola en partes, como se hacía en su época, dio lugar a la fenomenología, que continuarían desarrollando Edmund Husserl (1859-1938), Max Scheler (1874-1928), Martín Heidegger (1889-1976), Maurice Merleau-Ponty (1908-1961), además de influenciar sobre el existencialismo de Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980) con su negación del inconsciente.

En 1895, después de la muerte de su esposa, dejó Austria decepcionado, en esta ocasión, publicó una serie de tres artículos en el periódico vienés Die Neue Freie Presse : Mis últimos votos por Austria, en la que destaca su posición filosófica, así como su enfoque de la psicología, pero también criticó duramente  la situación jurídica de los antiguos sacerdotes en Austria. In 1896 he settled down in Florence where he got married to Emilie Ruprecht in 1897. En 1896 se instaló en Florencia, donde se casó con Emilie Ruprecht en 1897. Vivió en Florencia casi ciego y, a causa de la primera guerra mundial, cuando Italia entra en guerra contra Alemania, se traslada a Zurich, donde muere en 1917.

Los trabajos que publicaron sus discípulos han sido los siguientes según el orden de su aparición: La doctrina de Jesús y su significación permanente; Psicología como ciencia empírica, Vol. III; Ensayos sobre el conocimiento, Sobre la existencia de Dios; Verdad y evidencia; Doctrina de las categorías, Fundamentación y construcción de la ética; Religión y filosofía, Doctrina del juicio correcto; Elementos de estética; Historia de la filosofía griega; La recusación de lo irreal; Investigaciones filosóficas acerca del espacio, del tiempo y el continuo; La doctrina de Aristóteles acerca del origen del espíritu humano; Historia de la filosofía medieval en el Occidente cristiano; Psicología descriptiva; Historia de la filosofía moderna, Sobre Aristóteles; Sobre “Conocimiento y error” de Ernst March.

 

Lineamientos de su pensamiento

 

Todo el mundo sabe, al menos el de la filosofía, que no se puede realizar tal actividad sino es en diálogo con algún clásico. Es que los clásicos son tales porque tienen respuestas para el presente.  Hay que tomar un maestro y a partir de él comenzar a filosofar. Brentano lo tuvo a Aristóteles, el que le había enseñado Federico Trendelenburg (1802-1872), el gran estudioso del Estagirita en la primera mitad de siglo XIX.

En su tesis doctoral, Sobre los múltiples significados del ente según Aristóteles, que tanto influenciara en Heidegger, distingue cuatro sentidos de “ente” en el Estagirita: el ente como ens per accidens o lo fortuito; el ente en el sentido de lo verdadero, con su correlato, lo no-ente en el sentido de lo falso; el ente en potencia y el ente en acto; y el ente que se distribuye según la sustancia y las figuras de las categorías. De esos cuatro significados, el veritativo abrirá en Brentano el estudio de la intencionalidad. Pero al que dedica con diferencia mayor extensión es al cuarto, el estudio de la sustancia y su modificación, esto es, a las diversas categorías. Esto se debe, en parte, a las discusiones de su tiempo en torno a la metafísica aristotélica. En ellas toma postura defendiendo principalmente dos tesis: primera, que entre los diferentes sentidos categoriales del ente se da una unidad de analogía, y que ésta significa unidad de referencia a un término común, la sustancia segunda, que precisamente esa unidad de referencia posibilita en el griego deducir las categorías según un principio.[3]

Investigó las cuestiones metafísicas mediante un análisis lógico-lingüístico, con lo que se distinguió tanto de los empiristas ingleses como del kantismo académico. Ejerciendo una gran influencia el algunos miembros del Círculo de Viena.

En 1874 publica su principal obra Psicología como ciencia empírica, de la que editará tres volúmenes, donde realiza su principal aporte a la historia de la filosofía, su concepto de intencionalidad de la conciencia que tendrá capital importancia para el desarrollo posterior de la fenomenología a través de Husserl y de Scheler.

Sólo lo psíquico es intencional, esto es, pone en relación la conciencia con un objeto. Esta llamada «tesis de Brentano», que hace de la intencionalidad la característica de lo psíquico, permite entender de un modo positivo, a diferencia de lo que no lograba la psicología de aquella época, los fenómenos de conciencia que Brentano distingue entre representaciones, juicios teóricos y  juicios prácticos o emotivos (sentimientos y voliciones).
Todo fenómeno de conciencia es o una representación de algo, que no forzosamente ha de ser un objeto exterior, o un juicio acerca de algo. Los juicios o son teóricos, y se refieren a la verdad y falsedad de las representaciones (juicios propiamente dichos), y su criterio es la evidencia y de ellos trata la epistemología y la lógica; o son prácticos, y se refieren a la bondad o a la maldad, la corrección o incorrección, al amor y al odio (fenómenos emotivos), y su criterio es la «preferencia», la valoración, o «lo mejor», y de ellos trata la ética. Al estudio de la intencionalidad de la conciencia lo llama psicología descriptiva o fenomenología.

En 1889 dicta su conferencia en Sociedad Jurídica de Viena “De la sanción natural de lo justo y lo moral” que aparece publicada luego con notas que duplican su extensión bajo el título de: El origen del conocimiento moral”, trabajo que publicado en castellano en 1927, del que dice Ortega y Gasset, director de la revista de Occidente que lo publica, “Este tratadito, de la más auténtica filosofía, constituye una de las joyas filosóficas que, como “El discurso del método” o la “Monadología”… Puede decirse que es la base donde se asienta la ética moderna de los valores”.

Comienza preguntándose por la sanción natural de lo justo y lo moral. Y hace corresponder lo bueno con lo verdadero y a la ética con la lógica. Así, lo verdadero se admite como verdadero en un juicio, mientras que lo bueno en un acto de amor. El criterio exclusivo de la verdad del juicio es cuando, éste, se presenta como evidente. Pero, paradójicamente, lo evidente, va a sostener siguiendo a Descartes, es el conocimiento sin juicio.

Lo bueno es el objeto y mi referencia puede ser errónea, de modo que mi actitud ante las cosas recibe la sanción de las cosas y no de mí. Lo bueno es algo intrínseco a los objetos amados.

Que yo tenga amor u odio a una cosa no prueba sin más que sea buena o mala. Es necesario que ese amor u odio sean justos. El amor puede ser justo o injusto, adecuado o inadecuado. La actitud adecuada ante una cosa buena es amarla y ante una cosa mala, el odiarla. “Decimos que algo es bueno cuando el modo de referencia que consiste en amarlo es el justo. Lo que sea amable con amor justo, lo digno de ser amado, es lo bueno en el más amplio sentido de la palabra»”.

Dos meses después el 27 de marzo de 1889 dicta su conferencia Sobre el concepto de verdad, ahora en la Sociedad filosófica de Viena. Esta conferencia es fundamental por varios motivos: a) muestra el carácter polémico de Brentano, tanto con el historiador de la filosofía Windelbang (1848-1915) por tergiversar a Kant,  como a Kant, “cuya filosofía es un error, que ha conducido a errores mayores y, finalmente, a un caos filosófico completo” (cómo no lo van a silenciar luego, en las universidades alemanas, al viejo Francisco). b) Nos da su opinión sin tapujos sobre Aristóteles diciendo: “Es el espíritu científico más poderoso que jamás haya tenido influencia sobre los destinos de la humanidad”. c) Muestra y demuestra que el concepto de verdad en Aristóteles “adecuación del intelecto y la cosa” ha sido adoptada tanto por Descartes como por Kant hasta llegar a él mismo. Pero que dicho concepto encierra un grave error y allí él va a proponer su teoría del juicio.

Diferencia entre juicios negativos y juicios afirmativos. Así en los juicios negativos “no hay dragones” no hay concordancia entre mi juicio y la cosa porque la cosa no existe. Mientras que en los juicios afirmativos cuando hay concordancia son verdaderos.

el ámbito en que es adecuado el juicio afirmativo es el de la existencia y el del juicio negativo, el de lo no existente”. Por lo tanto “un juicio es verdadero cuando afirma de algo que es, que es; y de algo que no es, niega que sea”.

En los juicios negativos la representación no tiene contenido real, mientras que la verdad de los juicios está condicionada por el existir o ser del la cosa (Sein des Dinges). Así, el ser de la cosa, la existencia es la que funda la verdad del juicio. El “ser del árbol” es lo que hace verdadero al juicio: “el árbol es”.

Y así lo afirma una y otra vez: “un juicio es verdadero cuando juzga apropiadamente un objeto, por consiguiente, cuando si es, se dice que es; y sino es, se dice que no es”.(in fine).

Y desengañado termina afirmando que: “Han transcurrido dos mil años desde que Aristóteles investigó los múltiples sentidos del ente, y es triste, pero cierto, que la mayoría no hayan sabido extraer ningún fruto de sus investigaciones”.

Su propuesta es, entonces, discriminar claramente en el juicio “el ser de la cosa” que es equivalente a ”la existencia”,  de “la cosa” también denominada por Brentano ”lo real”. Existir o existencia,  y ser real o realidad es la dupla de pares que expresan el “ser verdadero” y el “ser sustancial” respectivamente, que él se ocupó de estudiar en su primer trabajo sobre el ente en Aristóteles.

De modo tal que todo lo que es, es. Y se nos dice también en el sentido de lo verdadero. En una palabra el ser de la cosa se convierte con la verdadero, sin buscarlo Brentano retorna al viejo ens et verum convertuntur de la teoría de los transcendentales del ente.

Y así da sus dos últimos y más profundos consejos:  “Por último, no estaremos tentados nunca de confundir, como ha ocurrido cada vez más, el concepto de lo real y el de lo existente”. Y “podríamos extraer de nuestra investigación otra lección y grabarla en nuestras mentes para siempre…el medio definitivo y eficaz (para realizar un juicio verdadero) consiste siempre en una referencia a la intuición de lo individual de la que se derivan todos nuestros criterios generales”.

No podemos no recordar acá, por la coincidencia de los conceptos y consejos, aquella que nos dejara el primer metafísico argentino, Nimio de Anquín (1896-1979),: “Ir siembre a la búsqueda del ser singular en su discontinuidad fantasmagórica. Ir al encuentro con las cosas en su individuación y  potencial universalidad”.[4]

Franz Brentano es el verdadero fundador de la metafísica realista contemporánea que luego continuarán, con sus respectivas variantes,  Husserl, Scheler, Hartmann y Heidegger.

En el mismo siglo XIX, a propósito de la encíclica Aeterni Patris de 1879 se dará el florecimiento del tomismo, sostenedor también, pero de otro modo, de una metafísica realista.

Siempre nos ha llamado la atención que los mejores filósofos españoles del siglo XX se hayan prestado a ser traductores de los libros de Brentano: José Gáos de su Psicología, Manuel García Morente de su Origen del conocimiento moral, Xavier Zubiri de El provenir de la filosofía, Antonio Millán Puelles de Sobre la existencia de Dios. Y siempre nos ha llamado la atención que no se enseñara Brentano en la universidad.

El problema de Brentano es que ha sido “filosóficamente incorrecto”, pues realizó una crítica feroz y terminante a Kant y los kantianos y eso la universidad alemana no se lo perdonó. Realizó una crítica furibunda a la escuela escolástica católica y eso no se le perdonó. Incluso se levantaron invectivas denunciándolo, que al criticar el concepto de analogía del ser, adoptó él, el de equivocidad. Un siglo después, el erudito sobre Aristóteles, Pierre Aubenque, vino a negar en un libro memorable y reconocido universalmente, Le probleme de l´etre chez Aristote (1962) la presencia en los textos del Estagirita del concepto de analogía.(si detrás de esto no está la sombra de Brentano, que no valga).

Polemizó con Zeller, con Dilthey, con Herbart, con Sigwart. Criticó, como ya dijimos, a Kant, Descartes, Hume, Hegel, Aristóteles, y a Überweg. No dejó títere con cabeza. Sólo le faltó pelearse con Goethe. Fue criticado por Freud, que se portó con él como el zorro en el monte que con la cola borra las huellas por donde anda. Husserl no solo tomó y usufructuó el concepto de intencionalidad sino también el de “retención” que es copia exacta de concepto bentaniano de “asociación original”, pero eso quedó bien silenciado.

Filosóficamente, esta oposición por igual al idealismo kantiano y a la escolástica de su tiempo le valió el silencio de los manuales y la marginalización de su obra de las universidades. Quien quiera comprender en profundidad y conocer las líneas de tensión que corren debajo de las ideas de la filosofía del siglo XX, tiene que leer, forzosamente a Brentano, sino se quedará como la mayoría de los profesores de filosofía, en Babia.

El es el testigo irrenunciable de la ligazón profunda que existe en el desarrollo de la metafísica que va desde Aristóteles, pasa por Tomás de Aquino y Duns Escoto , sigue con él y termina en Heidegger. No al ñudo, el filósofo de Friburgo, realizó su tesis doctoral sobre La doctrina de las categorías y del significado pensando que era de Duns Escoto, cuando después se comprobó que el texto de la Gramática especulativa sobre el que trabajó, pertenecía a Thomas de Erfurt (fl.1325).

La invitación está hecha, seguro que algún buen profesor o algún inquieto investigador  recoge el guante.

 

 

Nota: Bibliografía de F. Brentano en castellano

Psicología (desde el punto de vista empírico), Revista de Occidente, Madrid, 1927

Sobre la existencia de Dios, Rialp, Madrid 1979.

Sobre el concepto de verdad, Ed. Complutense, Madrid, 1998

El origen del conocimiento moral, Revista de Occidente, Madrid 1927. (Tecnos, Madrid 2002).

Breve esbozo de una teoría general del conocimiento, Ed. Encuentro, Madrid 2001.

El porvenir de la filosofía, Revista de Occidente, Madrid 1936

Aristóteles y su cosmovisión, Labor, Barcelona 1951.

Sobre los múltiples significados del ente según Aristóteles, Ed. Encuentro, Madrid 2007

 

Razones del desaliento en filosofía, Ed. Encuentro, Madrid, 2010

 

Existen además, en castellano, trabajos de consulta valiosos sobre su filosofía como los debidos a los profesores Mario Ariel González Porta y  Sergio Sánchez-Migallón Granados.

 

 

 

(*) alberto.buela@gmail.com

arkegueta, aprendiz constante, mejor que filósofo

www.disenso.org



[1] Estos datos que pasamos nosotros y muchos más, se pueden encontrar en los buscadores de Internet, no así en los manuales al uso de la historia de la filosofía contemporánea, que, en general, escamotean la figura y los aportes de Brentano. O peor aún, lo limitan al lugar común de inventor de la intencionalidad de la conciencia. 

[2] La persecución que sufrieron los católicos alemanes bajo el gobierno de Bismarck (1871-1890) ha sido terrible. Más de un millón de ellos huyeron a Rusia donde los recibió el Zar con un convenio de estadía por cien años. Pasado el siglo muchos de esos “alemanes del Volga” vinieron a radicarse en la Argentina en la zona de Coronel Suárez, al sur oeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires. Duró tanto el hostigamiento a los católicos de parte de la Kulturkampf, que cuenta Heidegger (1889-1976), que su padre era el sacristán de la iglesia de San Martín de su pueblo natal,  y que los protestantes se la devolvieron, recién, un año antes de que él naciera.

[3] 80 años después, en 1942 publicó Nimio de Anquín en Argentina un trabajo definitivo sobre el tema Las dos concepciones del ente en Aristóteles, Ortodoxia Nº 1, pp.38-69, Buenos Aires, 1942, del que se han privado de leer hasta ahora los europeos. 40 años después, en 1982 con motivo de mi tesis doctoral en la Sorbona bajo la dirección de Pierre Aubenque, vi como éste gran erudito se arrastraba sobre las tintas del libro Z de la Metafísica de  Aristóteles, sin poder llegar a la suela de los zapatos de de Anquín.

[4] Anquín, Nimo de:  Ente y ser, Gredos, Madrid, 1962

Armin Mohler, l'homme qui nous désignait l'ennemi!

mohler.jpg

Thorsten HINZ:

Armin Mohler, l’homme qui nous désignait l’ennemi

 

Le Dr. Karlheinz Weissmann vient de sortir de presse une biographie d’Armin Mohler, publiciste de la droite allemande et historien de la “révolution conservatrice”

 

Armin Mohler ne fut jamais l’homme des demies-teintes!

 

Qui donc Armin Mohler détestait-il? Les libéraux et les tièdes, les petits jardiniers amateurs qui gratouillent le bois mort qui encombre l’humus, c’est-à-dire les nouilles de droite, inoffensives parce que dépouvues de pertinence! Il détestait aussi tous ceux qui s’agrippaient aux concepts et aux tabous que définissait leur propre ennemi. Il considérait que les libéraux étaient bien plus subtils et plus dangereux que les communistes: pour reprendre un bon mot de son ami Robert Hepp: ils nous vantaient l’existence de cent portes de verre qu’ils nous définissaient comme l’Accès, le seul Accès, à la liberté, tout en taisant soigneusement le fait que 99 de ces portes demeuraient toujours fermées. La victoire totale des libéraux a hissé l’hypocrisie en principe ubiquitaire. Les gens sont désormais jugés selon les déclarations de principe qu’ils énoncent sans nécessairement y croire et non pas sur leurs actes et sur les idées qu’ils sont prêts à défendre.

 

Mohler était était un type “agonal”, un gars qui aimait la lutte: sa bouille carrée de Bâlois l’attestait. Avec la subtilité d’un pluvier qui capte les moindres variations du climat, Mohler repérait les courants souterrains de la politique et de la société. C’était un homme de forte sensibilité mais certainement pas un sentimental. Mohler pensait et écrivait clair quand il abordait la politique: ses mots étaient durs, tranchants, de véritables armes. Il était déjà un “conservateur moderne” ou un “néo-droitiste” avant que la notion n’apparaisse dans les médiats. En 1995, il s’était défini comme un “fasciste au sens où l’entendait José Antonio Primo de Rivera”. Mohler se référait ainsi —mais peu nombreux étaient ceux qui le savaient— au jeune fondateur de la Phalange espagnole, un homme intelligent et cultivé, assassiné par les gauches ibériques et récupéré ensuite par Franco.

 

Il manquait donc une biographie de ce doyen du conservatisme allemand d’après guerre, mort en 2003. Karlheinz Weissmann était l’homme appelé à combler cette lacune: il connait la personnalité de Mohler et son oeuvre; il est celui qui a actualisé l’ouvrage de référence de Mohler sur la révolution conservatrice.

 

Pour Mohler seuls comptaient le concret et le réel

 

La sensibilité toute particulière d’Armin Mohler s’est déployée dans le décor de la ville-frontière suisse de Bâle. Mohler en était natif. Il y avait vu le jour en 1920. En 1938, la lecture d’un livre le marque à jamais: c’est celui de Christoph Steding, “Das Reich und die Krankheit der europäischen Kultur” (“Le Reich et la pathologie de la culture européenne”). Pour Steding, l’Allemagne, jusqu’en 1933, avait couru le risque de subir une “neutralisation politique et spirituelle”, c’est-à-dire une “helvétisation de la pensée allemande”, ce qui aurait conduit à la perte de la souveraineté intérieure et extérieure; l’Allemagne aurait dérogé pour adopter le statut d’un “intermédiaire éclectique”. Les peuples qui tombent dans une telle déchéance sont “privés de destin” et tendent à ne plus produire que des “pharisiens nés”. On voit tout de suite que Steding était intellectuellement proche de Carl Schmitt. Quant à ce dernier, il a pris la peine de recenser personnellement le livre, publié à titre posthume, de cet auteur mort prématurément. Dans ce livre apparaissent certains des traits de pensée qui animeront Mohler, le caractériseront, tout au long de son existence.

 

L’Allemagne est devenue pour le jeune Mohler “la grande tentation”, tant et si bien qu’il franchit illégalement le frontière suisse en février 1942 “pour aider les Allemands à gagner la guerre”. Cet intermède allemand ne durera toutefois qu’une petite année. Mohler passa quelques mois à Berlin, avec le statut d’étudiant, et s’y occupa des auteurs de la “révolution conservatrice”, à propos desquels il rédigera sa célèbre thèse de doctorat, sous la houlette de Karl Jaspers. Mohler était un rebelle qui s’insurgeait contre la croyance au progrès et à la raison, une croyance qui estime que le monde doit à terme être tout compénétré de raison et que les éléments, qui constituent ce monde, peuvent être combinés les uns aux autres ou isolés les uns des autres à loisir, selon une logique purement arbitraire. Contre cette croyance et cette vision, Mohler voulait opposer les forces élémentaires de l’art et de la culture, de la nationalité et de l’histoire. Ce contre-mouvement, disait-il, et cela le distinguait des tenants de la “vieille droite”, ne visait pas la restauration d’un monde ancré dans le 19ème siècle, mais tenait expressément compte des nouvelles réalités.

 

Dans un chapitre, intitulé “Du nominalisme”, le Dr. Karlheinz Weissmann explicite les tentatives de Mohler, qui ne furent pas toujours probantes, de systématiser ses idées et ses vues. Il est clair que Mohler rejette toute forme d’universalisme car tout universalisme déduit le particulier d’un ordre spirituel sous-jacent et identitque pour tous, et noie les réalités dans une “mer morte d’abstractions”. Pour le nominaliste Mohler, les concepts avancés par les universalismes ne sont que des dénominations abstraites et arbitraires, inventées a poteriori, et qui n’ont pour effets que de répandre la confusion. Pour Mohler, seuls le concret et le particulier avaient de l’importance, soit le “réel”, qu’il cherchait à saisir par le biais d’images fortes, puissantes et organiques. Par conséquent, ses sympathies personnelles n’étaient pas déterminées par les idées politiques dont se réclamaient ses interlocuteurs mais tenaient d’abord compte de la valeur de l’esprit et du caractère qu’il percevait chez l’autre.

 

En 1950, Mohler devint le secrétaire d’Ernst Jünger. Ce ne fut pas une époque dépourvue de conflits. Après l’intermède de ce secrétariat, vinrent les années françaises de notre théoricien: il devint en effet le correspondant à Paris du “Tat” suisse et de l’hebdomadaire allemand “Die Zeit”. A partir de 1961, il fut le secrétaire, puis le directeur, de la “Fondation Siemens”. Dans le cadre de cette éminente fonction, il a essayé de contrer la dérive gauchisante de la République fédérale, en organisant des colloques de très haut niveau et en éditant des livres ou des publications remarquables. Parmi les nombreux livres que nous a laissés Mohler, “Nasenring” (= “L’anneau nasal”) est certainement le plus célèbre: il constitue une attaque en règle, qui vise à fustiger l’attitude que les Allemands ont prise vis-à-vis de leur propre histoire (la fameuse “Vergangenheitsbewältigung”). En 1969, Mohler écrivait dans l’hebdomadaire suisse “Weltwoche”: “Le ‘Républiquefédéralien’ est tout occupé, à la meilleure manière des méthodes ‘do-it-yourself’, à se faire la guerre à lui-même. Il n’y a pas que lui: tout le monde occidental semble avoir honte de descendre d’hommes de bonne trempe; tout un chacun voudrait devenir un névrosé car seul cet état, désormais, est considéré comme ‘humain’”.

 

En France, Mohler était un adepte critique de Charles de Gaulle. Il estimait que l’Europe des patries, proposée par le Général, aurait été capable de faire du Vieux Continent une “Troisième Force” entre les Etats-Unis et l’Union Soviétique. Dans les années 60, certaines ouvertures semblaient possibles pour Mohler: peut-être pourrait-il gagner en influence politique via le Président de la CSU bavaroise, Franz-Josef Strauss? Il entra à son service comme “nègre”. Ce fut un échec: Strauss, systématiquement, modifiait les ébauches de discours que Mohler avait truffées de références gaulliennes et les traduisait en un langage “atlantiste”. De la part de Strauss, était-ce de la faiblesse ou était-ce le regard sans illusions du pragmatique qui ne jure que par le “réalisable”? Quoi qu’il en soit, on perçoit ici l’un des conflits fondamentaux qui ont divisé les conservateurs après la guerre: la plupart des hommes de droite se contentaient d’une République fédérale sous protectorat américain (sans s’apercevoir qu’à long terme, ils provoquaient leur propre disparition), tandis que Mohler voulait une Allemagne européenne et libre.

 

Le conflit entre européistes et atlantistes provoqua également l’échec de la revue “Die Republik”, que l’éditeur Axel Springer voulait publier pour en faire le forum des hommes de droite hors partis et autres ancrages politiciens: Mohler décrit très bien cette péripétie dans “Nasenring”.

 

Il semble donc bien que ce soit sa qualité de Suisse qui l’ait sauvé de cette terrible affliction que constitue la perte d’imagination chez la plupart des conservateurs allemands de l’après-guerre. Par ailleurs, le camp de la droite établie a fini par le houspiller dans l’isolement. Caspar von Schrenck-Notzing lui a certes ouvert les colonnes de “Criticon”, qui furent pour lui une bonne tribune, mais les autres éditeurs de revues lui claquèrent successivement la porte au nez; malgré son titre de doctorat, il n’a pas davantage pu mener une carrière universitaire. La réunification n’a pas changé grand chose à sa situation: les avantages pour lui furent superficiels et éphémères.

 

La cadre historique, dans lequel nous nous débattions du temps de Mohler, et dans lequel s’est déployée sa carrière étonnante, freinée uniquement par des forces extérieures, aurait pu gagner quelques contours tranchés et précis. On peut discerner aujourd’hui la grandeur de Mohler. On devrait aussi pouvoir mesurer la tragédie qu’il a incarnée. Weissmann constate qu’il existait encore jusqu’au milieu des années 80 une certaine marge de manoeuvre pour la droite intellectuelle en Allemagne mais que cet espace potentiel s’est rétréci parce que la gauche n’a jamais accepté le dialogue ou n’a jamais rien voulu apprendre du réel. Le lecteur se demande alors spontanément: pourquoi la gauche aurait-elle donc dialogué puisque le rapport de force objectif était en sa faveur?

 

Weissmann a donc résussi un tour de force: il a écrit une véritable “biographie politique” d’Armin Mohler. Son livre deviendra un classique.

 

Thorsten HINZ.

(article paru dans “Junge Freiheit”, Berlin, n°31/32-2011; http://www.jugefreiheit.de/ ).

lundi, 29 août 2011

Germany's sovereignty was and is restricted by US and allies

 

Germany's sovereignty was and is restricted by US and allies

mardi, 23 août 2011

The German Death Wish

The German Death Wish

Frank Ellis reviews German’s huge best seller.

Ex: http://www.amren.com/

Thilo Sarrazin, Germany Consigns Itself to Oblivion: How We Are Putting Our Country at Risk, Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, München, 2010, 410 pp. (in German, with German title: Deutschland schafft sich ab: Wie wir unser Land aufs Spiel setzen) €22.99.

Like all Western nations, Germany suffers from waves of immigrants who clearly have no intention of integrating, and from a duplicitous political class that harries its citizens to accept what they instinctively know is wrong. At the same time, because of the Nazi period, the pressure on Germans to conform to the United Nations-sponsored ideology of multiculturalism has been immense. Many Germans themselves treat any assertion of national German pride as a manifestation of neo-Nazi tendencies, as something hideously offensive and shameful.

Germany Consigns Itself to Oblivion, by Thilo Sarrazin

It is this specifically German context that makes the publication of Thilo Sarrazin’s book so remarkable. It is all the more remarkable for having been written by one of Germany’s top technocrats, a person at the very heart of the administrative establishment. Clearly, Mr. Sarrazin, who was until last September 30 on the executive board of the Deutsche Bundesbank, has had enough. He instinctively grasps the truth of Solzhenitsyn’s eleventh commandment: “Thou shall not live by the Lie.” The fact that Mr. Sarrazin’s book has become a best seller in Germany and attracted enormous support may well have prompted Angela Merkel, the German Chancellor, publicly to admit in October that multiculturalism has utterly failed in Germany. Indeed, it has, and not just in Germany.

The title of Mr. Sarrazin’s book has generally been translated as Germany is Abolishing Itself or Germany is Doing Away With Itself. I believe a translation of the German verb abschaffen that does justice to the implications of the book’s themes would be Germany Consigns Itself to Oblivion, or even Germany Commits Suicide or Germany’s Death Wish.

Mr. Sarrazin’s avalanche of evidence and professional analyses left me in no doubt that the suicide diagnosis is accurate. The author underlines the rather obvious but easily forgotten point that Germany is Germany “by virtue of its inhabitants and their living intellectual as well as their cultural traditions. Without the people it would merely be a geographical term.” The same, of course, is true of England, Denmark, China, or Zimbabwe. Mr. Sarrazin notes that for decades it has not been possible to talk about the preservation of Germany, since the left-wing media denounce such talk as Nazi, racist, and xenophobic. Mr. Sarrazin destroys the silence.

Like the highly trained member of the German technocracy that he is, Mr. Sarrazin presents thoroughly researched arguments. Each chapter addresses some aspect of the immigrant problem — poverty, fertility, declining mean IQ and educational standards, spiralling welfare payments, left-wing and intellectual cowardice, the relentless Islamification of Germany — providing the reader with a series of brilliantly written mini-monographs. The whole leads inexorably to his synthesis and the work’s devastating conclusions. Germany Consigns itself to Oblivion is a masterly display of erudition and logical exposition.

Thilo Sarrazin
Thilo Sarrazin discussing his book.

To begin with, Germans, especially high-IQ women, are not having enough children, and the population of indigenous Germans is dropping below replacement rate. This is not, however, a justification for immigration: “[T]he natural population decrease in one country or group of countries may not serve as the basis morally and politically to justify immigration or seizure of land. The territorial principle is an inviolable component of state sovereignty and respect for it serves to maintain peace.”

Mass immigration from the Third World, primarily Turkey, the Middle East and Africa, will not solve the problem of Germany’s aging population because the country’s economic future lies in its human and intellectual capital. Mr. Sarrazin cites studies by Richard Lynn, Tatu Vanhanen, and others that show the average intelligence of people from these areas is well below the European average. He goes on to note that “the three immigrant groups with the greatest lack of education and the highest social costs [Turks, Middle Easterners, and Africans] are also those who are reproducing themselves the most.”

Very few Turks who came to Germany as workers ever returned home. Instead, their families joined them from Turkey, and this has created a huge, hostile underclass. Mr. Sarrazin calls the entire guest worker program “a gigantic error.” He notes that some of the problems Muslims bring are: Below average employment, above average dependence on welfare and handouts, above average fertility, segregation with a tendency to create parallel societies, above average religious participation with an attraction to fundamentalist Islam, and above average criminality and participation in terrorism.

One of the classic features of the black, white, or any underclass is addiction to television. It is the international underclass’s narcotic.

Mr. Sarrazin notes that Germany’s generous, typically European welfare state is cracking under the strain of millions of jobless Third-World immigrants. He nevertheless insists that those who cannot feed themselves and their progeny “should and must be helped.” But what happens when their numbers rise to the point that the means to clothe and feed the poor can no longer be found? The honest answer is that human beings who engage in reckless personal breeding experiments should be free to suffer the consequences, but this is farther than Mr. Sarrazin is prepared to go.

In any case, immigrants who live in parallel societies, courtesy of German and European taxpayers, and who have no intention of integrating cannot be considered fellow citizens. They are aliens who, in my view, do not meet the conditions laid down by Mr. Sarrazin for taxpayer charity. Furthermore, Mr. Sarrazin’s arguments in favor of welfare for foreigners living in Germany are the moral basis for massive transfers of German and European wealth to the Third World. It is common to claim that the starving and diseased in Somalia or Haiti — or wherever the latest Third-World disaster happens to be — are fellow citizens of the world and thus entitled to our money. This is what prompts the demented do-goodery of multimillionaire celebrities and pop stars who want other people’s taxes to subsidize reckless breeding everywhere.

German Turks
“German” Turks wave their flag.

In any case, as Mr. Sarrazin points out, attitudes towards poverty are driven by emotion rather than analysis. He notes that “the poverty risk threshold in Germany today is higher than the average net income of Germans at the high point of the economic miracle at the start of the sixties.” Mr. Sarrazin has even tested his theories about the largesse of the German welfare system. Before he wrote Germany Consigns Itself to Oblivion, he and his wife famously demonstrated that it is possible to live well and healthily on the money provided by the German welfare system. The publicity surrounding this experiment resulted in a television program, and a cameraman told Mr. Sarrazin he had been instructed not to film the apartments of welfare recipients because they were full of electronic gadgets.

Mr. Sarrazin identifies three reasons why any challenge to welfare provokes so much emotion. First, the recipients themselves like the system. Second, hordes of researchers and bureaucrats depend on it for their jobs. Third, if it is possible to live adequately on welfare but those on it do not, it is their own fault rather than some existential catastrophe. It is this last point that triggers the most rage and aggression.

Mr. Sarrazin describes the effects of Germany’s generous welfare, quoting one account of the chaos of life of an immigrant Turkish family that concludes with the observation, “And the flat screen television is always on, always.” It seems that one of the classic features of the black, white, or any underclass is addiction to television. It is the international underclass’s constant narcotic.

Turkish apartments in Germany
Even Turks on welfare watch Turkish
TV with their dish antennas.

Mr. Sarrazin also writes about a small German town where the population of 300 Turks is derived from just two families. One of them boasts, “We don’t need the Germans.” Mr. Sarrazin also mentions Neukölln, one of the boroughs of Berlin, which is just one of many areas where immigrants have displaced the indigenous population. “A German going through these districts would feel like a foreigner in his own country,” he notes, an experience now available to the citizens of virtually any white country.

As in other European countries, the mainstream media ignore immigrant crime or fail to name or describe the criminals, because to do so would show that the perpetrators are immigrants. “Who is actually helped when facts in the public domain are suppressed ...?” asks Mr. Sarrizin. “Certainly neither the truth nor clear analysis or integration.”

Mr. Sarrazin concludes his book with two scenarios: nightmare and salvation. In the nightmare scenario he looks ahead to the end of the 21st century. He sees a Germany that is no longer German. Rampant welfare spending and the failure to control Third-World immigration have effectively turned Germany into a Muslim state. Germany’s famous churches, including Cologne cathedral, have been converted into mosques. There are demands for a new German flag, one with a crescent and star.

Salvation, if it is still possible, comes from the populist right-wing parties all across Europe. Immigration controls are tightened, educational standards rise, and high-IQ women start having more children. The migrant quarters in the big cities shrink and far less Turkish and Arabic is heard on the streets. Germany has been brought back from the brink.

What makes Germany Consigns itself to Oblivion so valuable is Mr. Sarrazin’s fearless, rational honesty. Germans reading this book must experience something similar to that of a Russian reading a samizdat version of Solzhenitsyn’s Gulag Archipelago during the Cold War: an exhilarating experience that only the honest search for truth can deliver. I salute Mr. Sarrazin for his moral courage and intellectual acumen; and God bless his great nation in the struggle to save itself from oblivion.

Editor’s note: Germany Consigns itself to Oblivion was published in Germany in August 2010. It immediately shot to the top of the sales chart at Amazon.de, and dropped to number two only in late December. At that time it had 441 reader reviews, of which 73 percent were five stars, and 13 percent were four stars. Let us hope its enormous success will be the first step back from the brink.

Frank Ellis is an expert in Russian and Slavonic studies who took early retirement from Leeds University in 2006 after publicly stating he believed there is a substantial genetic contribution to racial differences in average intelligence. AR

samedi, 13 août 2011

Towards a New World Order: Carl Schmitt's "The LandAppropriation of a New World"

 

CS.jpg

Towards a New World Order: Carl Schmitt's "The Land Appropriation of a New World"

Gary Ulmen

Ex: http://freespeechproject.com/

 

The end of the Cold War and of the bipolar division of the world has posed again the question of a viable international law grounded in a new world order. This question was already urgent before WWI, given the decline of the ius publicum Europaeum at the end of the 19th century. It resurfaced again after WWII with the defeat of the Third Reich. If the 20th century is defined politically as the period beginning with the "Great War" in 1914 and ending with the collapse of the Soviet empire in 1989, it may be seen as a long interval during which the question of a new world order was suspended primarily because of the confrontation and resulting stalemate between Wilsonianism and Leninism. Far from defining that period, as claimed by the last defenders of Left ideology now reconstituted as "anti-fascism," and despite their devastating impact at the time, within such a context fascism and Nazism end up automatically redimensioned primarily as epiphenomenal reactions of no lasting historical significance. In retrospect, they appear more and more as violent geopolitical answers to Wilsonianism's (and, to a lesser extent, Leninism's) failure to establish a new world order.

Both the League of Nations and the United Nations have sought to reconstitute international law and the nomos of the earth, but neither succeeded. What has passed for international law throughout the 20th century has been largely a transitory semblance rather than a true system of universally accepted rules governing international behavior. The geopolitical paralysis resulting from the unresolved conflict between the two superpowers created a balance of terror that provided the functional equivalent of a stable world order. But this state of affairs merely postponed coming to terms with the consequences of the collapse of the ius publicum Europaeum and the need to constitute a new world order. What is most significant about the end of the Cold War is not so much that it brought about a premature closure of the 20th century or a return to the geopolitical predicament obtaining before WWI, but that it has signaled the end of the modern age--evident in the eclipse of the nation state, the search for new political forms, the explosion of new types of conflicts, and radical changes in the nature of war. Given this state of affairs, today it may be easier to develop a new world order than at any time since the end of the last century.

At the beginning of the 20th century, Ernest Nys wrote that the discovery of the New World was historically unprecedented since it not only added an immense area to what Europeans thought the world was but unified the whole globe.(n1) It also resulted in the European equilibrium of land and sea that made possible the ius publicum Europaeum and a viable world order. In his "Introduction" to The Nomos of the Earth, Carl Schmitt observes that another event of this kind, such as the discovery of some new inhabitable planet able to trigger the creation of a new world order, is highly unlikely, which is why thinking "must once again be directed to the elemental orders of concrete terrestrial existence."(n2) Despite all the spatial exploration and the popular obsession with extra-terrestrial life, today there is no event in sight comparable to the discovery of a New World. Moreover, the end of the Cold War has paved the way for the further expansion of capitalism, economic globalization, and massive advances in communication technologies. Yet the imagination of those most concerned with these developments has failed so far to find any new alternatives to the prevailing thinking of the past decades.



Beyond the Cold War


The two most prominent recent attempts to prefigure a new world order adequate to contemporary political realities have been made by Francis Fukuyama and Samuel P. Huntington.(n3) Fukuyama thinks the West has not only won the Cold War but also brought about the end of history, while Huntington retreats to a kind of "bunker mentality" in view of an alleged decline of the West.(n4) While the one suffers from excessive optimism and the other from excessive pessimism, both fail primarily because they do not deal with the "elemental orders of concrete terrestrial existence" and troth remain trapped in an updated version of Wilsonianism assuming liberal democracy to be the highest achievement of Western culture. While Fukuyama wants to universalize liberal democracy in the global marketplace, If Huntington identifies liberalism with Western civilization. But Huntington is somewhat more realistic than Fukuyama. He not only acknowledges the impossibility of universalizing liberalism but exposes its particularistic nature. Thus he opts for a defense of Western civilization within an international helium omnium contra omnes. In the process, however, he invents an "American national identity" and extrapolates from the decline of liberal democracy to the decline of the West.

Fukuyama's thesis is derived from Alexandre Kojeve's Heideggerian reading of Hegel and supports the dubious notion that the last stage in human history will be a universal and homogeneous state of affairs satisfying all human needs. This prospect is predicated on the arbitrary assumption of the primacy of thymos--the desire for recognition--which both Kojeve and Fukuyama regard as the most fundamental human longing. Ultimately, according to Fukuyama, "Kojeve's claim that we are at the end of history . . . stands or falls on the strength of the assertion that the recognition provided by the contemporary liberal democratic state adequately satisfies the human desire for recognition."(n5) Fukuyama's own claim thus stands or falls on his assumption that at the end of history "there are no serious ideological competitors to liberal democracy."(n6) This conclusion is based on a whole series of highly dubious ideological assumptions, such as that "the logic of modern natural science would seem to dictate a universal evolution in the direction of capitalism"(n7) and that the desire for recognition "is the missing link between liberal economics and liberal politics."(n8)

According to Fukuyama, the 20th century has turned everyone into "historical pessimists."(n9) To reverse this state of affairs, he challenges "the pessimistic view of international relations . . . that goes variously under the titles 'realism,' realpolitik, or 'power politics'."(n10) He is apparently unaware of the difference between a pessimistic view of human nature, on which political realism is based, and a pessimistic view of international relations, never held by political realists such as Niccolo Machiavelli or Hans Morgenthau--two thinkers Fukuyama "analyzes" in order to "understand the impact of spreading democracy on international politics." As a "prescriptive doctrine," he finds the realist perspective on international relations still relevant. As a "descriptive model," however, it leaves much to be desired because: "There was no 'objective' national interest that provided a common thread to the behavior of states in different times and places, but a plurality of national interests defined by the principle of legitimacy in play and the individuals who interpreted it." This betrays a misunderstanding of political realism or, more plausibly, a deliberate attempt to misrepresent it in order to appear original. Although he draws different and even antithetical conclusions, Fukuyama's claim is not inconsistent with political realism.(n11)

Following this ploy, Fukuyama reiterates his main argument that: "Peace will arise instead out of the specific nature of democratic legitimacy, and its ability to satisfy the human longings for recognition."(n12) He is apparently unaware of the distinction between legality and legitimacy, and of the tendency within liberal democracies for legality to become its own mode of legitimation.(n13) Even in countries in which legality remains determined independently by a democratic legislative body, there is no reason to believe it will be concerned primarily or at all with satisfying any "human longing for recognition"; rather, it will pursue whatever goals the predominant culture deems desirable. Consequently, it does not necessarily follow that, were democratic legitimacy to become universalized with the end of the Cold War, international conflict would also end and history along with it. Even Fukuyama admits that: "For the foreseeable future, the world will be divided between a post-historical part, and a part that is still stuck in history. Within the post-historical part, the chief axis of interaction between states would be economic, and the old rules of power politics would have decreasing relevance."(n14)

This is nothing more than the reconfiguration of a standard liberal argument in a new metaphysical guise: the old historical world determined by politics will be displaced by the new post-historical world determined by economics. Schmitt rejected this argument in the 1920s: according to liberals, the "concept of the state should be determined by political means, the concept of society (in essence nonpolitical) by economic means," but this distinction is prejudiced by the liberal aversion to politics understood as a domain of domination and corruption resulting in the privileging of economics understood as "reciprocity of production and consumption, therefore mutuality, equality, justice, and freedom, and finally, nothing less than the spiritual union of fellowship, brotherhood, and justice."(n15) In effect, Fukuyama is simply recycling traditional liberal efforts to eliminate the political(n16)--a maneuver essential for his thesis of the arrival of "the end of history" with the end of the Cold War. Accordingly: "The United States and other liberal democracies will have to come to grips with the fact that, with the collapse of the communist world, the world in which they live is less and less the old one of geopolitics, and that the rules and methods of the historical world are not appropriate to life in the post-historical one. For the latter, the major issues will be economic."(n17) Responding to Walter Rathenau's claim in the 1920s that the destiny then was not politics but economics, Schmitt said "what has occurred is that economics has become political and thereby the destiny."(n18)

For Fukuyama, the old historical world is none other than the European world: "Imperialism and war were historically the product of aristocratic societies. If liberal democracy abolished the class distinction between masters and slaves by making the slaves their own masters, then it too should eventually abolish imperialism."(n19) This inference is based on a faulty analogy between social and international relations. Not surprisingly, Fukuyama really believes that "international law is merely domestic law writ large."(n20) Compounded with an uncritical belief in the theory of progress and teleological history, this leads him to generalize his own and Kojeve's questionable interpretation of the master-slave dialectic (understood as the logic of all social relations) to include international relations: "If the advent of the universal and homogeneous state means the establishment of rational recognition on the level of individuals living within one society, and the abolition of the relationship of lordship and bondage between them, then the spread of that type of state throughout the international system of states should imply the end of relationships of lordship and bondage between nations as well--i.e., the end of imperialism, and with it, a decrease in the likelihood of wars based on imperialism."(n21) Even if a "universal and homogeneous state" were possible today, in an age when all nation-states are becoming ethnically, racially, linguistically and culturally heterogeneous, it is unclear why domestic and international relations should be isomorphic. Rather, the opposite may very well be the case: increasing domestic heterogeneity is matched by an increasingly heterogeneous international scene where "the other" is not regarded as an equal but as "a paper tiger," "the Great Satan," "religious fanatics," etc.

At any rate, imperialism for Fukuyama is not a particular historical phenomenon which came about because of the discovery of the New World at the beginning of the age of exploration by the European powers. Rather, it is seen as the result of some metaphysical ahistorical "struggle for recognition among states."(n22) It "arises directly out of the aristocratic master's desire to be recognized as superior--his megalothymia."(n23) Ergo: "The persistence of imperialism and war after the great bourgeois revolutions of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries is therefore due not only to the survival of an atavistic warrior ethos, but also to the fact that the master's megalothymia was incompletely sublimated into economic activity."(n24) Thus the formal market relation between buyer and seller, both reduced to the level of the hyper-rational and calculating homo oeconomicus, comes to displace the master-slave dialectic whereby, miraculously, the interaction between these economic abstractions generates as much recognition as anyone would want, rendering conflict obsolete and putting an end to history.

In terms of Fukuyama's own formulation, the real end of history, as he understands it, is not even close. In his scenario, since there are still a lot of unresolved conflicts between the historical and the post-historical worlds, there will be a whole series of "world order" problems and "many post-historical countries will formulate an abstract interest in preventing the spread of certain technologies to the historical world, on the grounds that world will be most prone to conflict and violence."(n25) Although the failure of the League of Nations and the UN has led to the general discrediting of "Kantian internationalism and international law," in the final analysis, despite his Heideggerian Hegelianism, Fukuyama does not find the answer to the end of history in Hegel, Nietzsche or even Kojeve,(n26) but rather in Kant, who argued that the gains realized when man moved from the state of nature to civilization were largely nullified by wars between nations. According to Fukuyama, what has not been understood is that "the actual incarnations of the Kantian idea have been seriously flawed from the start by not following Kant's own precepts," by which he means that states based on republican principles are less likely than despotisms to accept the costs of war and that an international federation is only viable if it is based on liberal principles.

Although Huntington has a much better grasp of international relations than Fukuyama, his decline of the West scenario is equally unconvincing. The central theme of his book is that "culture and cultural identities, which at the broadest level are civilization identities, are shaping the patterns of cohesion, disintegration, and conflict in the post-Cold War world."(n27) But whereas Fukuyama couches his thesis in terms of a universal desire for recognition, Huntington couches his thesis in terms of a global search for identity: "Peoples and nations are attempting to answer the most basic question humans can face: Who are we?"(n28) The result is a "multipolar and multi-civilizational" world within which the West should abandon its presumed universalism and defend its own particular identity: "In the clash of civilizations, Europe and America will hang together or hang separately. In the greater clash, the global 'real clash,' between Civilization and barbarism, the worlds great civilizations . . . will also hang together or hang separately. In the emerging era, clashes of civilizations are the greatest threat to world peace, and an international order based on civilizations is the surest safeguard against world war."(n29)

In Huntington's new world, "societies sharing civilizational affinities cooperate with each other."(n30) Leaving aside his cavalier blurring of the differences between cultures, civilizations and societies, what does Huntington regard as the essence of Western particularism? Here he is ambiguous: he first mentions Christianity, then some secular residues of Christianity, but when he adds up the civilizational core of the West it turns out to be none other than liberalism. As Stephen Holmes points out, it is "the same old ideology, plucked inexplicably from the waste-bin of history that once united the West against Soviet Communism."(n31) But Huntington also claims that the West had a distinct identity long before it was modern (since he insists that modernization is distinct from Westernization, so that non-Western societies can modernize without Westernizing, thus retaining their civilizational distinctiveness). In this case, however, the West cannot really be identified with liberalism, nor can its heritage be equated sic et nunc with "American national identity." While liberalism may very well be declining, this need not translate into a decline of the West as such. Similarly, if "American national identity" is threatened by "multiculturalism,"(n32) it need not signal the arrival of barbarians at the gates but may only mark another stage in the statist involution of liberalism. Huntington's fears of a decline of the West at a time when it is actually at the acme of its power and vigor is the result of the unwarranted identification of Western civilization with liberalism and what he understands by "American national identity." Today liberalism has degenerated into an opportunistic statist program of "a small but influential number of intellectuals and publicists," and "American national identity" into a fiction invented as part of a failed project after the War between the States to reconfigure the American federation into a nation-state.(n33)

According to Huntington? the assumption of the universality of Western culture is: false, because others civilizations have other ideals and norms; immoral, because "imperialism is the logical result of universalism"; and dangerous, because it could lead to major civilizational wars.(n34) His equation of universalism and imperialism, however, misses the point of both it misunderstands the philosophical foundations of Western culture and the historical roots of Western imperialism. Other civilizations do have their own ideals and norms, but only Western civilization has an outlook broad enough to embrace all other cultures, which explains why it can readily sponsor and accommodate even confused and counterproductive projects such as "multiculturalism." Of course, Europeans set forth on their journeys of discovery and conquest not only in order to bring Christianity and "civilization" to the world but also to plunder whatever riches they could find. But whatever the reasons, Europeans were the ones who opened the world to global consciousness and what Schmitt called "awakened occidental rationalism."

Until recently, largely because of American cultural hegemony and technological supremacy, the goal of the rest of the world has been "Westernization," which has come to be regarded as synonymous with modernization. In Huntington's "realist" view, however: "A universal civilization requires universal power. Roman power created a near universal civilization within the limited confines of the Classical world. Western power in the form of European colonialism in the nineteenth century and American hegemony in the twentieth century extended Western culture throughout much of the contemporary world. European colonialism is over; American hegemony is receding."(n35) The real question is whether continued American world hegemony is primarily a function of the persistence of colonialism. Despite his emphasis on culture and civilization, Huntington does not appreciate the importance of cultural hegemony.? Had he not restricted the Western tradition to late 20th century liberalism, he may have appreciated the extent to which the rest of the world is becoming increasingly more, rather than less dependent on the US--in communication technologies, financial matters and even aesthetic forms. Today the Internet is potentially a more formidable agency of cultural domination and control than was the British Navy at the peak of the Empire. Here McNeill is right: Huntington's gloomy perception of the decline of the West may merely mistake growing pains for death throes.

If Huntington's salon Spenglerianism were not bad enough, he also adopts a kind of simplistic Schmittianism (without ever mentioning Schmitt). Complementing his "birds of a feather flock together" concept of civilizations --with "core states" assuming a dominant position in relation to "fault line" states--he pictures an "us versus them" type of friend/enemy relations based on ethnic and religious identities. But Schmitt's friend/enemy antithesis is concerned with relations between political groups: first and foremost, states. Accordingly, any organized group that can distinguish between friends and enemies in an existential sense becomes thereby political. Unlike Huntington (or Kojeve, who also explicitly drew geopolitical lines primarily along religious lines(n36), Schmitt did not think in terms of ethnic or religious categories but rather territorial and geopolitical concepts. For Schmitt, the state was the greatest achievement of Western civilization because, as the main agency of secularization, it ended the religious civil wars of the Middle Ages by limiting war to a conflict between states.(n37) In view of the decline of the state, Schmitt analyzed political realities and provided a prognosis of possible future territorial aggregations and new types of political forms.

Huntington finds the "realist" school of international affairs "a highly useful starting point," but then proceeds to criticize a straw man version of it, according to which "all states perceive their interests in the same way and act in the same way." Against it, not only power but also "values, culture, and institutions pervasively influence how states define their interests.... In the post-Cold War world, states increasingly define their interests in civilizational terms."(n38) Had Huntington paid more careful attention to hans Morgenthau, George Kennan or other reputable political realists, he would have concluded that their concept of power is not as limited as his caricature of it. In particular, had he read Schmitt more closely he would not have claimed that nation-states "are and will remain the most important actors in world affairs"(n39)--at a time when economic globalization has severely eroded their former sovereignty and they are practically everywhere threatened with internal disintegration and new geopolitical organizations. At any rate, political realism has been concerned primarily with the behavior of states because they were the main subjects of political life for the past three centuries.(n40) If and when they are displaced by other political forms, political realism then shifts its focus accordingly.

Huntington attempts to think beyond the Cold War. But since he cannot think beyond the nation-state, he cannot conceive of new political forms. When he writes that cultural commonality "legitimates the leadership and order-imposing role of the core state for both member states and for the external powers and institutions,"(n41) he seems to have in mind something akin to the concept of GroBraum.(n42) But Schmitt's model was the American Monroe Doctrine excluding European meddling in the Western Hemisphere. At that time (and well into the 20th century), the US was not a nation-state in the European sense, although it assumed some of these trappings thereafter. Thus it generally followed George Washington's policy--because of the "detached and distant situation" of the US, it should avoid entangling alliances with foreign (primarily European) powers. The Monroe Doctrine simply expanded on the reality and advantages of this situation. Schmitt rightly saw the global line of the Western Hemisphere drawn by the Monroe Doctrine as the first major challenge to the international law of the ius publicum Europaeum.

Given the current understanding of national sovereignty, it is difficult to see what Huntington means by "core state." Despite the title of his book, he has no concept of international law or of world order. Not only does he abandon hope for global regulations governing the behavior of states and civilizations, but he reverts to a kind of anthropological primitivism: "Civilizations are the ultimate human tribes, and the clash of civilizations is tribal conflict on a global scale."(n43) All he can suggest for avoiding major inter-civilizational wars is the "abstention rule" (core states abstain from conflicts in other civilizations), and the "mediation rule" (core states negotiate with each other to halt fault line wars).(n44) Huntington's vision is thus surprisingly conformist--it merely cautions the US from becoming embroiled in the Realpolitik of countries belonging to other civilizational blocs while defending a contrived liberal notion of"Western" civilization.

Anti-Colonialism and Appropriation
The anti-colonialism of both Fukuyama and Huntington is consistent with the predominant 20th century ideology directed primarily against Europe. Anti-colonialism is more historically significant than either anti-fascism and anti-communism. As Schmitt pointed out in 1962: "Both in theory and practice, anti-colonialism has an ideological objective. Above all, it is propaganda--more specifically, anti-European propaganda. Most of the history of propaganda consists of propaganda campaigns which, unfortunately, began as internal European squabbles. First there was France's and England's anti-Spanish propaganda--the leyenda negra of the 15th and 16th centuries. Then this propaganda became generalized during the 18th century. Finally, in the historical view of Arnold Toynbee, a UN consultant, the whole of Europe is indicted as a world aggressor."(n45) Thus it is not surprising that the 500th anniversary of the "discovery" of America was greeted with more condemnation than celebration.(n46)

Anti-colonialism is primarily anti-European propaganda because it unduly castigates the European powers for having sponsored colonialism.(n47) Given that there was no international law forbidding the appropriation of the newly discovered lands--in fact, European international and ecclesiastical law made it legal and established rules for doing so--the moral and legal basis for this judgment is unclear. On closer analysis, however, it turns out to be none other than the West's own universalistic pretenses. Only by ontologizing their particular Western humanist morality--various versions of secularized Christianity--as universally valid for all times and all places can Western intellectuals indict colonialism after the fact as an international "crime." Worse yet, this indictment eventually turns into a wholesale condemnation of Western culture (branded as "Eurocentrism") from an abstract, deterritorialized and deracinated humanist perspective hypostatized to the level of a universally binding absolute morality. Thus the original impulse to vindicate the particularity and otherness of the victims of colonialism turns full circle by subsuming all within a foreign Western frame-work, thereby obliterating the otherness of the original victims. The ideology of anti-colonialism is thus not only anti-European propaganda but an invention of Europeans themselves, although it has been appropriated wholesale and politically customized by the rest of the world.

As for world order, this propaganda has even more fundamental roots: "The odium of colonialism, which today confronts all Europeans, is the odium of appropriation,"(n48) since now everything understood as nomos is allegedly concerned only with distribution and production, even though appropriation remains one of its fundamental, if not the most fundamental, attributes. As Schmitt notes: "World history is a history of progress in the means and methods of appropriation: from land appropriations of nomadic and agricultural-feudal times, to sea appropriations of the 16th and 17th centuries, to the industrial appropriations of the industrial-technical age and its distinction between developed and undeveloped areas, to the present day appropriations of air and space."(n49) More to the point, however, is that "until now, things have somehow been appropriated, distributed and produced. Prior to every legal, economic and social order, prior to every legal, economic or social theory, there is the simple question: Where and how was it appropriated? Where and how was it divided? Where and how was it produced ? But the sequence of these processes is the major problem. It has often changed in accordance with how appropriation, distribution and production are emphasized and evaluated practically and morally in human consciousness. The sequence and evaluation follow changes in historical situations and general world history, methods of production and manufacture--even the image human beings have of themselves, of their world and of their historical situation."(n50) Thus the odium of appropriation exemplified by the rise of anti-colonialism is symptomatic of a changed world situation and changed attitudes. But this state of affairs should not prevent our understanding of what occurred in the past or what is occurring in the present.

In order to dispel the "fog of this anti-European ideology," Schmitt recalls that "everything that can be called international law has for centuries been European international law. . . [and that] all the classical concepts of existing international law are those of European international law, the ius publicum Europaeum. In particular, these are the concepts of war and peace. as well as two fundamental conceptual distinctions: first, the distinction between war and peace, i.e., the exclusion of an in-between situation of neither war nor peace so characteristic of the Cold War; and second, the conceptual distinction between enemy and criminal, i.e. exclusion of the discrimination and criminalization of the opponent so characteristic of revolutionary war--a war closely tied to the Cold War."(n51) But Schmitt was more concerned with the "spatial" aspect of the phenomenon: "What remains of the classical ideas of international law has its roots in a purely Eurocentric spatial order. Anti-colonialism is a phenomenon related to its destruction.... Aside from ... the criminalization of European nations, it has not generated one single idea about a new order. Still rooted, if only negatively, in a spatial idea, it cannot positively propose even the beginning of a new spatial order."(n52)

Having discovered the world as a globe, Europeans also developed the Law of Nations. Hugo Grotius is usually credited with establishing this new discipline with his De lure belli ac pacts (Paris: 1625), since he was the first to deal with the subject as a whole (although various European scholars had dealt at length with themes such as the justice of war, the right of plunder, the treatment of captives, etc.). Nys writes: ". . . from the I 1th to the 1 2th century the genius of Europe developed an association of republics, principalities and kingdoms, which was the beginning of the society of nations. Undoubtedly, some elements of it had been borrowed from Greek and Roman antiquity, from Byzantine institutions, from the Arabo-Berber sultanates on the coast of Africa and from the Moorish kingdoms of Spain. But at the time new sentiments developed, longing for political liberty. The members of this association were united by religious bonds; they had the same faith; they were not widely separated by speech and, at any rate, they had access to Latin, the language of the Church; they admitted a certain equality or at least none of them claimed the right to dominate and rule over the others. A formula came into use to describe this state of affairs: respublica a Christiana, res Christina."(n53)

Steeped in Roman law, 1 3th and 1 4th century jurists opposed any "Law of Nations" recognizing political distinctions between different peoples. In the Roman system, different peoples were only "parts of the Roman Empire." Thus, in a wider sense, ius gentium extended to all civilized peoples and included both public and private law. In a narrower sense, however, it also dealt with the rules governing relations between Romans and foreigners. Understood in this narrower sense, ius gentium promoted the constitution of distinct peoples and consequently kingdoms, intercourse and conflicts between different political communities, and ultimately wars. For this reason, those who still believed in the viability of the Holy Roman Empire thought that this interpretation of ius gentium led to disintegration. This is why the Law of Nations--European public law and international law--did not become a distinct "science" until the Middle Ages.

Spanish theologians first articulated the theoretical and practical problems of ius gentium understood as the Law of Nations. Chief among them was Francisco de Vitoria, whose Relectiones theologicae on the Indians and the right of a "just war" have become classics.(n54) In his lectures, Vitoria invokes the Law of Nations--the ius gentium. At the beginning of the third section of his account of the Spaniards' relations with the aborigines in the New World, he treats them as one people among others, and therefore subject to ius gentium: "The Spaniards have a right to travel into the lands in question and to sojourn there, provided they do no harm to the natives, and the natives may not prevent them. Proof of this may in the first place be derived from the law of nations (ius gentium), which either is natural law or is derived from natural law."(n55) That he understands peoples in the sense of "nations" becomes even more clear when he speaks about gentes nationes. He distinguishes between the political community--the respublica--and the private individual. The latter may defend his person and his property, but he may not avenge wrongs or retake goods after the passage of time. This is the respublica's prerogative--it alone has authority to defend itself and its members. Here Vitoria identifies the prince's authority with that of the state: "The prince is the issue of the election made by the respublica.... The state, properly so called, is a perfect community, that is to say, a community which forms a whole in itself, which, in other words, is not a part of another community, but which possesses its own laws, its own council, its own magistrates."(n56)

Clearly, what developed in Europe from antiquity to the respublica Christiana, from the origin of the sovereign state and ius publicum Europaeum to the Enlightenment and beyond, was as unique and significant as the discovery of the "New World." Yet, given today's predominant ideology, European culture has almost become the truth that dare not speak its name. Not only is Columbus demonized, but the whole Age of Discovery and all of European (Western) culture is dismissed as "imperialistic," "racist?" "sexist," etc. The Nomos of the Earth is a much needed antidote to this anti-European propaganda, which is only a symptom of the crisis of European identity and consciousness.(n57) All the major themes of Schmitt's book are either implicit or explicit in "The Land Appropriation of a New World": the origin and significance of the European and Eurocentric epoch of world history; the discovery of the New World and the American challenge to the European order; the search for a new nomos of the earth; the critique of the discriminatory concept of war; the critique of universalism and the danger of total relativism.

The Conquest of America and the Concept of a "Just War"


In the 20th century, the ideology of anti-colonialism was articulated most prominently by Woodrow Wilson and Vladimir Lenin, signaling the end of European domination in world history. Now, after the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of communism, some American intellectuals have turned this anti-European propaganda against the US, seemingly unaware that their critique is possible only within the orbit of the European culture they otherwise castigate and dismiss. To attack European culture is tantamount to attacking American culture as well, since the latter is but a special case of the former, which is precisely why it has been able to accept and absorb peoples and influences not only from the Western hemisphere but from all over the world. American universalism is but an extension of that same Christian universalism which for centuries has defined European identity. As Schmitt emphasized, the European equilibrium of the ius publicum Europaeum presupposed a seemingly homogeneous Christian Europe, which lasted well into the 19th century. The American project has always been a fundamentally heterogeneous undertaking and Americans have always come from the most diverse ethnic, racial, religious and linguistic backgrounds. But if there had not been some homogeneous culture to unity this diversity, there would have been no distinct American culture which, unfortunately, today many educated Europeans and Americans no longer understand and therefore have come to despise.

A paradigmatic example of this general anti-European syndrome is Tzvetan Todorov's The Conquest of America. In an effort to vindicate the particularity of "the other," the author ends up castigating West European culture as a whole by deploying a secularized version of Christian universalism. Openly acknowledging the moralistic objectives and "mythological" character of his account,(n58) Todorov develops a "politically correct" postmodern interpretation of the Spanish conquista not to understand its historical significance but to show how it has shaped today's Western imperialist identity--one allegedly still unable to come to terms with "the other" and therefore inherently racist, ethnocentric, etc. The book closes with a discussion of "Las Casas' Prophesy" concerning the wrath that "God will vent" not only upon Spain but all of Western Europe because of its "impious, criminal and ignominious deeds perpetrated so unjustly, tyrannically and barbarously."(n59)

Todorov overlooks not only the generally religious framework of Las Casas' prophesy, but also the idiosyncratically Western concept of justice the Dominican bishop deployed. Having ontologized a humanism derived from the Western axiological patrimony, he does not realize the extent to which his postmodernism has already reduced "the other" to "the same," precisely in his effort to vindicate its particularity.(n60) Worse yet, inhibited by his "politically correct" moralism, he not only provides a ridiculous, if academically fashionable, explanation for the Spaniards' success,(n61) but he manages to subvert his own arguments with the very evidence he adduces to support them. He claims that the "present" is more important to him than the past, but in defining genocide he makes no reference whatsoever to either the Armenians or the Holocaust as reference points. Consequently, his claim that "the sixteenth century perpetuated the greatest genocide in human history"(n62) remains not only unsubstantiated but falsified. By his own account, most of the victims died of diseases and other indirect causes: "The Spaniards did not undertake a direct extermination of these millions of Indians, nor could they have done so." The main causes were three, and "the Spaniards responsibility is inversely proportional to the number of victims deriving from each of them: 1. By direct murder, during wars or outside them: a high number, nonetheless relatively small; direct responsibility. 2. By consequence of bad treatment: a high number; a (barely) less direct responsibility. 3. By diseases, by `microbe shock': the majority of the population; an indirect and diffused responsibility."(n63)

Todorov does acknowledge that Columbus was motivated by the "universal victory of Christianity" and that it was Columbus' medieval mentality that led him "to discover America and inaugurate the modern era."(n64) His greatest infraction, however, was that he conquered land rather than people, i.e., he was more interested in nature than in the Indians, which he is treated as "the other", "Columbus summary perception of the Indians [is] a mixture of authoritarianism and condescension . . . In Columus' hermeneutics human beings have no particular place."(n65) Had Todorov set aside his abstract moralizing, he may have realized that the conquest of the New World was primarily a land appropriation. It is not surprising, therefore, that the conquerors thought they were bringing "civilization" to those they conquered--something probably also true of the Mongols who invaded and colonized China, Russia and a few other which, by contrast, had higher than thier own.

The ideological slant of The Conquest of America is by no means unusual. Long before, Schmitt noted that non-European peoples who have undertaken conquest, land appropriations, etc. were not being tarred with the same brush as Europeans.(n66) Unlike Todorov's moralistic tirade, The Nomos of the Earth is dressed to historians and jurists. In no ways does Schmitt excuse the atrocities committed by the Spanish, but rather explains how they were possible in the given circumstances. "The Land Appropriation of a New World" begins with a discussion of the lines drawn by the European powers to divide the world. In this connection, Schmitt discusses the meaning of "beyond the line," which meant beyondn the reach of European law: " At this`line' Europe ended and `New World' began. At any rate, European law -- `European public law' -- ended. Consequently, so did the bracketing of war achieved by the former European international law, meaning the struggle for land appropriations knew no bounds. Beyond the line was an `overseas' zone in which, for want of any legal limits to war, only, the law of the stronger applied."n(67) For Todorov, it is a much simpler explanation: "Far from central government, far from royal law, all prohibitions give way, the social link, already loosened, snaps, revealing not a primitive nature, the beast sleeping in each of us, but a modern being? one with a great future in fact, restrained by no morality and inflicting death because and when he pleases."(n68) The Spaniards are simply racist, ethno-centric, ruthless exploiters, etc., i.e., modern -- they already exhibited traits Todorov claims are characteristic of Western identity.

Of particular interest here are Todorov's comments on Vitoria and the concept of a "just war," since most of Schmitt's chapter is devoted to these subjects. By his own admission, Todorov mixes (in fact, confuses) medieval and modern categories. This is particularly true in the case of Vitoria. Todorov observes that: "Vitoria demolishes the contemporary justifications of the wars waged in America, but nonetheless conceives that `just wars' are possible."(n69) More to the point: "We are accustomed to seeing Vitoria as a defender of the Indians; but if we question, not the subject's intentions, hut the impact of his discourses, it is clear that . . . under the cover of an international law based on reciprocity, he in reality supplies a legal basis to the wars of colonization which had hitherto had none (none which, in any case, might withstand serious consideration)."(n70) But there was no "international law based on reciprocity." Here Todorov is simply transposing modern categories to medieval matters for his own ideological purposes.

Unlike Todorov, Schmitt places the problem in perspective: "For 400 years, from the 16th to the 20th century, the structure of European international law was determined by a fundamental course of events the conquest of the New World. Then, as later, there were numerous positions taken with respect to the justice or injustice of the conquista. Nevertheless, the fundamental problem the justification of European land appropriations as a whole -- was seldom addressed in any systematic way outside moral and legal questions. In fact, only one monograph deals with this problem systematically and confronts it squarely in terms of international law.... It is the famous relectiones of Francisco de Vitoria."(n71) Vitoria rejected the contrary opinions of other theologians and treated Christians and non-Christians alike. He did not even accept discovery, which was the recognized basis of legal title from the 1 6th to the 1 8th century, as legitimate. More to the point, he considered global lines beyond which the distinction between justice and injustice was suspended not only a sin but an appalling crime. However: "Vitoria's view of the conquista was ultimately altogether positive. Most significant for him was the fait accompli of Christianization. . . . The positive conclusion is reached only by means of general concepts and with the aid of objective arguments in support of a just war.... If barbarians opposed the right of free passage and free missions, of liberum commercium and free propaganda, then they would violate the existing rights of the Spanish according to ius gentium; if the peaceful treaties of the Spanish were of no avail, then they had grounds for a just war."(n72)

The papal missionary mandate was the legal foundation of the conquista. This was not only the pope's position but also that of the Catholic rulers of Spain. Vitoria's arguments were entirely consistent with the spatial order and the international law of the respublica Christiana. One cannot apply modern categories to a medieval context without distorting both: "In the Middle Ages, a just war could he a just war of aggression. Clearly, the formal structure of the two concepts of justice are completely different. As far as the substance of medieval justice is concerned, however, it should be remembered that Vitoria's doctrine of a just war is argued on the basis of a missionary mandate issued by a potestas spiritualis that was not only institutionally stable but intellectually self-evident. The right of liberum commercium as well as the ius peregrinandi are to facilitate the work of Christian missions and the execution of the papal missionary mandate.... Here we are interested only in the justification of land appropriation--a question Vitoria reduced to the general problem of a just war. All significant questions of an order based on international law ultimately meet in the concept of a just war."(n73)

 

 

The Question of a New Nomos of the Earth


Following chapters on "The Land Appropriation of a New World" and "The Ius Publicum Europaeum," Schmitt concludes his book with a chapter titled "The Question of a New Nomos of the Earth, which is concerned primarily with the transformation of the concept of war. Clearly, this problem was uppermost in Schmitt's mind following Germany's total defeat in WWII and the final destruction of the European system of states. But he had already devoted a treatise to the development of a discriminatory concept of war following WWI,(n74) and in 1945 he wrote a legal opinion on the criminality of aggressive war.(n75) Despite whatever self-serving motives he may have had in writing these works,(n76) they are consistent with the historical and juridical structure of international law during the respublica Christiana, the ius publicum Europaeum, and what remains of international law today.

This progression can be put into perspective by following Schmitt's discussion of Vitoria's legacy: "Vitoria was in no sense one of the `forerunners of modern lawyers dealing with constitutional questions.'. . . Abstracted entirely from spatial viewpoints, Vitoria's ahistorical method generalizes many European historical concepts specific to the ius gentium of the Middle Ages (such as yolk prince and war) and thereby strips them of their historical particularity."(n77) In this context, Schmitt mentions the works of Ernest Nys, which paved the way for the popularization of Vitoria's ideas after WWI but who, because of his belief in humanitarian progress, also contributed to the criminalization of aggressive war. This was also true of James Brown Scott, the leading American expert on international law, who blatantly instrumentalized Vitoria's doctrines concerning free trade (liberum commercium, the freedom of propaganda, and a just war) to justify American economic imperialism. Schmitt sums up Sctott's argument as follows: "War should cease to be simply a legally recognized matter or only one of legal indifference; rather, it should again become a just war in which the aggressor as such is declared a felon in the full criminal sense of the word. The former right to neutrality, grounded in the international law of the ius publicum Europaeum and based on the equivalence of just and unjust war, should also and accordingly be eliminated."(n78)

Here then is the crux of the matter. Vitoria's thinking is based on the international law obtaining during the Christian Middle Ages rather than on the international law between states established with the ius publicum Europaeum. Moreover, as Schmitt points out, Vitoria was not a jurist but a theologian: "Based on relations between states, post-medieval international law from the 1 6th to the 20th century sought to repress the iusta causa. The formal reference point for the determination of a just war was no longer the authority of the Church in international law but rather the equal sovereignty of states. Instead of iusta causa, the order of international law between states was based on iustus hostis; any war between states, between equal sovereigns, was legitimate. On the basis of this juridical formalization, a rationalization and humanization--a bracketing--of war was achieved for 200 years." The turn to "the modern age in the history of international law was accomplished by a dual division of two lines of thought that were inseparable in the Middle Ages -- the definitive separation of moral-theological from juridical-political arguments and the equally important separation of the question of iusta causa, grounded in moral arguments and natural law," from the juridical question of iustus hostis, distinguished from the criminal, i.e., from object of punitive action."(n79)

With the end of the ius publicum Europaeum, the concept of war changed once again: moralistic (rather than theologically-based) arguments became confused with political arguments, and the iusta causa displaced the just enemy (iustus hostis). Accordingly, war became a crime and the aggressor a criminal, which means that the current distinction between just and unjust war lacks any relation to Vitoria and does not even attempt to determine the iusta causa.(n80) According to Schmitt: "If today some formulas of the doctrine of a just war rooted in the concrete order of the medieval respublica Christiana are utilized in modern and global formulas, this does not signify a return to, but rather a fundamental transformation of concepts of enemy, war, concrete order and justice presupposed in medieval doctrine."(n81) This transformation is crucial to any consideration of a new nomos of the earth because these concepts must be rooted in a concrete order. Lacking such an order or nomos, these free-floating concepts do not constitute institutional standards but have only the value of ideological slogans.

Unimpressed with the duration of the Cold War and its mixture of neither war nor peace, Schmitt speculated on the possibility of the eventual development of what he called GroBetaraume(n82) -- larger spatial entities, similar to but not synonymous with federations or blocs --displacing states and constituting a new nomos.(n83) Since his death in 1985 and the subsequent collapse of communism, the likelihood of his diagnosis and prognosis has increased. While the international situation remains confused and leading intellectuals such as Fukuyama and Huntington, unable to think behind predominant liberal democratic categories, can only recycle new versions of the old Wilsonianism, Schmitt's vision of a world of GroBetaraume as a new geopolitical configuration may well be in the process of being realized.

vendredi, 12 août 2011

Schopenhauer: el primer golpe a la Ilustracion

 

 

arthur-schopenhauer.jpg

Schopenhauer: el primer golpe a la Ilustración

 

Alberto Buela (*)

 

En Arturo Schopenhauer (1788-1860) toda su filosofía se apoya en Kant y forma parte del idealismo alemán pero lo novedoso es que sostiene dos rasgos existenciales antitéticos con ellos: es un pesimista  y no es un profesor a sueldo del Estado. Esto último deslumbró a Nietzsche.

Hijo de un gran comerciante de Danzig, su posición acomodada lo liberó de las dos servidumbres de su época para los filósofos: la teología protestante o la docencia privada. Se educó a través de sus largas estadías en Inglaterra, Francia e Italia (Venecia). Su apetito sensual, grado sumo, luchó siempre la serena  reflexión filosófica. Su soltería y misoginia nos recuerda el tango: en mi vida tuve muchas minas pero nunca una mujer. En una palabra, conoció la hembra pero no a la mujer.

Ingresa en la Universidad de Gotinga donde estudia medicina, luego frecuenta a Goethe, sigue cursos en Berlín con Fichte y se doctora en Jena con una tesis sobre La cuádruple raíz del principio de razón suficiente en 1813.

En 1819 publica su principal obra El mundo como voluntad y representación y toda su producción posterior no va ha ser sino un comentario aumentado y corregido de ella. Nunca se retractó de nada ni nunca cambió. Obras como La voluntad en la naturaleza (1836),  Libertad de la voluntad (1838), Los dos problemas fundamentales de la ética (1841) son simples escolios a su única obra principal.

Sobre él ha afirmado el genial Castellani: “Schopen es malo, pero simpático. No fue católico por mera casualidad. Y fue lástima porque tenía ala calderoniana y graciana, a quienes tradujo. Pero fue  “antiprotestante” al máximo, como Nietzsche, lo cual en nuestra opinión no es poco…Tuvo dos fallas: fue el primer filósofo existencial sin ser teólogo y quiso reducir a la filosofía aquello que pertenece a la teología” [1]

En 1844 reedita su trabajo cumbre, aunque no se habían vendido aun los ejemplares de su primera edición, llevando los agregados al doble la edición original.

Nueve años antes de su muerte publica dos tomos pequeños Parerga y Parilepómena, ensayos de acceso popular donde trata de los más diversos temas, que tienen muy poco que ver con su obra principal, pero que le dan una cierta popularidad al ser los más leídos de sus libros. Al final de sus días Schopenhauer gozó del reconocimiento que tanto buscó y que le fue esquivo.

Schopenhauer siguió los cursos de Fichte en Berlín varios años y como “el fanfarrón”, así lo llama, parte y depende también de Kant.

Así, ambos reconocen que el mérito inmortal de la crítica kantiana de la razón es haber establecido, de una vez y para siempre, que los entes, el mundo de las cosas que percibimos por los sentidos y reproducimos en el espíritu, no es el mundo en sí sino nuestro mundo, un producto de nuestra organización psicofísica.

La clara distinción en Kant entre sensibilidad y entendimiento pero donde el entendimiento no puede separarse realmente de los sentidos y refiere a una causa exterior la sensación que aparece bajo las formas de espacio y tiempo, viene a explicar a los entes, las cosas como fenómenos pero no como “cosas en sí”.

Muy acertadamente observa Silvio Maresca que: “Ante sus ojos- los de Schopenhauer- el romanticismo filosófico y el idealismo (Fichte-Hegel) que sucedieron casi enseguida a la filosofía kantiana, constituían una tergiversación de ésta. ¿Por qué? Porque abolían lo que según él era el principio fundamental: la distinción entre los fenómenos y la cosa en sí”.[2]

Fichte a través de su Teoría de la ciencia va a sostener que el no-yo (los entes exteriores) surgen en el yo legalmente pero sin fundamento. No existe una tal cosa en sí. El mundo sensible es una realidad empírica que está de pie ahí. La ciencia de la naturaleza es necesariamente materialista. Schopenhauer es materialista, pero va a afirmar: Toda la imagen materialista del mundo, es solo representación, no “cosa en sí”. Rechaza la tesis que todo el mundo fenoménico sea calificado como un producto de la actividad inconciente del yo. ¿Que es este mundo además de mi representación?, se pregunta. Y responde que se debe partir del hombre que es lo dado y de lo más íntimo de él, y eso debe ser a su vez lo más íntimo del mundo y esto es la voluntad. Se produce así en Schopenhauer un primado de lo práctico sobre lo teórico.

La voluntad es, hablando en kantiano “la cosa en sí” ese afán infinito que nunca termina de satisfacerse, es “el vivir” que va siempre al encuentro de nuevos problemas. Es infatigable e inextinguible.

La voluntad no es para el pesimista de Danzig la facultad de decidir regida por la razón como se la entiende regularmente sino sólo el afán, el impulso irracional que comparten hombre y mundo. “Toda fuerza natural es concebida per analogiam con aquello que en nosotros mismos conocemos como voluntad”.

Esa voluntad irracional para la que el mundo y las cosas son solo un fenómeno no tiene ningún objetivo perdurable sino sólo aparente (por trabajar sobre fenómenos) y entonces todo objetivo logrado despierta nuevas necesidades (toda satisfacción tiene como presupuesto el disgusto de una insatisfacción) donde el no tener ya nada que desear preanuncia la muerte o la liberación.

Porque el más sabio es el que se percata que la existencia es una sucesión de sin sabores que no conduce a nada y se desprende del mundo. No espera la redención del progreso y solo practica la no-voluntad.

El pesimista de Danzig al identificar la voluntad irracional con la “cosa en sí” puede afirmar sin temor que “lo real es irracional y lo irracional es lo real” con lo que termina invirtiendo la máxima hegeliana “todo lo racional es real y todo lo real es racional”. Es el primero del los golpes mortales que se le aplicará  al racionalismo iluminista, luego vendrá Nietzsche y más tarde Scheler y Heidegger. Pero eso ya es historia conocida. Salute.

 

Post Scriptum: 

Schopenhauer en sus últimos años- que además de hablar correctamente en italiano, francés e inglés, hablaba, aunque con alguna dificultad, en castellano. La hispanofilia de Schopenhauer se reconoce en toda su obra pues cada vez que cita, sobre todo a Baltasar Gracián (1601-1658), lo hace en castellano. Aprendió el español para traducir el opúsculo Oráculo manual (1647). También cita a menudo El Criticón a la que considera “incomparable”. Existe actualmente en Alemania y desde hace unos quince años una revista de pensamiento no conformista denominada “Criticón”. También cita y traduce a Calderón de la Barca.

Miguel de Unamuno fue el primero que realizó algunas traducciones parciales del filósofo de Danzig, como corto pago para una deuda hispánica con él. En Argentina ejerció influencia sobre Macedonio Fernández y sobre su discípulo Jorge Luis Borges. Tengo conocimiento de dos buenos artículos sobre Schopenhauer en nuestro país: el del cura Castellani (Revista de la Universidad de Buenos Aires, cuarta época, Nº 16, 1950) y el mencionado de Maresca.

 

(*) alberto.buela@gmail.com   www.disenso.org



[1] Castellani, Leonardo: Schopenhaue, en Revista de la Universidad de Buenos Aires, cuarta época, Nº 16, 1950, pp.389-426

[2] Maresca, Silvio: En la senda de Nietzsche, Catálogos, Buenos Aires, 1991, p. 20

Carl Schmitt's Decisionism

Carl Schmitt's Decisionism

Paul Hirst

Ex: http://freespeechproject.com/

 

politik.gifSince 1945 Western nations have witnessed a dramatic reduction in the variety of positions in political theory and jurisprudence. Political argument has been virtually reduced to contests within liberal-democratic theory. Even radicals now take representative democracy as their unquestioned point of departure. There are, of course, some benefits following from this restriction of political debate. Fascist, Nazi and Stalinist political ideologies are now beyond the pale. But the hegemony of liberal-democratic political agreement tends to obscure the fact that we are thinking in terms which were already obsolete at the end of the nineteenth century.

Nazism and Stalinism frightened Western politicians into a strict adherence to liberal democracy. Political discussion remains excessively rigid, even though the liberal-democratic view of politics is grossly at odds with our political condition. Conservative theorists like Hayek try to re-create idealized political conditions of the mid nineteenth century. In so doing, they lend themselves to some of the most unsavoury interests of the late twentieth century - those determined to exploit the present undemocratic political condition. Social-democratic theorists also avoid the central question of how to ensure public accountability of big government. Many radicals see liberal democracy as a means to reform, rather than as what needs to be reformed. They attempt to extend governmental action, without devising new means of controlling governmental agencies. New Right thinkers have reinforced the situation by pitting classical liberalism against democracy, individual rights against an interventionist state. There are no challenges to representative democracy, only attempts to restrict its functions. The democratic state continues to be seen as a sovereign public power able to assure public peace.

The terms of debate have not always been so restricted. In the first three decades of this century, liberal-democratic theory and the notion of popular sovereignty through representative government were widely challenged by many groups. Much of this challenge, of course, was demagogic rhetoric presented on behalf of absurd doctrines of social reorganization. The anti-liberal criticism of Sorel, Maurras or Mussolini may be occassionally intriguing, but their alternatives are poisonous and fortunately, no longer have a place in contemporary political discussion. The same can be said of much of the ultra-leftist and communist political theory of this period.

Other arguments are dismissed only at a cost. The one I will consider here - Carl Schmitt's 'decisionism' - challenges the liberal-democratic theory of sovereignty in a way that throws considerable light on contemporary political conditions. His political theory before the Nazi seizure of power shared some assumptions with fascist political doctrine and he did attempt to become the 'crown jurist' of the new Nazi state. Nevertheless, Schmitt's work asks hard questions and points to aspects of political life too uncomfortable to ignore. Because his thinking about concrete political situations is not governed by any dogmatic political alternative, it exhibits a peculiar objectivity.

Schmitt's situational judgement stems from his view of politics or, more correctly, from his view of the political as 'friend-enemy' relations, which explains how he could change suddenly from contempt for Hitler to endorsing Nazism. If it is nihilistic to lack substantial ethical standards beyond politics, then Schmitt is a nihilist. In this, however, he is in the company of many modern political thinkers. What led him to collaborate with the Nazis from March 1933 to December 1936 was not, however, ethical nihilism, but above all concern with order. Along with many German conservatives, Schmitt saw the choice as either Hitler or chaos. As it turned out, he saved his life but lost his reputation. He lived in disrepute in the later years of the Third Reich, and died in ignominy in the Federal Republic. But political thought should not be evaluated on the basis of the authors' personal political judgements. Thus the value of Schmitt's work is not diminished by the choices he made.

Schmitt's main targets are the liberal-constitutional theory of the state and the parliamentarist conception of politics. In the former, the state is subordinated to law; it becomes the executor of purposes determined by a representative legislative assembly. In the latter, politics is dominated by 'discussion,' by the free deliberation of representatives in the assembly. Schmitt considers nineteenth-century liberal democracy anti-political and rendered impotent by a rule-bound legalism, a rationalistic concept of political debate, and the desire that individual citizens enjoy a legally guaranteed 'private' sphere protected from the state. The political is none of these things. Its essence is struggle.

In The Concept of the Political Schmitt argues that the differentia specifica of the political, which separates it from other spheres of life, such as religion or economics, is friend-enemy relations. The political comes into being when groups are placed in a relation of emnity, where each comes to perceive the other as an irreconcilable adversary to be fought and, if possible, defeated. Such relations exhibit an existential logic which overrides the motives which may have brought groups to this point. Each group now faces an opponent, and must take account of that fact: 'Every religious, moral, economic, ethical, or other antithesis transforms itself into a political one if it is sufficiently strong to group human beings effectively according to friends and enemy.' The political consists not in war or armed conflict as such, but precisely in the relation of emnity: not competition but confrontation. It is bound by no law: it is prior to no law.

For Schmitt: 'The concept of the state presupposes the concept of the political.' States arise as a means of continuing, organizing and channeling political struggle. It is political struggle which gives rise to political order. Any entity involved in friend-enemy relations is by definition political, whatever its origin or the origin of the differences leading to emnity: 'A religious community which wages wars against members of others religious communities or engages in other wars is already more than a religious community; it is a political entity.' The political condition arises from the struggle of groups; internal order is imposed to pursue external conflict. To view the state as the settled and orderly administration of a territory, concerned with the organization of its affairs according to law, is to see only the stabilized results of conflict. It is also to ignore the fact that the state stands in a relation of emnity to other states, that it holds its territory by means of armed force and that, on this basis of a monopoly of force, it can make claims to be the lawful government of that territory. The peaceful, legalistic, liberal bourgeoisie is sitting on a volcano and ignoring the fact. Their world depends on a relative stabilization of conflict within the state, and on the state's ability to keep at bay other potentially hostile states.

For Hobbes, the political state arises from a contract to submit to a sovereign who will put an end to the war of all against all which must otherwise prevail in a state of nature - an exchange of obediance for protection. Schmitt starts where Hobbes leaves off - with the natural condition between organized and competing groups or states. No amount of discussion, compromise or exhortation can settle issues between enemies. There can be no genuine agreement, because in the end there is nothing to agree about. Dominated as it is by the friend-enemy alternative, the political requires not discussion but decision. No amount of reflection can change an issue which is so existentially primitive that it precludes it. Speeches and motions in assemblies should not be contraposed to blood and iron but with the moral force of the decision, because vacillating parliamentarians can also cause considerable bloodshed.

In Schmitt's view, parliamentarism and liberalism existed in a particular historical epoch between the 'absolute' state of the seventeenth century and the 'total state' of the twentieth century. Parliamentary discussion and a liberal 'private sphere' presupposed the depoliticization of a large area of social, economic and cultural life. The state provided a legally codified order within which social customs, economic competition, religious beliefs, and so on, could be pursued without becoming 'political.' 'Politics' as such ceases to be exclusively the atter of the state when 'state and society penetrate each other.' The modern 'total state' breaks down the depoliticization on which such a narrow view of politics could rest:

 

Heretofore ostensibly neutral domains - religion, culture, education, the economy - then cease to be neutral. . . Against such neutralizations and depoliticizations of important domains appears the total state, which potentially embraces every domain. This results in the identity of the state and society. In such a state. . . everything is at least potentially political, and in referring to the state it is no longer possible to assert for it a specifically political characteristic.

 



Democracy and liberalism are fundamentally antagonistic. Democracy does away with the depoliticizations characteristic of rule by a narrow bourgeois stratum insulated from popular demands. Mass politics means a broadening of the agenda to include the affairs of all society - everything is potentially political. Mass politics also threatens existing forms of legal order. The politicization of all domains increases pressure on the state by multiplying the competing interests demanding action; at the same time, the function of the liberal legal framework - the regulating of the 'private sphere' - become inadequate. Once all social affairs become political, the existing constitutional framework threatens the social order: politics becomes a contest of organized parties seeking to prevail rather than to acheive reconciliation. The result is a state bound by law to allow every party an 'equal chance' for power: a weak state threatened with dissolution.

Schmitt may be an authoritarian conservative. But his diagnosis of the defects of parliamentarism and liberalism is an objective analysis rather than a mere restatement of value preferences. His concept of 'sovereignty' is challenging because it forces us to think very carefully about the conjuring trick which is 'law.' Liberalism tries to make the state subject to law. Laws are lawful if properly enacted according to set procedures; hence the 'rule of law.' In much liberal-democratic constitutional doctrine the legislature is held to be 'sovereign': it derives its law-making power from the will of the people expressed through their 'representatives.' Liberalism relies on a constituting political moment in order that the 'sovereignty' implied in democratic legislatures be unable to modify at will not only specific laws but also law-making processes. It is therefore threatened by a condition of politics which converts the 'rule of law' into a merely formal doctrine. If this 'rule of law' is simply the people's will expressed through their representatives, then it has no determinate content and the state is no longer substantially bound by law in its actions.

Classical liberalism implies a highly conservative version of the rule of law and a sovereignty limited by a constitutive political act beyond the reach of normal politics. Democracy threatens the parliamentary-constitutional regime with a boundless sovereign power claimed in the name of the 'people.' This reveals that all legal orders have an 'outside'; they rest on a political condition which is prior to and not bound by the law. A constitution can survive only if the constituting political act is upheld by some political power. The 'people' exist only in the claims of that tiny minority (their 'representatives') which functions as a 'majority' in the legislative assembly. 'Sovereignty' is thus not a matter of formal constitutional doctrine or essentially hypocritical references to the 'people'; it is a matter of determining which particular agency has the capacity - outside of law - to impose an order which, because it is political, can become legal.

Schmitt's analysis cuts through three hundred years of political theory and public law doctrine to define sovereignty in a way that renders irrelevant the endless debates about principles of political organization or the formal constitutional powers of different bodies.

 

From a practical or theoretical perspective, it really does not matter whether an abstract scheme advanced to define sovereignty (namely, that sovereignty is the highest power, not a derived power) is acceptable. About an abstract concept there will be no argument. . . What is argued about is the concrete application, and that means who decides in a situation of conflict what constitutes the public interest or interest of the state, public safety and order, le salut public, and so on. The exception, which is not codified in the existing legal order, can at best be characterized as a case of extreme peril, a danger to the existence of the state, or the like, but it cannot be circumscribed factually and made to conform to a preformed law.

 



Brutally put: ' Sovereign is he who decides on the exception.' The sovereign is a definite agency capable of making a decision, not a legitimating category (the 'people') or a purely formal definition (plentitude of power, etc.). Sovereignty is outside the law, since the actions of the sovereign in the state of exception cannot be bound by laws since laws presuppose a normal situation. To claim that this is anti-legal is to ignore the fact that all laws have an outside, that they exist because of a substantiated claim on the part of some agency to be the dominant source of binding rules within a territory. The sovereign determines the possibility of the 'rule of law' by deciding on the exception: 'For a legal order to make sense, a normal situation must exist, and he is sovereign who definitely decides whether this normal situation actually exists.'

Schmitt's concept of the exception is neither nihilistic nor anarchistic, it is concerned with the preservation of the state and the defence of legitimately constituted government and the stable institutions of society. He argues that ' the exception is different from anarchy and chaos.' It is an attempt to restore order in a political sense. While the state of exception can know no norms, the actions of the sovereign within the state must be governed by what is prudent to restore order. Barbaric excess and pure arbitrary power are not Schmitt's objecty. power is limited by a prudent concern for the social order; in the exception, 'order in the juristic sense still prevails, even if it is not of the ordinary kind.' Schmitt may be a relativist with regard to ultimate values in politics. But he is certainly a conservative concerned with defending a political framework in which the 'concrete orders' of society can be preserved, which distinguishes his thinking from both fascism and Nazism in their subordination of all social institutions to such idealized entities as the Leader and the People. For Schmitt, the exception is never the rule, as it is with fascism and Nazism. If he persists in demonstrating how law depends on politics, the norm on the exception, stability on struggle, he points up the contrary illusions of fascism and Nazism. In fact, Schmitt's work can be used as a critique of both. The ruthless logic in his analsysis of the political, the nature of soveriegnty, and the exception demonstrates the irrationality of fascism and Nazism. The exception cannot be made the rule in the 'total state' without reducing society to such a disorder through the political actions of the mass party that the very survival of the state is threatened. The Nazi state sought war as the highest goal in politics, but conducted its affairs in such a chaotic way that its war-making capacity was undermined and its war aims became fatally overextended. Schmitt's friend-enemy thesis is concerned with avoiding the danger that the logic of the political will reach its conclusion in unlimited war.

Schmitt modernizes the absolutist doctrines of Bodin and Hobbes. His jurisprudence restores - in the exception rather than the norm - the sovereign as uncommanded commander. For Hobbes, lawas are orders given by those with authority - authoritas non veritas facit legem. Confronted with complex systems of procedural limitation in public law and with the formalization of law into a system, laws become far more complex than orders. Modern legal positivism could point to a normal liberal-parliamentary legal order which did and still does appear to contradict Hobbes. Even in the somewhat modernized form of John Austin, the Hobbesian view of sovereignty is rejected on all sides. Schmitt shared neither the simplistic view of Hobbes that this implies, nor the indifference of modern legal positivism to the political foundation of law. He founded his jurisprudence neither on the normal workings of the legal order nor on the formal niceties of constitutional doctrine, but on a condition quite alien to them. 'Normalcy' rests not on legal or constitutional conditions but on a certain balance of political forces, a certain capacity of the state to impose order by force should the need arise. This is especially true of liberal-parliamentary regimes, whose public law requires stablization of political conflicts and considerable police and war powers even to begin to have the slightest chance of functioning at all. Law cannot itself form a completely rational and lawful system; the analysis of the state must make reference to those agencies which have the capacity to decide on the state of exception and not merely a formal plentitude of power.

In Political Theology Schmitt claims that the concepts of the modern theory of the state are secularized theological concepts. This is obvious in the case of the concept of sovereignty, wherein the omnipotent lawgiver is a mundane version of an all-powerful God. He argues that liberalism and parliamentarism correspond to deist views of God's action through constant and general natural laws. His own view is a form of fundamentalism in which the exception plays the same role in relation to the state as the miracles of Jesus do in confirming the Gospel. The exception reveals the legally unlimited capacity of whoever is sovereign within the state. In conventional, liberal-democratic doctrine the people are sovereign; their will is expressed through representatives. Schmitt argues that modern democracy is a form of populism in that the people are mobilized by propaganda and organized interests. Such a democracy bases legitimacy on the people's will. Thus parliament exists on the sufferance of political parties, propaganda agencies and organized interest which compete for popular 'consent.' When parliamentary forms and the rule of 'law' become inadequate to the political situation, they will be dispensed with in the name of the people: 'No other constitutional institution can withstand the sole criterion of the people's will, however it is expressed.'

Schmitt thus accepts the logic of Weber's view of plebiscitarian democracy and the rise of bureaucratic mass parties, which utterly destroy the old parliamentary notables. He uses the nineteenth-century conservatives Juan Donoso Cortes to set the essential dilemma in Political Theology: either a boundless democracy of plebiscitarian populism which will carry us wherever it will (i.e. to Marxist or fascist domination) or a dictatorship. Schmitt advocates a very specific form of dictatorship in a state of exception - a "commissarial' dictatorship, which acts to restore social stability, to preserve the concrete orders of society and restore the constitution. The dictator has a constitutional office. He acts in the name of the constitution, but takes such measures as are necessary to preserve order. these measures are not bound by law; they are extralegal.

Schmitt's doctrine thus involves a paradox. For all its stress on friend-enemy relations, on decisive political action, its core, its aim, is the maintenance of stability and order. It is founded on a political non-law, but not in the interest of lawlessness. Schmitt insists that the constitution must be capable of meeting the challenge of the exception, and of allowing those measures necessary to preserve order. He is anti-liberal because he claims that liberalism cannot cope with the reality of the political; it can only insist on a legal formalism which is useless in the exceptional case. He argues that only those parties which are bound to uphold the constitution should be allowed an 'equal chance' to struggle for power. Parties which threaten the existing order and use constitutional means to challenge the constitution should be subject to rigorous control.

Schmitt's relentless attack on 'discussion' makes most democrats and radicals extremely hostile to his views. He is a determined critic of the Enlightenment. Habermas's 'ideal speech situation', in which we communicate without distortion to discover a common 'emancipatory interest', would appear to Schmitt as a trivial philosophical restatement of Guizot's view that in representative government, ' through discussion the powers-that-be are obliged to seek truth in common." Schmitt is probably right. Enemies have nothing to discuss and we can never attain a situation in which the friend-enemy distinction is abolished. Liberalism does tend to ignore the exception and the more resolute forms of political struggle.

jeudi, 11 août 2011

Carl Schmitt: The Conservative Revolutionary Habitus and the Aesthetics of Horror

Carl Schmitt: The Conservative Revolutionary Habitus and the Aesthetics of Horror

Richard Wolin

Ex: http://freespeechproject.com/

 

"Carl Schmitt's polemical discussion of political Romanticism conceals the aestheticizing oscillations of his own political thought. In this respect, too, a kinship of spirit with the fascist intelligentsia reveals itself."
—Jürgen Habermas, "The Horrors of Autonomy: Carl Schmitt in English"

"The pinnacle of great politics is the moment in which the enemy comes into view in concrete clarity as the enemy."
—Carl Schmitt, The Concept of the Political (1927)

carl_schmitt.jpg

Only months after Hitler's accession to power, the eminently citable political philosopher and jurist Carl Schmitt, in the ominously titled work, Staat, Bewegung, Volk, delivered one of his better known dicta. On January 30, 1933, observes Schmitt, "one can say that 'Hegel died.'" In the vast literature on Schmitt's role in the National Socialist conquest of power, one can find many glosses on this one remark, which indeed speaks volumes. But let us at the outset be sure to catch Schmitt's meaning, for Schmitt quickly reminds us what he does not intend by this pronouncement: he does not mean to impugn the hallowed tradition of German étatistme, that is, of German "philosophies of state," among which Schmitt would like to number his own contributions to the annals of political thought. Instead, it is Hegel qua philosopher of the "bureaucratic class" or Beamtenstaat that has been definitely surpassed with Hitler's triumph. For "bureaucracy" (cf. Max Weber's characterization of "legal-bureaucratic domination") is, according to its essence, a bourgeois form of rule. As such, this class of civil servants—which Hegel in the Rechtsphilosophie deems the "universal class"—represents an impermissable drag on the sovereignty of executive authority. For Schmitt, its characteristic mode of functioning, which is based on rules and procedures that are fixed, preestablished, calculable, qualifies it as the very embodiment of bourgeois normalcy—a form of life that Schmitt strove to destroy and transcend in virtually everything he thought and wrote during the 1920s, for the very essence of the bureaucratic conduct of business is reverence for the norm, a standpoint that could not exist in great tension with the doctrines of Carl Schmitt himself, whom we know to be a philosopher of the state of emergency—of the Auhsnamhezustand (literally, the "state of exception"). Thus, in the eyes of Schmitt, Hegel had set an ignominious precedent by according this putative universal class a position of preeminence in his political thought, insofar as the primacy of the bureaucracy tends to diminish or supplant the perogative of sovereign authority.

But behind the critique of Hegel and the provocative claim that Hitler's rise coincides with Hegel's metaphorical death (a claim, that while true, should have offered, pace Schmitt, little cause for celebration) lies a further indictment, for in the remarks cited, Hegel is simultaneously perceived as an advocate of the Rechtsstaat, of "constitutionalism" and "rule of law." Therefore, in the history of German political thought, the doctrines of this very German philosopher prove to be something of a Trojan horse: they represent a primary avenue via which alien bourgeois forms of political life have infiltrated healthy and autochthonous German traditions, one of whose distinguishing features is an rejection of "constitutionalism" and all it implies. The political thought of Hegel thus represents a threat—and now we encounter another one of Schmitt's key terms from the 1920s—to German homogeneity.

Schmitt's poignant observations concerning the relationship between Hegel and Hitler expresses the idea that one tradition in German cultural life—the tradition of German idealism—has come to an end and a new set of principles—based in effect on the category of völkish homogeneity (and all it implies for Germany's political future)—has arisen to take its place. Or, to express the same thought in other terms: a tradition based on the concept of Vernuft or "reason" has given way to a political system whose new raison d'être was the principle of authoritarian decision—whose consummate embodiment was the Führerprinzep, one of the ideological cornerstones of the post-Hegelian state. To be sure, Schmitt's insight remains a source of fascination owing to its uncanny prescience: in a statement of a few words, he manages to express the quintessence of some 100 years of German historical development. At the same time, this remark also remains worthy insofar as it serves as a prism through which the vagaries of Schmitt's own intellectual biography come into unique focues: it represents an unambiguous declaration of his satiety of Germany's prior experiments with constitutional government and of his longing for a total- or Führerstaat in which the ambivalences of the parliamentary system would be abolished once and for all. Above all, however, it suggest how readily Schmitt personally made the transition from intellectual antagonist of Weimar democracy to whole-hearted supporter of National Socialist revolution. Herein lies what one may refer to as the paradox of Carl Schmitt: a man who, in the words of Hannah Arendt, was a "convinced Nazi," yet "whose very ingenious theories about the end of democracy and legal government still make arresting reading."

The focal point of our inquiry will be the distinctive intellectual "habitus" (Bourdieu) that facilitated Schmitt's alacritous transformation from respected Weimar jurist and academician to "crown jurist of the Third Reich." To understand the intellectual basis of Schmitt's political views, one must appreciate his elective affinities with that generation of so-called conservative revolutionary thinkers whose worldview was so decisive in turning the tide of public opinion against the fledgling Weimar republic. As the political theorist Kurt Sontheimer has noted: "It is hardly a matter of controversy today that certain ideological predispositions in German thought generally, but particularly in the intellectual climate of the Weimar Republic, induced a large number of German electors under the Weimar Republic to consider the National Socialist movement as less problematic than it turned out to be." And even though the nationalsocialists and the conservative revolutionaries failed to see eye to eye on many points, their respective plans for a new Germany were sufficiently close that a comparison between them is able to "throw light on the intellectual atmosphere in which, when National Socialism arose, it could seem to be a more or less presentable doctrine." Hence "National Socialism . . . derived considerable profit from thinkers like Oswald Spengler, Arthur Moeller van den Bruck, and Ernst Jünger," despite their later parting of the ways. One could without much exaggeration label this intellectual movement protofascistic, insofar as its general ideological effect consisted in providing a type of ideological-spiritual preparation for the National Socialist triumph.

 

Schmitt himself was never an active member of the conservative revolutionary movement, whose best known representatives—Spengler, Jünger, and van den Bruck—have been named by Sontheimer (though one might add Hans Zehrer and Othmar Spann). It would be fair to say that the major differences between Schmitt and his like-minded, influential group of right-wing intellectuals concerned a matter of form rather than substance: unlike Schmitt, most of whose writings appeared in scholarly and professional journals, the conservative revolutionaries were, to a man, nonacademics who made names for themselves as Publizisten—that is, as political writers in that same kaleidoscope and febrile world of Weimar Offentlichkeit that was the object of so much scorn in their work. But Schmitt's status as a fellow traveler in relation to the movement's main journals (such as Zehrer's influential Die Tat, activities, and circles notwithstanding, his profound intellectual affinities with this group of convinced antirepublicans are impossible to deny. In fact, in the secondary literature, it has become more common than not simply to include him as a bona fide member of the group.

The intellectual habitus shared by Schmitt and the conservative revolutionaries is in no small measure of Nietzschean derivation. Both subscribed to the immoderate verdict registered by Nietzsche on the totality of inherited Western values: those values were essentially nihilistic. Liberalism, democracy, utlitarianism, individualism, and Enlightenment rationalism were the characteristic belief structures of the decadent capitalist West; they were manifestations of a superficial Zivilisation, which failed to measure up to the sublimity of German Kultur. In opposition to a bourgeois society viewed as being in an advanced state of decomposition, Schmitt and the conservative revolutionaries counterposed the Nietzschean rites of "active nihilism." In Nietzsche's view, whatever is falling should be given a final push. Thus one of the patented conceptual oppositions proper to the conservative revolutionary habitus was that between the "hero" (or "soldier") and the "bourgeois." Whereas the hero thrives on risk, danger, and uncertainity, the life of bourgeois is devoted to petty calculations of utility and security. This conceptual opposition would occupy center stage in what was perhaps the most influential conservative revolutionary publication of the entire Weimar period, Ernst Jünger's 1932 work, Der Arbeiter (the worker), where it assumes the form of a contrast between "the worker-soldier" and "the bourgeois." If one turns, for example, to what is arguably Schmitt's major work of the 1920s, The Concept of the Political (1927), where the famous "friend-enemy" distinction is codified as the raison d'être of politics, it is difficult to ignore the profound conservative revolutionary resonances of Schmitt's argument. Indeed, it would seem that such resonances permeate, Schmitt's attempt to justify politics primarily in martial terms; that is, in light of the ultimate instance of (or to use Schmitt's own terminology) Ernstfall of battle (Kampf) or war.

Once the conservative revolutionary dimension of Schmitt's thought is brought to light, it will become clear that the continuities in his pre- and post-1933 political philosophy and stronger than the discontinuities. Yet Schmitt's own path of development from arch foe of Weimar democracy to "convinced Nazi" (Arendt) is mediated by a successive series of intellectual transformations that attest to his growing political radicalisation during the 1920s and early 1930s. He follows a route that is both predictable and sui generis: predictable insomuch as it was a route traveled by an entire generation of like-minded German conservative and nationalist intellectuals during the interwar period; sui generis, insofar as there remains an irreducible originality and perspicacity to the various Zeitdiagnosen proffered by Schmitt during the 1920s, in comparison with the at times hackneyed and familar formulations of his conservative revolutionary contemporaries.

The oxymoronic designation "conservative revolutionary" is meant to distinguish the radical turn taken during the interwar period by right-of-center German intellectuals from the stance of their "traditional conservative" counterparts, who longed for a restoration of the imagined glories of earlier German Reichs and generally stressed the desirability of a return to premodern forms of social order (e.g., Tönnies Gemeinschaft) based on aristocratic considerations of rank and privilege. As opposed to the traditional conservatives, the conservative revolutionaries (and this is true of Jünger, van den Bruck, and Schmitt), in their reflections of the German defeat in the Great War, concluded that if Germany were to be successful in the next major European conflagaration, premodern or traditional solutions would not suffice. Instead, what was necessary was "modernization," yet a form of modernization that was at the same time compatible with the (albeit mythologized) traditional German values of heroism, "will" (as opposed to "reason"), Kultur, and hierarchy. In sum, what was desired was a modern community. As Jeffrey Herf has stressed in his informative book on the subject, when one searches for the ideological origins of National Socialism, it is not so much Germany's rejection of modernity that is at issue as its selective embrace of modernity. Thus
National Socialist's triumph, far from being characterized by a disdain of modernity simpliciter, was marked simultaneously by an assimilation of technical modernity and a repudiation of Western political modernity: of the values of political liberalism as they emerge from the democratic revolutions of the eighteenth century. This describes the essence of the German "third way" or Sonderweg: Germany's special path to modernity that is neither Western in the sense of England and France nor Eastern in the sense of Russia or pan-slavism.

Schmitt began his in the 1910s as a traditonal conservative, namely, as a Catholic philosopher of state. As such, his early writings revolved around a version of political authoritarianism in which the idea of a strong state was defended at all costs against the threat of liberal encroachments. In his most significant work of the decade, The Value of the State and the Significance of the Individual (1914), the balance between the two central concepts, state and individual, is struck one-sidely in favour of the former term. For Schmitt, the state, in executing its law-promulgating perogatives, cannot countenance any opposition. The uncompromising, antiliberal conclusion he draws from this observation is that "no individual can have full autonomy within the state." Or, as Schmitt unambiguously expresses a similar thought elsewhere in the same work: "the individual" is merely "a means to the essence, the state is what is important." Thus, although Schmitt displayed little inclination for the brand of jingoistic nationalism so prevalent among his German academic mandarin brethern during the war years, as Joseph Bendersky has observed, "it was precisely on the point of authoritarianism vs. liberal individualism that the views of many Catholics [such as Schmitt] and those of non-Catholic conservatives coincided."

But like other German conservatives, it was Schmitt's antipathy to liberal democratic forms of government, coupled with the political turmoil of the Weimar republic, that facilitated his transformation from a traditional conservative to a conservative revolutionary. To be sure, a full account of the intricacies of Schmitt's conservative revolutionary "conversion" would necessitate a year by year account of his political thought during the Weimar period, during which Schmitt's intellectual output was nothing if prolific, (he published virtually a book a year). Instead, for the sake of concision and the sake of fidelity to the leitmotif of the "conservative revolutionary habitus," I have elected to concentrate on three key aspects of Schmitt's intellectual transformation during this period: first, his sympathies with the vitalist (lebensphilosophisch) critique of modern rationalism; second, his philosophy of history during these years; and third, his protofascistic of the conservative revolutionary doctrine of the "total state." All three aspects, moreover, are integrally interrelated.

II.


The vitalist critique of Enlightenment rationalism is of Nietzschean provenance. In opposition to the traditional philosophical image of "man" qua animal rationalis, Nietzsche counterposes his vision of "life [as] will to power." In the course of this "transvaluation of all values," the heretofore marginalized forces of life, will, affect, and passion should reclaim the position of primacy they once enjoyed before the triumph of "Socratism." It is in precisely this spirit that Nietzsche recommends that in the future, we philosophize with our affects instead of with concepts, for in the culture of European nihilism that has triumphed with the Enlightenment, "the essence of life, its will to power, is ignored," argues Nietzsche; "one overlooks the essential priority of the spontaneous, aggressive, expansive, form-giving forces that give new interpretations and directions."

It would be difficult to overestimate the power and influence this Nietzschean critique exerted over an entire generation of antidemocratic German intellectuals during the 1920s. The anticivilizational ethos that pervades Spengler's Decline of the West—the defence of "blood and tradition" against the much lamented forces of societal rationalisation—would be unthinkable without that dimension of vitalistic Kulturkritik to which Nietzsche's work gave consummate expression. Nor would it seem that the doctrines of Klages, Geist als Widersacher der Seele (Intellect as the Antagonist of the Soul; 1929-31), would have captured the mood of the times as well as they did had it not been for the irrevocable precedent set by Nietzsche's work, for the central opposition between "life" and "intellect," as articulated by Klages and so many other German "anti-intellectual intellectuals" during the interwar period, represents an unmistakably Nietzschean inheritance.

While the conservative revolutionary components of Schmitt's worldview have been frequently noted, the paramount role played by the "philosophy of life"—above all, by the concept of cultural criticism proper to Lebensphilosophie—on his political thought has escaped the attention of most critics. However, a full understanding of Schmitt's status as a radical conservative intellectual is inseparable from an appreciation of an hitherto neglected aspect of his work.

In point of fact, determinate influences of "philosophy of life"—a movement that would feed directly into the Existenzphilosophie craze of the 1920s (Heidegger, Jaspers, and others)—are really discernable in Schmitt's pre-Weimar writings. Thus, in one of his first published works, Law and Judgment (1912), Schmitt is concerned with demonstrating the impossibility of understanding the legal order in exclusively rationalist terms, that is, as a self-sufficient, complete system of legal norms after the fashion of legal positivism. It is on this basis that Schmitt argues in a particular case, a correct decision cannot be reached solely via a process of deducation or generalisation from existing legal precedents or norms. Instead, he contends, there is always a moment of irreducible particularity to each case that defies subsumption under general principles. It is precisely this aspect of legal judgment that Schmitt finds most interesting and significant. He goes on to coin a phrase for this "extralegal" dimension that proves an inescapable aspect of all legal decision making proper: the moment of "concrete indifference," the dimension of adjudication that transcends the previously established legal norm. In essence, the moment of "concrete indifference" represents for Schmitt a type of vital substrate, an element of "pure life," that forever stands opposed to the formalism of laws as such. Thus at the heart of bourgeois society—its legal system—one finds an element of existential particularity that defies the coherence of rationalist syllogizing or formal reason.

The foregoing account of concrete indifference is a matter of more than passing or academic interest insofar as it proves a crucial harbinger of Schmitt's later decisionistic theory of sovereignty, for its its devaluation of existing legal norms as a basis for judicial decision making, the category of concrete indifference points towards the imperative nature of judicial decision itself as a self-sufficient and irreducible basis of adjudication. The vitalist dimension of Schmitt's early philosophy of law betrays itself in his thoroughgoing denigration of legal normativism—for norms are a product of arid intellectualism (Intelligenz) and, as such, hostile to life (lebensfeindlick)—and the concomitant belief that the decision alone is capable of bridging the gap between the abstractness of law and the fullness of life.

The inchoate vitalist sympathies of Schmitt's early work become full blown in his writings of the 1920s. Here, the key text is Political Theology (1922), in which Schmitt formulates his decisionist theory of politics, or, as he remarks in the work's often cited first sentance: "Sovereign is he who decides the state of exception [Ausnahmezustand]."

It would be tempting to claim from this initial, terse yet lapidry definition of sovereignty, one may deduce the totality of Schmitt's mature political thought, for it contains what we know to the be the two keywords of his political philosophy during these years: decision and the exception. Both in Schmitt's lexicon are far from value-neutral or merely descriptive concepts. Instead, they are both accorded unambiguously positive value in the economy of his thought. Thus one of the hallmarks of Schmitt's political philosophy during the Weimar years will be a privileging of Ausnahmezustand, or state of exception, vis-à-vis political normalcy.

It is my claim that Schmitt's celebration of the state of exception over conditions of political normalcy—which he essentially equates with legal positivism and "parliamentarianism"—has its basis in the vitalist critique of Enlightenment rationalism. In his initial justification of the Ausnahmezustand in Political Theology, Schmitt leaves no doubt concerning the historical pedigree of such concepts. Thus following the well-known definition of sovereignty cited earlier, he immediantly underscores its status as a "borderline concept"—a Grenzbegriff, a concept "pertaining to the outermost sphere." It is precisely this fascination with extreme or "boundry situations" (Grenzsituationen—K. Jaspers—those unique moments of existential peril that become a proving ground of individual "authenticity"—that characterizes Lebensphilosophie's sweeping critique of bourgeois "everydayness." Hence in the Grenzsituationen, Dasein glimpses transcendence and is thereby transformed from possible to real Existenz." In parallel fashion, Schmitt, by according primacy to the "state of exception" as opposed to political normalcy, tries to invest the emergency situation with a higher, existential significance and meaning.

According to the inner logic of this conceptual scheme, the "state of exception" becomes the basis for a politics of authenticity. In contrast to conditions of political normalcy, which represent the unexalted reign of the "average, the "medicore," and the "everyday," the state of exception proves capable of reincorporating a dimension of heroism and greatness that is sorely lacking in routinized, bourgeois conduct of political life.

Consequently, the superiority of the state as the ultimate, decisionistic arbiter over the emergency situation is a matter that, in Schmitt's eyes, need not be argued for, for according to Schmitt, "every rationalist interpretation falsifies the immediacy of life." Instead, in his view, the state represents a fundamental, irrefragable, existential verity, as does the category of "life" in Nietzsche's philosophy, or, as Schmitt remarks with a characteristic pith in Political Theology, "The existence of the state is undoubted proof of its superiority over the validity of the legal norm." Thus "the decision [on the state of exception] becomes instantly independent of argumentative substantiation and receives autonomous value."

But as Franz Neumann observes in Behemoth, given the lack of coherence of National Socialist ideology, the rationales provided for totalitarian practice were often couched specifically in vitalist or existential terms. In Neumann's words,

 

[Given the incoherence of National Socialist ideology], what is left as justification for the [Grossdeutsche] Reich? Not racism, not the idea of the Holy Roman Empire, and certainly not some democratic nonsense like popular sovereignty or self-determination. Only the Reich itself remains. It is its own justification. The philosophical roots of the argument are to be found in the existential philosophy of Heidegger. Transferred to the realm of politics, exisentialism argues that power and might are true: power is a sufficient theoretical basis for more power.

 


[Excerpts from The Seduction of Unreason: The Intellectual Romance with Fascism from Nietzsche to Postmodernism (2004).]

Keith Preston: Understanding Carl Schmitt

 

Keith Preston: Understanding Carl Schmitt

dimanche, 07 août 2011

Sommerakademie zur Konservativen Revolution

 

koo.jpg

Sommerakademie zur Konservativen Revolution

 

Cf: http://www.sezession.de/

Seit dem verheerenden Attentat in Norwegen haben bestimmte Kausalketten wieder Konjunktur. Beispielsweise wenn Volker Weiß bei Spiegelonline irgendein Zitat Oswald Spenglers für die Tat verantwortlich macht. Treffen will Weiß damit die ganze sogenannnte Konservative Revolution und möglichst auch jede Art von Demokratiekritik, die nicht von links kommt.

Carl Schmitt nannte solche Konstrukte „irreale Bedingungssätze“: Wenn Oswald Spengler nicht gelebt hätte, wäre Breivik nicht zum Mörder geworden. So einfach (in doppelter Hinsicht) kann Geistesgeschichte sein. Wir wollen Weiß auf seinen simplen Pfaden nicht folgen, sondern uns grundsätzlich mit dem Phänomen „Konservative Revolution“ auseinandersetzen, das immer wieder in einen Ruf gerät, der in einem so merkwürdigen Widerspruch zu seiner tatsächlichen Wirkungslosigkeit steht.

Die 12.Sommerakademie des IfS wird sich daher vom 16. bis 18. September 2011 dem Thema „Konservative Revolution“ widmen. Dabei geht es nicht um das Herunterbeten der fünf Mohlerschen Hauptgruppen, sondern um die gegenwärtig gültigen Gedanken dieser Geistesrichtung. Daher wird es nach einer ausführlichen Einleitung durch Karlheinz Weißmann u.a. um folgende Themen gehen: den Zusammenhang von Politik und Lebensreform, den Gedanken einer schöpferischen Restauration, um Heideggers konservative Revolution der Philosophie, um das Verhältnis von Deutschtum und Christentum…

Wie immer: 40 Teilnehmerplätze, sieben Vorträge, Film, Diskussionen, Sport: Wenn Sie 35 Jahre oder jünger sind, können und sollten Sie teilnehmen! Die 11. Winterakademie wird nicht in Schnellroda stattfinden, sondern in der Region zwischen Hannover und Kassel! Der Ausweichort ist gut mit der Bahn erreichbar. Genaue Informationen gibt es nach der Anmeldung. Die Hörerbeiträge sind nicht hoch, wer Geld verdient, bezahlt für zwei Übernachtungen, Vollpension und alle Vorträge 80,00 €, alle anderen bezahlen 35,00 €. Und: Keiner sollte wegen finanzieller Engpässe fernbleiben. Rufen Sie uns an, falls es knapp wird!

Tagungsfolge und Antwortbogen.

 

jeudi, 04 août 2011

Presseschau - August 2011 (1)

Zeitungsleser-a19685593.jpg

Presseschau

August 2011 (1)

 

AUßENPOLITISCHES   

Anders B.
Ein einsamer Sonderling voll hasserfüllter Gedanken
http://www.welt.de/politik/ausland/article13503960/Ein-einsamer-Sonderling-voll-hasserfuellter-Gedanken.html

Massaker angekündigt
Terrorist veröffentlicht vor der Tat Manifest
http://www.welt.de/vermischtes/article13504232/Terrorist-veroeffentlicht-vor-der-Tat-Manifest.html

Anders Behring Breivik
Spuren eines Todesschützen
http://www.spiegel.de/netzwelt/netzpolitik/0,1518,776087,00.html

Breiviks Vordenker
Ein bisschen Reue, ein bisschen Ausrede
http://www.spiegel.de/politik/ausland/0,1518,777315,00.html

(Die „taz“ gewohnt niveauvoll…)
Anti-Islam-Events in Berlin
Rechtspopulisten grillen
http://www.taz.de/Anti-Islam-Events-in-Berlin/!75308/

Vom Gedankengut zur Tat: Über den Umgang mit dem Attentat von Oslo
http://www.tagesschau.de/multimedia/video/ondemand100_id-video950190.html

Borbeck: Dreiste Nazi-Provokation angesichts rassistisch motivierten Massakers in Norwegen
http://www.lokalkompass.de/essen-nord/politik/borbeck-dreiste-nazi-provokation-angesichts-rassistisch-motivierten-massakers-in-norwegen-d78419.html

Norwegen
Wie gefährlich ist Thilo Sarrazins Buch?
http://www.derwesten.de/nachrichten/politik/Wie-gefaehrlich-ist-Thilo-Sarrazins-Buch-id4916012.html

Die Protokolle der Weisen von Mekka
http://www.heise.de/tp/artikel/35/35228/1.html

Frankfurts Attentäter heißt Arid U.
Zwei Mörder - unterschiedliche Reaktionen
http://www.freie-waehler-frankfurt.de/artikel/index.php?id=139

Terror in Norwegen: Zur ideologischen Antonymisierung durch die imperiale Hegemonie
http://rotefahne.eu/headline165145.html

Der Oslo-Attentäter ist Freimaurer dritten Grades (Meister)
Großloge von Norwegen bestätigte Mitgliedschaft
http://www.news4press.com/Meldung_603213.html

Das politische Geschäft mit dem Leid
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M5c333a9af04.0.html

Der Unterschied
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M5c3e5963cd2.0.html

Das Blutbad von Norwegen
http://www.sezession.de/25949/25949.html#more-25949

Norwegian Psycho
http://www.sezession.de/26028/norwegian-psycho.html

Porträt des Attentäters: "Mein Freund Anders"
http://nachrichten.t-online.de/anschlaege-in-norwegen-mein-freund-anders-/id_48354770/index

(Zu Norwegen)
Warum?
http://korrektheiten.com/2011/07/23/warum-oslo-hintergruende/

Osloer Merkwürdigkeiten
http://korrektheiten.com/2011/07/24/osloer-merkwuerdigkeiten/

Fjordman antwortet
http://www.sezession.de/25996/fjordman-antwortet.html

As der Schwerter
Thematische Liste der übersetzten Fjordman-Essays
http://fjordman.wordpress.com/thematische-liste-der-ubersetzten-essays/

(besonnen…)
Sicherheitsdebatte
Kommentar: Weniger wäre mehr
http://www.op-online.de/nachrichten/politik/kommentar-sicherheitsdebatte-weniger-waere-mehr-1336639.html

(auch besonnen…)
Norwegen-Attentat: Innenminister Friedrich warnt vor Aktionismus
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M51b44290726.0.html

(......man beachte die Feststellung ganz am Ende des Interviews...)
„Hohe operative Intelligenz“
Interview
Kai Hirschmann, stellvertretender Leiter des Instituts für Terrorismusforschung in Essen, hält die These vom Einzeltäter für wahrscheinlich.
http://www.welt.de/print/wams/politik/article13504286/Hohe-operative-Intelligenz.html

The Political Thinking of Anders Behring Breivik
http://dougsaunders.net/2011/07/political-thinking-anders-behring-breivik/

(Sehr interessant und kritisch zum Thema Antisemitismus)
Defamation - Antisemitismus (german) 1 / 7
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y17DaTL5D2k

Gaddafi: Zum Abschuß freigegeben
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M5291624072a.0.html

Ahmed Wali Karsai - Schattenmann und Partner
Er galt als zwielichtiger König von Kandahar. Der ermordete Präsidenten-Bruder Ahmed Wali Karsai hinterlässt in der umkämpften südafghanischen Provinz ein Machtvakuum.
http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,,15228515,00.html

Afghanistan Bombenanschlag bei Trauerfeier für Karsais Halbbruder
http://www.zeit.de/politik/ausland/2011-07/anschlag-afghanische-moschee

Palmas Moslems sind sauer
http://www.comprendes-mallorca.de/balearen/balearennewsdetails/datum/2011/07/17/palmas-moslems-sind-sauer/

(Welches Geschenk hatte er denn dabei?...)
De Maizière spricht in Israel vom "Geschenk der Versöhnung"
http://www.morgenpost.de/printarchiv/politik/article1700953/De-Maiziere-spricht-in-Israel-vom-Geschenk-der-Versoehnung.html

(ach so…)
De Maizière will Rüstungskooperation mit Israel ausbauen
http://www.spiegel.de/politik/ausland/0,1518,774076,00.html

Israels Wissenschaftsminister im Gespräch
Wir helfen dem, der sich vergeblich Kinder wünscht
http://www.faz.net/artikel/C30351/israels-wissenschaftsminister-im-gespraech-wir-helfen-dem-der-sich-vergeblich-kinder-wuenscht-30459786.html

Griechenland
Minidemo vor dem Minigolf - Wie Urlauber die Schuldenkrise erleben
http://www.eu-info.de/dpa-europaticker/191371.html

Robert Kurz
Giftmülldeponien des Kredits
http://www.exit-online.org/textanz1.php?tabelle=aktuelles&index=0&posnr=527

Inside 9/11
http://www.inside-911.de/film.html
http://juergenelsaesser.wordpress.com/2011/07/02/inside-911-das-erste-video-zu-unserer-911-konferenz-und-zum-neuen-911-buch/

(Die nächste Hysterie?...)
Terrorismus
USA besorgt wegen „Körper-Bomben“
http://www.focus.de/politik/ausland/terrorismus-usa-besorgt-wegen-koerper-bomben_aid_643731.html

Dänische Grenzkontrollen: Hessens Europaminister für Urlaubs-Boykott
http://www.all-in.de/nachrichten/boulevard/vermischtes/Vermischtes-Daenische-Grenzkontrollen-Hessens-Europaminister-fuer-Urlaubs-Boykott;art15814,984289

Gesellschaft für bedrohte Völker wirft China anhaltende Unterdrückung der Uiguren vor / Delius: „Wohlstand statt Freiheit wird scheitern!“
http://www.blauenarzisse.de/index.php/aktuelles/2647-gesellschaft-fuer-bedrohte-voelker-wirft-china-anhaltende-unterdrueckung-der-uiguren-vor-delius-wohlstand-statt-freiheit-wird-scheitern

(Tenor der geplanten Revolution: Regierungen und Unternehmen sind tendenziell böse, private Internetuser sind per se gut und dürfen gesinnungsethisch im Internet tun, was immer sie möchten…)
"Wir haben eine Schlacht zu schlagen"
Der Internetaktivist Richard Stallman über die Bedrohung durch Unternehmen und Regierungen, die die Freiheit im Netz einschränken wollen
http://www.taz.de/1/archiv/digitaz/artikel/?ressort=tz&dig=2011%2F07%2F04%2Fa0127&cHash=0ad60230d4

Es ist eindeutig Topiary
Lulzsec-Sprecher vor Gericht
http://www.n-tv.de/technik/Lulzsec-Sprecher-vor-Gericht-article3947811.html

Azerbaidschan rüstet sich zum Krieg gegen Armenien (wg. Bergkarabach)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w2eLairE740

Ungarn: Sieg über Türken wird Feiertag
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M5a30888b40f.0.html

Airlines verwehren Demonstranten Flug nach Tel Aviv
http://www.tagesanzeiger.ch/ausland/europa/Airlines-verwehren-Demonstranten-Flug-nach-Tel-Aviv-/story/20973617

Krieg in Libyen
Mehr als 1300 Bootsflüchtlinge erreichen Lampedusa
http://www.spiegel.de/politik/ausland/0,1518,773538,00.html

Arte-Doku über Akustikfolter
Satanische Töne
Dauerbeschallung mit Heavy Metal und Sesamstraßen-Songs: "Musik als Waffe" (Arte, 23.25 Uhr) seziert die Akustikfolter von Guantánamo – und enttäuscht dabei.
http://www.taz.de/1/leben/medien/artikel/1/satanische-toene/

SOS – Österreich
http://sosheimat.wordpress.com/

Casa Pound
Italien - Neofaschismus im linken Gewand
http://wissen.dradio.de/italien-neofaschismus-im-linken-gewand.37.de.html?dram:article_id=11484&sid=

Mexiko
14-jähriger Killer zu drei Jahren Haft verurteilt
http://www.focus.de/politik/schlagzeilen/nid_78334.html

Ärger mit PayPal
Kuba-Embargo in Deutschland
http://www.taz.de/!75445/

China warnt USA vor "großer Sauerei"
Größter Kreditgeber sieht Schuldenstreit mit Sorge
http://www.heute.de/ZDFheute/inhalt/7/0,3672,8312679,00.html

Ethnische Spannungen
Pekings Angst vor islamistischen Uiguren in Xinjiang
http://www.welt.de/politik/article13520053/Pekings-Angst-vor-islamistischen-Uiguren-in-Xinjiang.html

INNENPOLITISCHES / GESELLSCHAFT / VERGANGENHEITSPOLITIK

Ein Geldzyklus geht zu Ende
http://www.ehrenhauser.at/lang/de/blog/unser-geld-entsteht-durch-verschuldung/

Der Welt-Geldbetrug
https://krisenfrei.wordpress.com/2011/07/14/gelddeckung-und-gold/#more-1545

Bankrotterklärung Europas durch einen Wirtschaftsweisen
https://krisenfrei.wordpress.com/2011/07/10/bankrotterklarung-europas-durch-einen-wirtschaftsweisen/

Neue Netzstudie
Die Grünen sind im Internet eine Volkspartei
http://www.welt.de/politik/deutschland/article13448661/Die-Gruenen-sind-im-Internet-eine-Volkspartei.html

Kleine Reihe zu den größten Fehlern der Konservativen: (II) Die Kulturmißachtung. Oder: Das Ende der Postmoderne verpasst
http://www.blauenarzisse.de/index.php/anstoss/2633-kleine-reihe-zu-den-groessten-fehlern-der-konservativen-ii-die-kulturmissachtung-oder-das-ende-der-postmoderne-verpasst

Kleine Reihe zu den größten Fehlern der Konservativen: (III) Der falsche Ansatz. Oder: Konservative Frauen sind keine vom Aussterben bedrohte Spezies
http://www.blauenarzisse.de/index.php/anstoss/2657-kleine-reihe-zu-den-groessten-fehlern-der-konservativen-iii-der-falsche-ansatz-oder-konservative-frauen-sind-keine-vom-aussterben-bedrohte-spezies

Junge Freiheit
Thomas Goppel gratuliert ultrarechter Wochenzeitung zum Geburtstag
http://www.sueddeutsche.de/bayern/umstrittener-gastbeitrag-herr-goppel-und-die-junge-freiheit-1.1120846

Wowereit von der Opernbühne gebuht
http://nachrichten.rp-online.de/kultur/wowereit-von-der-opernbuehne-gebuht-1.1329579

(rein apologetisch…)
Facebook-Partys passé?
Das Sommerloch ist gefüllt – mit Bullshit
http://www.giga.de/top-themen/00153515-facebook-partys-passe-das-sommerloch-ist-gefuellt-mit-bullshit/

(tiefdenkender, wenngleich letztlich naiv…)
Zwischenruf
Das große Erbe der "Facebook-Partys"
http://www.tagesspiegel.de/meinung/das-grosse-erbe-der-facebook-partys/4360738.html

Bosbach gegen generelles Verbot von Facebook-Partys
http://www.abendblatt.de/politik/article1945109/Bosbach-gegen-generelles-Verbot-von-Facebook-Partys.html

Hamburg
Senat gegen Verbot von Facebook-Partys
http://www.welt.de/print/die_welt/hamburg/article13468357/Senat-gegen-Verbot-von-Facebook-Partys.html

(organisiertes Chaos…)
Facebook-Partys
Plötzlich wollen alle zur CDU
http://www.tagesspiegel.de/medien/digitale-welt/ploetzlich-wollen-alle-zur-cdu/4374934.html

Forum Deutscher Katholiken fordert Rücktritt von CDU-Abgeordneter Grütters
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M53b5d0b76d7.0.html

Das politische Pendel
Jetzt schlägt es wieder zurück
http://hartgeld.com/filesadmin/pdf/Art_2011-190_PolitschesPendel.pdf

CDU-Abgeordneter fordert Transferunion in der Euro-Zone
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M567b83e8a5e.0.html

Die Hurra-Europäer als Totengräber
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M511ef23a8d3.0.html

(Und hier ein Hurra-Europäer, der das Gift mit noch mehr Gift bekämpfen möchte…)
Leitartikel: Rettung, aber keine Hilfe
Euro-Partner schnüren Paket für Griechenland
Von Detlef Drewes
http://www.mainpost.de/ueberregional/politik/zeitgeschehen/Leitartikel-Rettung-aber-keine-Hilfe;art16698,6250147

die kommenden
http://die-kommenden.sozrev-m.info/

Kopp-Online
http://www.kopp-online.com/

Aktionsbündnis Direkte Demokratie – Gegen den EURO-Rettungswahnsinn
http://eurodemostuttgart.wordpress.com/

Die Welt vor Wichtigtuern und Titelhubern schützen
Die Grünen wollen den Doktortitel aus dem Personalausweis streichen lassen. Was fällt ihnen als nächstes ein? Und was sagt das über die Partei aus?
http://www.tagesspiegel.de/meinung/die-welt-vor-wichtigtuern-und-titelhubern-schuetzen/4395862.html

Die Natur siegt immer: Der genderisierte SPIEGEL kämpft gegen die Neue Rechte und ihre Mehrheitsmeinung
http://www.blauenarzisse.de/index.php/anstoss/2662-die-natur-siegt-immer-der-genderisierte-spiegel-kaempft-gegen-die-neue-rechte-und-ihre-mehrheitsmeinung

Marine-Zeitschrift verunglimpft tote Gorch-Fock-Kadettin
http://www.abendblatt.de/politik/deutschland/article1951567/Marine-Zeitschrift-verunglimpft-tote-Gorch-Fock-Kadettin.html

„Gorch Fock“, Erik Lehnert und die Internetdemoskopie
http://www.sezession.de/25611/gorch-fock-erik-lehnert-und-die-internetdemoskopie.html#more-25611

„Wir. Dienen. Deutschland.“
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M52167e094b1.0.html

Familiäres und militärisches Ethos
http://www.sezession.de/25674/familiares-und-militarisches-ethos.html

Über Martin Böcker, das „Campus“-Magazin und das Institut für Staatspolitik …
http://www.sezession.de/25766/uber-martin-bocker-das-campus-magazin-und-das-institut-fur-staatspolitik.html#more-25766

„Aber unsere Leutnants …“
http://www.sezession.de/26184/aber-unsere-leutnants.html

Die heilige Kuh
http://www.sezession.de/25775/die-heilige-kuh.html#more-25775

(während auf den Teufel Gaddafi gebombt wird, erhalten die Musterdemokraten in Saudi-Arabien Panzer…)
Wulff verteidigt Panzer-Deal
http://www.welt.de/print/welt_kompakt/print_politik/article13479476/Wulff-verteidigt-Panzer-Deal.html

Über Sinn und Unsinn von Studentenverbindungen im Jahre 2011
http://www.blauenarzisse.de/index.php/gesichtet/2688-ueber-sinn-und-unsinn-von-studentenverbindungen-im-jahre-2011

Grafenwöhr
Schüsse auf Wohnhaus
http://www.br-online.de/bayerisches-fernsehen/rundschau/militaer-grafenwoehr-usa-ID1310457871401.xml

Wir sind das Tätervolk
Katastrophe! Seattle ist überschwemmt und Kalifornien eine fiese Ökodiktatur: Dirk C. Fleck hat den faszinierenden Klimawandel-Roman "Maeva!" geschrieben. Eine Begegnung mit dem Autor
http://www.taz.de/1/archiv/digitaz/artikel/?ressort=tz&dig=2011%2F07%2F13%2Fa0145&cHash=bad96cb05c

Promotionsbetrug? Schaut Euch mal das Abi an!
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M50a8addc23c.0.html

(Pauschalverurteilung einer ganzen Generation. Zitat: „unleugbare Tatsache (…): Nationalsozialismus und Holocaust sind Familiengeschichte“)
Familie in der Nazi-Zeit
http://www.hiergeblieben.de/pages/textanzeige.php?limit=10&order=datum&richtung=DESC&z=1&id=32785

Bischof Williamson und die Piusbrüder
Fall des Holocaust-Leugners erneut vor Gericht
http://www.dradio.de/dlf/sendungen/hintergrundpolitik/1495728/

Bundesregierung lehnt Entschädigung von Rotarmisten ab
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M58476d85ebf.0.html

Menschenrechte auch für Deutsche in den alten Ostgebieten? „Flächendeckend deutsche Kindergärten und Schulen östlich von Oder und Neiße“
http://www.blauenarzisse.de/index.php/gesichtet/2676-menschenrechte-auch-fuer-deutsche-in-den-alten-ostgebieten-flaechendeckend-deutsche-kindergaerten-und-schulen-oestlich-von-oder-und-neisse

Problem Metalldiebe
http://www.echo-online.de/region/darmstadt-dieburg/weiterstadt/Metall-Diebe-stehlen-fuenf-Tonnen-Leitplankenteile;art1302,2029670
http://www.wiesbadener-tagblatt.de/region/untertaunus/aarbergen/10983946.htm

Links, Rechts, „Querfront“: Zeitschriften außerhalb des Mainstreams
http://www.blauenarzisse.de/index.php/rezension/2717-links-rechts-querfront-zeitschriften-ausserhalb-des-mainstreams

LINKE / KAMPF GEGEN RECHTS / ANTIFASCHISMUS

Linksextremismus: Betteln um die Watschen
http://www.sezession.de/25885/linksextremismus-betteln-um-die-watschen.html

Brandenburgs roter Sumpf
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M5ef627d75bc.0.html

(Bzgl. Robert Andreasch)
Bayerischer Rundfunk distanziert sich von linkem Journalisten
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M5af49be79e9.0.html

ver.di beschließt Rüge gegen “Grünen Sarrazin” Rolf Stolz
http://www.pi-news.net/2011/07/ver-di-beschliest-ruge-gegen-grunen-sarrazin/#more-199064

Kampf gegen Rechts – Kampf gegen Israel
http://www.pi-news.net/2011/07/kampf-gegen-rechts-kampf-gegen-israel/

Grüne kritisieren Einsparungen im „Kampf gegen Rechts“
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M5747051c79c.0.html

(Nun ist auch die geballte Faust nicht mehr konform. Der nächste Promi-Nazi-Schwachsinn…)
Nazi-Tattoo überstochen
Michelle Hunziker gibt Leibwächter neue Chance
http://www.focus.de/panorama/boulevard/nazi-tattoo-ueberstochen-michelle-hunziker-gibt-leibwaechter-neue-chance_aid_646811.html

Ochsen- und Eselquoten
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M55aec90de16.0.html

„Den Papstbesuch in Berlin zum Desaster machen!“ / Antifa-Bündnis ruft zur Blockade und Störung auf
http://www.blauenarzisse.de/index.php/aktuelles/2650-den-papstbesuch-in-berlin-zum-desaster-machen-antifa-buendnis-ruft-zur-blockade-und-stoerung-auf

Lunapark wird seit 2008 von dem ex(?)-Trotzkisten Winfried Wolf herausgegeben
http://www.lunapark21.net/index.html

Schwere linksextreme Ausschreitungen in Berlin
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M5e21d42826c.0.html

Hanau
Feuer im „autonomen Kulturzentrum“
http://www.op-online.de/nachrichten/hanau/feuer-autonomen-kulturzentrum-1341861.html

EINWANDERUNG / MULTIKULTURELLE GESELLSCHAFT

(Ein Einzelkämpfer…)
Ponchomann am Kölner Dom
http://quotenqueen.wordpress.com/2011/04/19/ponchomann-am-kolner-dom/

(Jetzt müssen schon die Ameisen für die Einwanderungsgesellschaft herhalten…)
Forscher finden Multi-Kulti im Ameisenstaat
http://www.bild.de/regional/frankfurt/frankfurt-regional/forscher-finden-multikulti-im-ameisenstaat-18902990.bild.html

Freizeitpöbel
http://www.sezession.de/25825/freizeitpobel.html#more-25825

Was Stephan Voß nicht sieht
http://www.sezession.de/25531/was-stephan-vos-nicht-sieht.html

Drecksthema „Deutschenfeindlichkeit“
http://www.sezession.de/25545/drecksthema-deutschenfeindlichkeit.html#more-25545

Boxen statt Knast für ausländische Intensivstraftäter: Der Film „Friedensschlag“
http://www.blauenarzisse.de/index.php/rezension/2658-boxen-statt-knast-fuer-auslaendische-intensivstraftaeter-der-film-friedensschlag

Türkische Fernsehmacher in Offenbach wollen Landsleute aus der Image-Schublade holen
http://www.op-online.de/nachrichten/offenbach/diskussion-bei-frankfurt-1304784.html

Deutscher Kulturrat setzt auf mehr Türken in der Kultur
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M50f5ee73092.0.html

Müller wirbt für lockerere Zuwanderungsregeln
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M5e8ef400c75.0.html

Böhmer wünscht sich mehr Ausländerinnen im Sport
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M5a881d7bedd.0.html

Grüne wollen Muslimen Beerdigungen ohne Sarg ermöglichen
http://nachrichten.t-online.de/gruene-wollen-muslimen-beerdigungen-ohne-sarg-ermoeglichen/id_47790412/index?news

Annäherung in Hessen
Alle wollen integrieren
http://www.fr-online.de/rhein-main/alle-wollen-integrieren/-/1472796/8642654/-/

Frankfurt
Parolen an der Moschee
http://www.fr-online.de/frankfurt/parolen-an-der-moschee/-/1472798/8629388/-/index.html

....der Slogan steht jetzt gut sichtbar auf der Fassade der Christus-Kirche in Bochum:
http://www.christuskirche-bochum.de/2011/07/multikulturelles-stammesbewusstsein/

„Tötet die Deutschen“ und „Lügen, die man gerne glaubt“
http://www.sezession.de/25676/totet-die-deutschen-und-lugen-die-man-gerne-glaubt.html#more-25676

(man beachte z.B. mal den Kommentar von delice über Jesus. Zitat: „Es mag sein, dass Sie Jesus germanisiert haben mögen, woran sie glauben, dennoch bleibt er der Jesus aus Nazareth und nicht der aus Rom oder der Ockermark oder aus Oslo! Jesus blieb zeitlebens in Palästina und gleiche galt bis zum Tode von Jesus auch für seine Apostel und Weggefährten.
Wie krank Personen im Westen selbst damit umgehen verdeutlicht solche verdrehten Aussagen. Es verdeutlicht geradezu den unsäglichen und unstillbaren Genuss an unerträglich gewordenen Götzenbildern. Ein ergötzendes Bild ist die eines am Kreuze leidenden jungen Menschen.
Der (sexistische) Voyeurismus kennt da wahrlich keine Grenzen mehr, wenn beinahe schon an jeder Weggabelung oder Straßenkreuzung unbedingt eines dieser Jesusabbildungen aufgestellt sein muss. Eine gestandene Feministen mag es gefallen, wenn ein junger Adonis leidet, aber nicht ein gesunder Menschenverstand. 
Wo ein germanisch aussehender Blondschopf seit nunmehr über 2000 Jahren halbnackt, also exhibitionistisch und an mehreren stellen blutüberströmt und zusätzlich am Kreuze angenagelt hängt, vielmehr baumelt; versehen noch mit einem Dornenkranz auf dem Haupte, das den Kopf auch beschwerend rein pikest, um noch mehr Blut strömen zu lassen.
Solches herzzerreißendes Leidensbild steht dann im und um eine Ortschaft so dicht aufgereiht, dass jeder aufs Neue täglich darauf schauen muss.
Graf Dracula lässt im gleichen Sinne grüßen. Bei ihm verwesten wenigstens die aufgespießten Leichen nach einer gewissen Zeit; hier aber, beim – Jesus am Kreuze – angeschlagen bleibt alles immer noch recht frisch!...)


Terror in Norwegen
Norwegischer Attentäter war besessen von der Türkei
http://www.deutsch-tuerkische-nachrichten.de/2011/07/149690/

Bürgermeister von Guben fordert Grenzkontrollen
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M5de277e1696.0.html

Haft für Menschenschmuggler aus Offenbach
http://www.op-online.de/nachrichten/offenbach/drei-jahre-haft-menschenschmuggler-offenbach-1341313.html

Marseille
Zugüberfall in Wildwestmanier auf Deutsche Bahn
http://www.tagesschau.sf.tv/Nachrichten/Archiv/2011/07/08/Vermischtes/Zugueberfall-in-Wildwestmanier-auf-Deutsche-Bahn

Sarrazin warnt vor Kreuzberger Zuständen
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M5bbb78f2c60.0.html

(Sarrazin ist der Provokateur, der Menschen mit „abstrusen Meinungen“ angreift. Diese tätigen nur Überreaktionen…)
Sarrazin in Neukölln
Kommentar: Fremde Welten
http://www.op-online.de/nachrichten/politik/kommentar-fremde-welten-1327893.html

Linken-Politikerin wirft Sarrazin „Rassismus und Dummheit“ vor
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M54ce6cfbb5d.0.html

Henryk M. Broder
Warum ich diesen Journalistenpreis zurückgebe
http://www.welt.de/debatte/henryk-m-broder/article13497770/Warum-ich-diesen-Journalistenpreis-zurueckgebe.html

(„Antifanten“ hetzen Ausländer auf…)
Was machte Dirk Stegemann bei den Aleviten?
http://www.pi-news.net/2011/07/was-machte-dirk-stegemann-bei-den-aleviten/

Sarrazin, Kreuzberg und der Vorbürgerkrieg
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M51d1287c0fa.0.html

Ausländergewalt: Neue Fälle in Duisburg, Hamburg, Frankfurt/Main und Osterholz-Scharmbeck
http://www.blauenarzisse.de/index.php/aktuelles/2639-auslaendergewalt-neue-faelle-in-duisburg-hamburg-frankfurtmain-und-osterholz-scharmbeck

Bonn: Eskalation bei Musikfestival “Rheinkultur”
http://www.pi-news.net/2011/07/bonn-eskalation-bei-musikfestival-rheinkultur/#more-199009

Offenbach
Räuber-Duo überfällt drei Seniorinnen
http://www.op-online.de/nachrichten/offenbach/ueberfall-jugendliche-raub-waldstrasse-1308781.html

Raubüberfälle in Offenbach aufgeklärt
Raub von Taschen trainiert
http://www.op-online.de/nachrichten/offenbach/raub-taschen-trainiert-1332275.html

Offenbach
Schnellrestaurant überfallen
http://www.presseportal.de/polizeipresse/pm/43561/2076219/pol-of-pressemitteilung-des-polizeipraesidiums-suedosthessen-von-samstag-dem-09-07-2011

Angst vor kleinem Freund
http://www.op-online.de/nachrichten/offenbach/angst-kleinem-freund-1331851.html

Jugendschöffengericht schickt 20-jährigen aus Offenbach für dreieinhalb Jahre hinter Gitter
Beispiellose Überfallserie
http://www.op-online.de/nachrichten/offenbach/beispiellose-ueberfallserie-1334587.html

KULTUR / UMWELT / ZEITGEIST / SONSTIGES

Sozialistische Architektur
Schlachtschiffe des Kommunismus
http://einestages.spiegel.de/external/ShowTopicAlbumBackground/a23045/l0/l0/F.html#featuredEntry

Rekonstruiertes Rathaus von Wesel
Ein Glücksfall für die alte Hansestadt
http://www.derwesten.de/staedte/wesel/Ein-Gluecksfall-fuer-die-alte-Hansestadt-id4892185.html

590 Millionen Euro
Politiker geben finales Okay für Stadtschloss-Bau
http://www.spiegel.de/kultur/gesellschaft/0,1518,772721,00.html

Stadt ohne Mitte – Parteien ohne Plan
http://www.tagesspiegel.de/berlin/stadt-ohne-mitte-parteien-ohne-plan/4411002.html

Makler und Stadtplaner
"Wir brauchen mehr Hochhäuser"
http://www.rp-online.de/region-duesseldorf/duesseldorf/nachrichten/bauprojekte/wir-brauchen-mehr-hochhaeuser-1.1321908

Stadtplanung
Hochhäuser haben ihr schlechtes Image verloren
http://www.rp-online.de/region-duesseldorf/duesseldorf/nachrichten/bauprojekte/hochhaeuser-haben-ihr-schlechtes-image-verloren-1.1324971

P&C-"Weltstadthaus": Brutalarchitektur in Wien
Die Wiener verteidigen ihre Stadt schon lange nicht mehr. Sie haben resigniert – gegenüber Behörden und Primat der Wirtschaft.
http://diepresse.com/home/immobilien/wissen/672360/PCWeltstadthaus_Brutalarchitektur-in-Wien?_vl_backlink=/home/immobilien/wissen/636657/index.do&direct=636657

So sehr hat sich Bremen verändert
http://www.weser-kurier.de/Bilder/Bremen/Historisch/396503/So-hat-sich-Bremen-veraendert.html?id=411288

Wieder ein Abriss in Nürnberg
Milchversorgung: Investor zwingt Mieter in die Knie
http://www.nordbayern.de/nuernberger-nachrichten/nuernberg/milchversorgung-investor-zwingt-mieter-in-die-knie-1.1359177#commentsForm-982174

Architektur
Recycelte Plastikflaschen sind Baustoff der Zukunft
http://www.welt.de/wissenschaft/article13474015/Recycelte-Plastikflaschen-sind-Baustoff-der-Zukunft.html

Der zweite Wiederaufbau
Freiburg hat nach dem Krieg seine Struktur weitgehend bewahrt, Städte wie Frankfurt wollen nun ihre modernistischen Sünden wiedergutmachen.
http://www.badische-zeitung.de/freiburg/der-zweite-wiederaufbau--47460453.html

(Antwort: Wohl keiner.)
Publikumspreis für zeitgenössische Architektur
Welches Gebäude ist Ihr Favorit?
http://www.stuttgarter-zeitung.de/inhalt.publikumspreis-fuer-zeitgenoessische-architektur-welches-gebaeude-ist-ihr-favorit.668d7b09-ae62-41a6-95a9-043c470a85fc.html
(Die Leserkommentare tendieren recht eindeutig in kritische Richtung)

Dreiste Diebe: 22 Klotüren gestohlen
http://www.op-online.de/nachrichten/deutschland/dreiste-diebe-klotueren-gestohlen-zr-1343119.html

Disney-Planstadt Celebration
Zu schön, um schön zu sein
http://einestages.spiegel.de/static/topicalbumbackground/23121/zu_schoen_um_schoen_zu_sein.html

(Seltsame Form von „Humor“ bei der „taz“. Man lese die Leserdebatte dazu…)
Schämt euch, ihr Schlampen!
Kolumne von Deniz Yücel
http://taz.de/1/sport/die-wm-kolumnen/artikel/1/schaemt-euch-ihr-schlampen/

Otto von Habsburg gestorben
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M5b1923c6854.0.html
http://www.pi-news.net/2011/07/otto-von-habsburg-der-letzte-kronprinz-ist-tot/#more-199071

Gepäckwagen
Das Ende der Kofferkulis an den Bahnhöfen
http://www.focus.de/reisen/urlaubstipps/bahn/gepaeckwagen-das-ende-der-kofferkulis-an-den-bahnhoefen_aid_642896.html

Fünf Prozent fettleibig
Mehr als jeder zehnte Schulanfänger zu dick
http://www.faz.net/artikel/C30840/fuenf-prozent-fettleibig-mehr-als-jeder-zehnte-schulanfaenger-zu-dick-30462637.html

The New Antaios Journal
http://www.new-antaios.net/

Der Puddingprotest: Die en-Tarte-te Kunst
Nicht nur Rupert Murdoch, auch Bill Gates, Emma Thompson und Calvin Klein bekamen schon eine Torte ins Gesicht
http://sz-magazin.sueddeutsche.de/blogs/promileaks/709/der-puddingprotest-die-en-tarte-te-kunst/

„Mixed Martial Arts“…
"Prügelei" wird stattfinden
http://www.mittelhessen.de/lokales/region_giessen/giessen/486029_Pruegelei_wird_stattfinden.html

(auch eine Karriere…)
Rekord
US-Geschäftsmann fliegt zehn Millionen Meilen
http://www.welt.de/reise/Fern/article13482063/US-Geschaeftsmann-fliegt-zehn-Millionen-Meilen.html

Sascha Lobo und Holm Friebe
Nie mehr Marionette im "Firmen-Kasperletheater"
http://www.sueddeutsche.de/karriere/sascha-lobo-und-holm-friebe-im-gespraech-nie-mehr-marionette-im-firmen-kasperletheater-1.1119137

Eine bessere Welt ist googlebar!
http://www.spiegel.de/kultur/gesellschaft/0,1518,777162,00.html

Ein Blick in die deutsche Literaturgeschichte: Das Nibelungenlied – Ist Hagen von Tronje ein feiger Mörder?
http://www.blauenarzisse.de/index.php/rezension/2677-ein-blick-in-die-deutsche-literaturgeschichte-das-nibelungenlied-ist-hagen-von-tronje-ein-feiger-moerder

Meredith
Germanische Comic-Kunst
http://www.meredyth.de/

Förderverein Nibelungenhort e.V.
https://www.facebook.com/pages/Nibelungenhort-eV/153436611399966?sk=info

Er schlägt sie alle
Der Schlagzeuger Martin Grubinger hat Hände wie ein Bauarbeiter. Kommt vom Trommeln. Zehn Stunden pro Tag. Längst ist er der beste der Welt – wirklich wichtig ist ihm etwas anderes
http://sz-magazin.sueddeutsche.de/texte/anzeigen/36037/1/1

USA
"Badesalz" – eine neue Horrordroge
http://www.badische-zeitung.de/panorama/badesalz-eine-neue-horrordroge--48086985.html

mardi, 02 août 2011

Arnolt Bronnen: Entre o Communismo e o Nacional-Socialismo

Arnolt Bronnen: Entre o Comunismo e o Nacional-Socialismo

 
por Werner Olles
Ex: http://legio-victrix.blogspot.com/
Arnolt Bronnen nasceu em 19 de agosto de 1895 em Viena. Desde muito jovem decidiu mudar seu nome verdadeiro (Arnold Bronner) pelo que anos mais tarde conhecerá a celebridade no mundo das letras. Esta tendência a maquiar a realidade acompanhar-lhe-á ao longo de sua existência. Assim é como converteu-se de judeu vienense em ário-germânico; de cidadão alemão em cidadão austríaco, para voltar à cidadania alemã; de comunista a nacional-revolucionário, mais tarde nacional-socialista, para regressar anos mais tarde ao comunismo.
Após a Grande Guerra, na qual participou como Kaiserjäger (Caçador Imperial) no front do Tirol, onde foi ferido gravemente no pescoço, iniciou sua carreira literária em 1922 com a publicação de uma obra teatral entitulada Vatermord (Parricida), que havia começado a escrever sendo prisioneiro dos italianos. Naquela época Bronnen pertencia a um grupo de dramaturgos, escritores e atores vanguardistas comprometidos com o expressionismo e vinculados a Bertold Brecht, com quem mantinha estreitos laços de amizade. Brecht havia encarregado-se da montagem de dita obra porém, desgraçadamente, abandonou esta iniciativa depois de haver escrito inclusive os arranjos para a encenação.
Após sua estréia em Frankfurt, representou-se em Berlim pela primeira vez em 14 de maio de 1922, a cargo da companhia "Deutscher Theater", convertendo-se em um autêntico escândalo. Sua segunda obra, Anarchie in Sillian (Anarquia em Sillian), levou à maioria dos críticos a considerar que o dramaturgo do futuro não era Brecht, senão Bronnen.
Em 1924 estreou-se sua obra Katalaunische Schlacht (A batalha dos Campos Catalaúnicos) no Grande Teatro de Frankfurt. Um ano mais tarde, Bronnen escreveu Die Rheinischen Rebellen (Os rebeldes renanos), obra que suscitou profundas polêmicas entre a crítica: o autor, conhecido até esse momento com um simpatizante das correntes marxistas, havia passado ao campo do nacionalismo. Bronnen, porém, todavia não havia dado esse passo.
Mais tarde escreveu Ostpolzug (Campanha ao Polo Leste), drama no qual explorava a personalidade de Alexandre o Grande. Em 1925 estreou Exzesse (Excesso) obra com a qual, uma vez mais, provocou um grande alvoroço como consequência de suas cenas e diálogos eróticos Um ano mais tarde estreou Reparationen (Reparações), obra dedicada à resistência nacional contra a ocupação francesa da Renânia e contra o pagamento de reparações de guerra.
Do marxismo ao nacionalismo-revolucionário
Em 1929, Bronnen publicou um romance sobra a Alta Silésia entitulado O.S., onde recria a luta dos Freikorps contra os insurgentes polacos antes de iniciar-se a Primeira Guerra Mundial e do significativo e sangrento assalto dos voluntários alemães contra Annaberg. Tucholsky repreende-o por ter feito um "biscate insensato" e de propagar "mentiras próprias de fascistas de salão". Pelo contrário, Joseph Goebbels, escreveu: "O.S. de Bronnen é o livro que todos gostaríamos de ter escrito." Ernst Jünger considerou este romance como "um primeiro sinal, que indica que nos ambientes de Bronnen, cabe a responsabilidade". Em Der Tag e no Münchener Neueste Nachrichten podia ler-se: "É algo mais que um romance, é uma profissão de fé política de altos voos", enquanto que Alfred Rosenberg, no Völkischer Beobachter chama a atenção sobre Bronnen, porém isso sim, sem deixar de considerá-lo um "bon vivant" e um autor "perigoso".
Politicamente, Bronnen já havia convertido-se em um nacional-revolucionário, próximo ao grupo de intelectuais que expressavam-se em revistas como Die Standarte, Deutsches Volkstum, Arminius, Deutsche Front, Das Dritte Reich, Gewissen, Die Kommanden, Nationalsozialistische Briefe, Der Vormarsch, Der Wehrwolf e Widerstand, as quais pertenciam os irmãos Ernst e Friedrich-Georg Jünger, Friedrich Hielscher, Franz Schauwecker, Ernst von Salomon, Herbert Blank, Otto Strasser, Ernst Niekisch e A.Paul Weber. Como antigo intelectual da esquerda marxista, partidário de uma sorte de socialismo popular e combativo, Bronnen sentiu-se atraído por tais círculos.
No plano profissional, Bronnen começou sua carreira na UFA e na Reichsrundfunkgesellschaft (Sociedade Radiofônica do Reich), ao tempo que rompe os laços que ainda o uniam com os extremistas de esquerda. Após um congresso sob o título "Literatura e Rádio", produz-se uma azeda polêmica com seus colegas, os escritores Alfred Döblin, Walter von Molo, Börries von Münchhausen, Alfons Paquet, Ludwig Fulda, Herbert Euleberg e Arnold Zweig, na medida em que ele era partidário de pôr a rádio "a serviço do povo", "não estava ali para servir aos literatos, senão ao povo", e, em qualquer caso, não devia converter-se em "uma instituição beneficente para escritores aposentados". Para Bronnen, o escritor é tão somente "o instrumento da expressão das idéias da nação".
Em janeiro de 1930 organiza um debate que, com os anos, converter-se-á em emblemático frente aos microfones da Radio Berlim, com Kurt Hiller, dirigende do Grupo de Pacifistas Revolucionários, e Franz Schauwecker, conhecido escritor nacional-revolucionário. Bronnen escreve uma biografia de Von Rossbach, chefe dos Freikorps, e pouco depois, conhece Goebbels, com cuja personalidade fica fascinado. Bronnen converte-se desta maneira no provocador número um da Alemanha. Quando Thomas Mann sustenta em um ato público que a burguesia alemã defende, lado a lado com os social-democratas, as instituições da República de Weimar, Bronnen abandona a sala flanqueado por vinte SA pedindo a dissolução da reunião. Por ocasião da estréia do filme Nada de novo no front, baseada no romance do mesmo nome de Erich Maria Remarque, Bronnen, com sua mulher Olga, uma amiga de Goebbels - que dar-lhe-á uma filha em 1938, Bárbara, que, anos mais tarde, como seu pai, converter-se-á em escritora - e vários camaradas, provocarão um grande alvoroço soltando ratos brancos na sala. Goebbels conhecia a ascendência judia de Bronnen, razão pela qual o responsável da propaganda nazi dar-lhe-á seu apoio diante das denúncias de alguns colegaso que desprezavam-no e de não poucos artigos publicados na imprensa.
A partir da tomada de poder pelos nacional-socialistas em 1933, Bronnen conheceu algumas dificuldades como consequência de sua origem racial. Em um princípio, disse ser filho natural, depois fez-se um estudo antropométrico do crânio para provar seu caráter "ariano". Não participava das idéias de resistência antinazi de alguns de seus antigos amigos nacional-revolucionários e nacional-bolcheviques. Antes de 1933, por exemplo, Bronnen havia protegido Ernst Niekisch contra as injúrias lançadas por Goebbels, porém quando os nazis subiram ao poder Bronnen cuidou-se muito de dar a conhecer sua posição contra o anti-hitlerismo de Niekisch.
Stalingrad: a estrela de Bronnen apaga-se
Bronnen teve muito poder através daso ndas da Radio Berlim. Depurou os profissionais de esquerda, liberais e judeus. Escreveu um romance sobre o ambiente radiofônico, Der Kampf in Äther (Combate pelas ondas), que Alfred Rosenberg chegou inclusive a censurar, por entender que criticava subliminalmente a política cultural nacional-socialista. Meses mais tarde, Bronnen converter-se-á em um pioneiro da televisão, à cabeça de uma pequena equipe que filma os Jogos Olímpicos de Berlim de 1936.
A estrela de Bronnen, não obstante, começa a apagar-se após a tragédia de Stalingrad. Alfred Rosenberg, inimigo das vanguardas nas artes e na literatura, a quem nunca havia gostado o dandy Bronnen e a quem, definitivamente, considerava um produto da boêmia literária, começa a maquinar. Em uma conversação entre Hitler e aquele, Rosenberg ataca aos literatos "bolcheviques culturais" entocados na retaguarda, enquanto que os jovens soldados alemães regavam com seu sangue o front russo ou congelavam no inverno das estepes. Rosenberg cita dois nomes: Erich Kästner e Arnolt Bronnen. Depois de um processo de intenções e da proibição de toda atividade literária, Bronnen é expulso da Câmara de Escritores do Reich. Quando Bronnen pede explicações por esta sanção, é-lhe respondido que é como consequência de suas antigas atividades e "escandalosas" atividades vanguardistas. Meses mais tarde, por conta de escutas por parte da Gestapo, Bronnen é inclusive detido, como anos mais tarde explicará em sua autobiografia.
Em 1944 Bronnen saiu da Alemanha e instalou-se em Goisern im Salzkammergut, onde reúne-se com um grupo da resistência antinazi, não sem antes vestir o uniforme da Wehrmacht, chegando à Áustra em 8 de maio de 1945. Até 1959, trabalhou como jornalista do diário Neue Zeit de Linz.
Na República Democrática Alemã
A princípios da década de 50 Bronnen traslada-se a Berlim Oriental. Afilia-se ao SED social-comunista e escreve sua autobiografia em 1954, Arnolt Bronnen gibt zu Protokoll, que embelezará a seu gosto. Mais tarde aparecem Deutschland Kein Wintermärchen (Alemanha, não és um pequeno conto de inverno), em 1956, e Tage mit Bert Brecht (Dias junto a Bert Brecht), em 1959. Em 1957, reeditou um de seus velhos livros, o romance Film und Leben der Barbara La Marr (Filme e vida de Bárbara La Marr). A imprensa da República Democrática ataca-o duramente acusando-o de "antissemitismo e pornografia". Fala-se inclusive de "atitude fundamentalmente anti-humana de sua consciência", faz-se alusão a "seus vícios desagradáveis de juventude", de seu "estilo amaneirado", e suas "posturas cínicas e insolentes" nos "baixos estádios da pirâmide literária da época". A nova edição de dito romance foi proibida, o que supôs o imprevisto final da carreira como dramaturgo de Bronnen. Brecht interveio apelando à bondade intrínseca de Bronnen e em memória de sua velha amizade. Brecht oferece a Bronnen a possibilidade de converter-se em crítico teatral, o que permite ao inconformista visceral escapar do muro de silêncio que a exclusão definitiva do mundo cultural representa. Bronnen, não obstante, já não poderá jogar papel político nenhum na República Democrática comunista.
Em 12 de outubro de 1959, Bronnen morreu à idade de 64 anos em Berlim. Durante toda sua vida foi um personagem controvertido: de dramaturgo esquerdista a romancista nacional-revolucionário e nacional-socialista. Arnolt Bronnen encarnou essa mistura de inconformismo, oportunismo e dandismo. Jamais foi um renegado, senão um eterno convertido, responsabilidade, sem dúvida alguma, de sua vocação e seu secreto talento.

dimanche, 31 juillet 2011

The NewDark Age: The Frankfurt School and "Political Correctness"

The New Dark Age: The Frankfurt School and 'Political Correctness'

Michael Minnicino

Ex: http://www.wermodandwermod.com/

The people of North America and Western Europe now accept a level of ugliness in their daily lives which is almost without precedent in the history of Western civilization. Most of us have become so inured, that the death of millions from starvation and disease draws from us no more than a sigh, or a murmur of protest. Our own city streets, home to legions of the homeless, are ruled by Dope, Inc., the largest industry in the world, and on those streets Americans now murder each other at a rate not seen since the Dark Ages.

At the same time, a thousand smaller horrors are so commonplace as to go unnoticed. Our children spend as much time sitting in front of television sets as they do in school, watching with glee, scenes of torture and death which might have shocked an audience in the Roman Coliseum. Music is everywhere, almost unavoidable—but it does not uplift, nor even tranquilize—it claws at the ears, sometimes spitting out an obscenity. Our plastic arts are ugly, our architecture is ugly, our clothes are ugly. There have certainly been periods in history where mankind has lived through similar kinds of brutishness, but our time is crucially different. Our post-World War II era is the first in history in which these horrors are completely avoidable. Our time is the first to have the technology and resources to feed, house, educate, and humanely employ every person on earth, no matter what the growth of population. Yet, when shown the ideas and proven technologies that can solve the most horrendous problems, most people retreat into implacable passivity. We have become not only ugly, but impotent.

Nonetheless, there is no reason why our current moral-cultural situation had to lawfully or naturally turn out as it has; and there is no reason why this tyranny of ugliness should continue one instant longer.

Consider the situation just one hundred years ago, in the early 1890's. In music, Claude Debussy was completing his Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun, and Arnold Schönberg was beginning to experiment with atonalism; at the same time, Dvorak was working on his Ninth Symphony, while Brahms and Verdi still lived. Edvard Munch was showing The Scream, and Paul Gauguin his Self-Portrait with Halo, but in America, Thomas Eakins was still painting and teaching. Mechanists like Helmholtz and Mach held major university chairs of science, alongside the students of Riemann and Cantor. Pope Leo XIII's De Rerum Novarum was being promulgated, even as sections of the Socialist Second International were turning terrorist, and preparing for class war.

The optimistic belief that one could compose music like Beethoven, paint like Rembrandt, study the universe like Plato and Nicolaus of Cusa, and change world society without violence, was alive in the 1890's—admittedly, it was weak, and under siege, but it was hardly dead. Yet, within twenty short years, these Classical traditions of human civilization had been all but swept away, and the West had committed itself to a series of wars of inconceivable carnage.

What started about a hundred years ago, was what might be called a counter-Renaissance. The Renaissance of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries was a religious celebration of the human soul and mankind's potential for growth. Beauty in art could not be conceived of as anything less than the expression of the most-advanced scientific principles, as demonstrated by the geometry upon which Leonardo's perspective and Brunelleschi's great Dome of Florence Cathedral are based. The finest minds of the day turned their thoughts to the heavens and the mighty waters, and mapped the solar system and the route to the New World, planning great projects to turn the course of rivers for the betterment of mankind. About a hundred years ago, it was as though a long checklist had been drawn up, with all of the wonderful achievements of the Renaissance itemized—each to be reversed. As part of this "New Age" movement, as it was then called, the concept of the human soul was undermined by the most vociferous intellectual campaign in history; art was forcibly separated from science, and science itself was made the object of deep suspicion. Art was made ugly because, it was said, life had become ugly.

The cultural shift away from the Renaissance ideas that built the modern world, was due to a kind of freemasonry of ugliness. In the beginning, it was a formal political conspiracy to popularize theories that were specifically designed to weaken the soul of Judeo-Christian civilization in such a way as to make people believe that creativity was not possible, that adherence to universal truth was evidence of authoritarianism, and that reason itself was suspect. This conspiracy was decisive in planning and developing, as means of social manipulation, the vast new sister industries of radio, television, film, recorded music, advertising, and public opinion polling. The pervasive psychological hold of the media was purposely fostered to create the passivity and pessimism which afflict our populations today. So successful was this conspiracy, that it has become embedded in our culture; it no longer needs to be a "conspiracy," for it has taken on a life of its own. Its successes are not debatable—you need only turn on the radio or television. Even the nomination of a Supreme Court Justice is deformed into an erotic soap opera, with the audience rooting from the sidelines for their favorite character.

Our universities, the cradle of our technological and intellectual future, have become overwhelmed by Comintern-style New Age "Political Correctness." With the collapse of the Soviet Union, our campuses now represent the largest concentration of Marxist dogma in the world. The irrational adolescent outbursts of the 1960's have become institutionalized into a "permanent revolution." Our professors glance over their shoulders, hoping the current mode will blow over before a student's denunciation obliterates a life's work; some audio-tape their lectures, fearing accusations of "insensitivity" by some enraged "Red Guard." Students at the University of Virginia recently petitioned successfully to drop the requirement to read Homer, Chaucer, and other DEMS ("Dead European Males") because such writings are considered ethnocentric, phallocentric, and generally inferior to the "more relevant" Third World, female, or homosexual authors.

This is not the academy of a republic; this is Hitler's Gestapo and Stalin's NKVD rooting out "deviationists," and banning books—the only thing missing is the public bonfire.

We will have to face the fact that the ugliness we see around us has been consciously fostered and organized in such a way, that a majority of the population is losing the cognitive ability to transmit to the next generation, the ideas and methods upon which our civilization was built. The loss of that ability is the primary indicator of a Dark Age. And, a new Dark Age is exactly what we are in. In such situations, the record of history is unequivocal: either we create a Renaissance—a rebirth of the fundamental principles upon which civilization originated—or, our civilization dies.

I. The Frankfurt School: Bolshevik Intelligentsia

The single, most important organizational component of this conspiracy was a Communist thinktank called the Institute for Social Research (I.S.R.), but popularly known as the Frankfurt School.

In the heady days immediately after the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, it was widely believed that proletarian revolution would momentarily sweep out of the Urals into Europe and, ultimately, North America. It did not; the only two attempts at workers' government in the West— in Munich and Budapest—lasted only months. The Communist International (Comintern) therefore began several operations to determine why this was so. One such was headed by Georg Lukacs, a Hungarian aristocrat, son of one of the Hapsburg Empire's leading bankers. Trained in Germany and already an important literary theorist, Lukacs became a Communist during World War I, writing as he joined the party, "Who will save us from Western civilization?" Lukacs was well-suited to the Comintern task: he had been one of the Commissars of Culture during the short-lived Hungarian Soviet in Budapest in 1919; in fact, modern historians link the shortness of the Budapest experiment to Lukacs' orders mandating sex education in the schools, easy access to contraception, and the loosening of divorce laws—all of which revulsed Hungary's Roman Catholic population.

Fleeing to the Soviet Union after the counter-revolution, Lukacs was secreted into Germany in 1922, where he chaired a meeting of Communist-oriented sociologists and intellectuals. This meeting founded the Institute for Social Research. Over the next decade, the Institute worked out what was to become the Comintern's most successful psychological warfare operation against the capitalist West.

Lukacs identified that any political movement capable of bringing Bolshevism to the West would have to be, in his words, "demonic"; it would have to "possess the religious power which is capable of filling the entire soul; a power that characterized primitive Christianity." However, Lukacs suggested, such a "messianic" political movement could only succeed when the individual believes that his or her actions are determined by "not a personal destiny, but the destiny of the community" in a world "that has been abandoned by God [emphasis added-MJM]." Bolshevism worked in Russia because that nation was dominated by a peculiar gnostic form of Christianty typified by the writings of Fyodor Dostoyevsky. "The model for the new man is Alyosha Karamazov," said Lukacs, referring to the Dostoyevsky character who willingly gave over his personal identity to a holy man, and thus ceased to be "unique, pure, and therefore abstract."

This abandonment of the soul's uniqueness also solves the problem of "the diabolic forces lurking in all violence" which must be unleashed in order to create a revolution. In this context, Lukacs cited the Grand Inquisitor section of Dostoyevsky's The Brothers Karamazov, noting that the Inquisitor who is interrogating Jesus, has resolved the issue of good and evil: once man has understood his alienation from God, then any act in the service of the "destiny of the community" is justified; such an act can be "neither crime nor madness.... For crime and madness are objectifications of transcendental homelessness."

According to an eyewitness, during meetings of the Hungarian Soviet leadership in 1919 to draw up lists for the firing squad, Lukacs would often quote the Grand Inquisitor: "And we who, for their happiness, have taken their sins upon ourselves, we stand before you and say, 'Judge us if you can and if you dare.' "

The Problem of Genesis

What differentiated the West from Russia, Lukacs identified, was a Judeo-Christian cultural matrix which emphasized exactly the uniqueness and sacredness of the individual which Lukacs abjured. At its core, the dominant Western ideology maintained that the individual, through the exercise of his or her reason, could discern the Divine Will in an unmediated relationship. What was worse, from Lukacs' standpoint: this reasonable relationship necessarily implied that the individual could and should change the physical universe in pursuit of the Good; that Man should have dominion over Nature, as stated in the Biblical injunction in Genesis. The problem was, that as long as the individual had the belief—or even the hope of the belief—that his or her divine spark of reason could solve the problems facing society, then that society would never reach the state of hopelessness and alienation which Lukacs recognized as the necessary prerequisite for socialist revolution.

The task of the Frankfurt School, then, was first, to undermine the Judeo-Christian legacy through an "abolition of culture" (Aufhebung der Kultur in Lukacs' German); and, second, to determine new cultural forms which would increase the alienation of the population, thus creating a "new barbarism." To this task, there gathered in and around the Frankfurt School an incredible assortment of not only Communists, but also non-party socialists, radical phenomenologists, Zionists, renegade Freudians, and at least a few members of a self-identified "cult of Astarte." The variegated membership reflected, to a certain extent, the sponsorship: although the Institute for Social Research started with Comintern support, over the next three decades its sources of funds included various German and American universities, the Rockefeller Foundation, Columbia Broadcasting System, the American Jewish Committee, several American intelligence services, the Office of the U.S. High Commissioner for Germany, the International Labour Organization, and the Hacker Institute, a posh psychiatric clinic in Beverly Hills.

Similarly, the Institute's political allegiances: although top personnel maintained what might be called a sentimental relationship to the Soviet Union (and there is evidence that some of them worked for Soviet intelligence into the 1960's), the Institute saw its goals as higher than that of Russian foreign policy. Stalin, who was horrified at the undisciplined, "cosmopolitan" operation set up by his predecessors, cut the Institute off in the late 1920's, forcing Lukacs into "self-criticism," and briefly jailing him as a German sympathizer during World War II.

Lukacs survived to briefly take up his old post as Minister of Culture during the anti-Stalinist Imre Nagy regime in Hungary. Of the other top Institute figures, the political perambulations of Herbert Marcuse are typical. He started as a Communist; became a protégé of philosopher Martin Heidegger even as the latter was joining the Nazi Party; coming to America, he worked for the World War II Office of Strategic Services (OSS), and later became the U.S. State Department's top analyst of Soviet policy during the height of the McCarthy period; in the 1960's, he turned again, to become the most important guru of the New Left; and he ended his days helping to found the environmentalist extremist Green Party in West Germany.

In all this seeming incoherence of shifting positions and contradictory funding, there is no ideological conflict. The invariant is the desire of all parties to answer Lukacs' original question: "Who will save us from Western civilization?"

Theodor Adorno and Walter Benjamin

Perhaps the most important, if least-known, of the Frankfurt School's successes was the shaping of the electronic media of radio and television into the powerful instruments of social control which they represent today. This grew out of the work originally done by two men who came to the Institute in the late 1920's, Theodor Adorno and Walter Benjamin.

After completing studies at the University of Frankfurt, Walter Benjamin planned to emigrate to Palestine in 1924 with his friend Gershom Scholem (who later became one of Israel's most famous philosophers, as well as Judaism's leading gnostic), but was prevented by a love affair with Asja Lacis, a Latvian actress and Comintern stringer. Lacis whisked him off to the Italian island of Capri, a cult center from the time of the Emperor Tiberius, then used as a Comintern training base; the heretofore apolitical Benjamin wrote Scholem from Capri, that he had found "an existential liberation and an intensive insight into the actuality of radical communism."

Lacis later took Benjamin to Moscow for further indoctrination, where he met playwright Bertolt Brecht, with whom he would begin a long collaboration; soon thereafter, while working on the first German translation of the drug-enthusiast French poet Baudelaire, Benjamin began serious experimentation with hallucinogens. In 1927, he was in Berlin as part of a group led by Adorno, studying the works of Lukacs; other members of the study group included Brecht and his composer-partner Kurt Weill; Hans Eisler, another composer who would later become a Hollywood film score composer and co-author with Adorno of the textbook Composition for the Film; the avant-garde photographer Imre Moholy-Nagy; and the conductor Otto Klemperer.

From 1928 to 1932, Adorno and Benjamin had an intensive collaboration, at the end of which they began publishing articles in the Institute's journal, the Zeitschrift fär Sozialforschung. Benjamin was kept on the margins of the Institute, largely due to Adorno, who would later appropriate much of his work. As Hitler came to power, the Institute's staff fled, but, whereas most were quickly spirited away to new deployments in the U.S. and England, there were no job offers for Benjamin, probably due to the animus of Adorno. He went to France, and, after the German invasion, fled to the Spanish border; expecting momentary arrest by the Gestapo, he despaired and died in a dingy hotel room of self-administered drug overdose.

Benjamin's work remained almost completely unknown until 1955, when Scholem and Adorno published an edition of his material in Germany. The full revival occurred in 1968, when Hannah Arendt, Heidegger's former mistress and a collaborator of the Institute in America, published a major article on Benjamin in the New Yorker magazine, followed in the same year by the first English translations of his work. Today, every university bookstore in the country boasts a full shelf devoted to translations of every scrap Benjamin wrote, plus exegesis, all with 1980's copyright dates.

Adorno was younger than Benjamin, and as aggressive as the older man was passive. Born Teodoro Wiesengrund-Adorno to a Corsican family, he was taught the piano at an early age by an aunt who lived with the family and had been the concert accompanist to the international opera star Adelina Patti. It was generally thought that Theodor would become a professional musician, and he studied with Bernard Sekles, Paul Hindemith's teacher. However, in 1918, while still a gymnasium student, Adorno met Siegfried Kracauer. Kracauer was part of a Kantian-Zionist salon which met at the house of Rabbi Nehemiah Nobel in Frankfurt; other members of the Nobel circle included philosopher Martin Buber, writer Franz Rosenzweig, and two students, Leo Lowenthal and Erich Fromm. Kracauer, Lowenthal, and Fromm would join the I.S.R. two decades later. Adorno engaged Kracauer to tutor him in the philosophy of Kant; Kracauer also introduced him to the writings of Lukacs and to Walter Benjamin, who was around the Nobel clique.

In 1924, Adorno moved to Vienna, to study with the atonalist composers Alban Berg and Arnold Schönberg, and became connected to the avant-garde and occult circle around the old Marxist Karl Kraus. Here, he not only met his future collaborator, Hans Eisler, but also came into contact with the theories of Freudian extremist Otto Gross. Gross, a long-time cocaine addict, had died in a Berlin gutter in 1920, while on his way to help the revolution in Budapest; he had developed the theory that mental health could only be achieved through the revival of the ancient cult of Astarte, which would sweep away monotheism and the "bourgeois family."

Saving Marxist Aesthetics

By 1928, Adorno and Benjamin had satisfied their intellectual wanderlust, and settled down at the I.S.R. in Germany to do some work. As subject, they chose an aspect of the problem posed by Lukacs: how to give aesthetics a firmly materialistic basis. It was a question of some importance, at the time. Official Soviet discussions of art and culture, with their wild gyrations into "socialist realism" and "proletkult," were idiotic, and only served to discredit Marxism's claim to philosophy among intellectuals. Karl Marx's own writings on the subject were sketchy and banal, at best.

In essence, Adorno and Benjamin's problem was Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. At the beginning of the eighteenth century, Leibniz had once again obliterated the centuries-old gnostic dualism dividing mind and body, by demonstrating that matter does not think. A creative act in art or science apprehends the truth of the physical universe, but it is not determined by that physical universe. By self-consciously concentrating the past in the present to effect the future, the creative act, properly defined, is as immortal as the soul which envisions the act. This has fatal philosophical implications for Marxism, which rests entirely on the hypothesis that mental activity is determined by the social relations excreted by mankind's production of its physical existence.

Marx sidestepped the problem of Leibniz, as did Adorno and Benjamin, although the latter did it with a lot more panache. It is wrong, said Benjamin in his first articles on the subject, to start with the reasonable, hypothesizing mind as the basis of the development of civilization; this is an unfortunate legacy of Socrates. As an alternative, Benjamin posed an Aristotelian fable in interpretation of Genesis: Assume that Eden were given to Adam as the primordial physical state. The origin of science and philosophy does not lie in the investigation and mastery of nature, but in the naming of the objects of nature; in the primordial state, to name a thing was to say all there was to say about that thing. In support of this, Benjamin cynically recalled the opening lines of the Gospel according to St. John, carefully avoiding the philosophically-broader Greek, and preferring the Vulgate (so that, in the phrase "In the beginning was the Word," the connotations of the original Greek word logos—speech, reason, ratiocination, translated as "Word"—are replaced by the narrower meaning of the Latin word verbum). After the expulsion from Eden and God's requirement that Adam eat his bread earned by the sweat of his face (Benjamin's Marxist metaphor for the development of economies), and God's further curse of Babel on Nimrod (that is, the development of nation-states with distinct languages, which Benjamin and Marx viewed as a negative process away from the "primitive communism" of Eden), humanity became "estranged" from the physical world.

Thus, Benjamin continued, objects still give off an "aura" of their primordial form, but the truth is now hopelessly elusive. In fact, speech, written language, art, creativity itself—that by which we master physicality—merely furthers the estrangement by attempting, in Marxist jargon, to incorporate objects of nature into the social relations determined by the class structure dominant at that point in history. The creative artist or scientist, therefore, is a vessel, like Ion the rhapsode as he described himself to Socrates, or like a modern "chaos theory" advocate: the creative act springs out of the hodgepodge of culture as if by magic. The more that bourgeois man tries to convey what he intends about an object, the less truthful he becomes; or, in one of Benjamin's most oft-quoted statements, "Truth is the death of intention."

This philosophical sleight-of-hand allows one to do several destructive things. By making creativity historically-specific, you rob it of both immortality and morality. One cannot hypothesize universal truth, or natural law, for truth is completely relative to historical development. By discarding the idea of truth and error, you also may throw out the "obsolete" concept of good and evil; you are, in the words of Friedrich Nietzsche, "beyond good and evil." Benjamin is able, for instance, to defend what he calls the "Satanism" of the French Symbolists and their Surrealist successors, for at the core of this Satanism "one finds the cult of evil as a political device ... to disinfect and isolate against all moralizing dilettantism" of the bourgeoisie. To condemn the Satanism of Rimbaud as evil, is as incorrect as to extol a Beethoven quartet or a Schiller poem as good; for both judgments are blind to the historical forces working unconsciously on the artist.

Thus, we are told, the late Beethoven's chord structure was striving to be atonal, but Beethoven could not bring himself consciously to break with the structured world of Congress of Vienna Europe (Adorno's thesis); similarly, Schiller really wanted to state that creativity was the liberation of the erotic, but as a true child of the Enlightenment and Immanuel Kant, he could not make the requisite renunciation of reason (Marcuse's thesis). Epistemology becomes a poor relation of public opinion, since the artist does not consciously create works in order to uplift society, but instead unconsciously transmits the ideological assumptions of the culture into which he was born. The issue is no longer what is universally true, but what can be plausibly interpreted by the self-appointed guardians of the Zeitgeist.

"The Bad New Days"

Thus, for the Frankfort School, the goal of a cultural elite in the modern, "capitalist" era must be to strip away the belief that art derives from the self-conscious emulation of God the Creator; "religious illumination," says Benjamin, must be shown to "reside in a profane illumination, a materialistic, anthropological inspiration, to which hashish, opium, or whatever else can give an introductory lesson." At the same time, new cultural forms must be found to increase the alienation of the population, in order for it to understand how truly alienated it is to live without socialism. "Do not build on the good old days, but on the bad new ones," said Benjamin.

The proper direction in painting, therefore, is that taken by the late Van Gogh, who began to paint objects in disintegration, with the equivalent of a hashish-smoker's eye that "loosens and entices things out of their familiar world." In music, "it is not suggested that one can compose better today" than Mozart or Beethoven, said Adorno, but one must compose atonally, for atonalism is sick, and "the sickness, dialectically, is at the same time the cure....The extraordinarily violent reaction protest which such music confronts in the present society ... appears nonetheless to suggest that the dialectical function of this music can already be felt ... negatively, as 'destruction.' "

The purpose of modern art, literature, and music must be to destroy the uplifting—therefore, bourgeois — potential of art, literature, and music, so that man, bereft of his connection to the divine, sees his only creative option to be political revolt. "To organize pessimism means nothing other than to expel the moral metaphor from politics and to discover in political action a sphere reserved one hundred percent for images." Thus, Benjamin collaborated with Brecht to work these theories into practical form, and their joint effort culminated in the Verfremdungseffekt ("estrangement effect"), Brecht's attempt to write his plays so as to make the audience leave the theatre demoralized and aimlessly angry.

Political Correctness

The Adorno-Benjamin analysis represents almost the entire theoretical basis of all the politically correct aesthetic trends which now plague our universities. The Poststructuralism of Roland Barthes, Michel Foucault, and Jacques Derrida, the Semiotics of Umberto Eco, the Deconstructionism of Paul DeMan, all openly cite Benjamin as the source of their work. The Italian terrorist Eco's best-selling novel, The Name of the Rose, is little more than a paean to Benjamin; DeMan, the former Nazi collaborator in Belgium who became a prestigious Yale professor, began his career translating Benjamin; Barthes' infamous 1968 statement that "[t]he author is dead," is meant as an elaboration of Benjamin's dictum on intention. Benjamin has actually been called the heir of Leibniz and of Wilhelm von Humboldt, the philologist collaborator of Schiller whose educational reforms engendered the tremendous development of Germany in the nineteenth century. Even as recently as September 1991, the Washington Post referred to Benjamin as "the finest German literary theorist of the century (and many would have left off that qualifying German)."

Readers have undoubtedly heard one or another horror story about how an African-American Studies Department has procured a ban on Othello, because it is "racist," or how a radical feminist professor lectured a Modern Language Association meeting on the witches as the "true heroines" of Macbeth. These atrocities occur because the perpetrators are able to plausibly demonstrate, in the tradition of Benjamin and Adorno, that Shakespeare's intent is irrelevant; what is important, is the racist or phallocentric "subtext" of which Shakespeare was unconscious when he wrote.

When the local Women's Studies or Third World Studies Department organizes students to abandon classics in favor of modern Black and feminist authors, the reasons given are pure Benjamin. It is not that these modern writers are better, but they are somehow more truthful because their alienated prose reflects the modern social problems of which the older authors were ignorant! Students are being taught that language itself is, as Benjamin said, merely a conglomeration of false "names" foisted upon society by its oppressors, and are warned against "logocentrism," the bourgeois over-reliance on words.

If these campus antics appear "retarded" (in the words of Adorno), that is because they are designed to be. The Frankfurt School's most important breakthrough consists in the realization that their monstrous theories could become dominant in the culture, as a result of the changes in society brought about by what Benjamin called "the age of mechanical reproduction of art."

II. The Establishment Goes Bolshevik:
"Entertainment" Replaces Art

Before the twentieth century, the distinction between art and "entertainment" was much more pronounced. One could be entertained by art, certainly, but the experience was active, not passive. On the first level, one had to make a conscious choice to go to a concert, to view a certain art exhibit, to buy a book or piece of sheet music. It was unlikely that any more than an infinitesimal fraction of the population would have the opportunity to see King Lear or hear Beethoven's Ninth Symphony more than once or twice in a lifetime. Art demanded that one bring one's full powers of concentration and knowledge of the subject to bear on each experience, or else the experience were considered wasted. These were the days when memorization of poetry and whole plays, and the gathering of friends and family for a "parlor concert," were the norm, even in rural households. These were also the days before "music appreciation"; when one studied music, as many did, they learned to play it, not appreciate it.

However, the new technologies of radio, film, and recorded music represented, to use the appropriate Marxist buzz-word, a dialectical potential. On the one hand, these technologies held out the possibility of bringing the greatest works of art to millions of people who would otherwise not have access to them. On the other, the fact that the experience was infinitely reproducible could tend to disengage the audience's mind, making the experience less sacred, thus increasing alienation. Adorno called this process, "demythologizing." This new passivity, Adorno hypothesized in a crucial article published in 1938, could fracture a musical composition into the "entertaining" parts which would be "fetishized" in the memory of the listener, and the difficult parts, which would be forgotten. Adorno continues,

 

The counterpart to the fetishism is a regression of listening. This does not mean a relapse of the individual listener into an earlier phase of his own development, nor a decline in the collective general level, since the millions who are reached musically for the first time by today's mass communications cannot be compared with the audiences of the past. Rather, it is the contemporary listening which has regressed, arrested at the infantile stage. Not only do the listening subjects lose, along with the freedom of choice and responsibility, the capacity for the conscious perception of music .... [t]hey fluctuate between comprehensive forgetting and sudden dives into recognition. They listen atomistically and dissociate what they hear, but precisely in this dissociation they develop certain capacities which accord less with the traditional concepts of aesthetics than with those of football or motoring. They are not childlike ... but they are childish; their primitivism is not that of the undeveloped, but that of the forcibly retarded. [emphasis aded]

This conceptual retardation and preconditioning caused by listening, suggested that programming could determine preference. The very act of putting, say, a Benny Goodman number next to a Mozart sonata on the radio, would tend to amalgamate both into entertaining "music-on-the-radio" in the mind of the listener. This meant that even new and unpalatable ideas could become popular by "re-naming" them through the universal homogenizer of the culture industry. As Benjamin puts it,

 

Mechanical reproduction of art changes the reaction of the masses toward art. The reactionary attitude toward a Picasso painting changes into a progressive reaction toward a Chaplin movie. The progressive reaction is characterized by the direct, intimate fusion of visual and emotional enjoyment with the orientation of the expert.... With regard to the screen, the critical and receptive attitudes of the public coincide. The decisive reason for this is that the individual reactions are predetermined by the mass audience response they are about to produce, and this is nowhere more pronounced than in the film.

At the same time, the magic power of the media could be used to re-define previous ideas. "Shakespeare, Rembrandt, Beethoven will all make films," concluded Benjamin, quoting the French film pioneer Abel Gance, "... all legends, all mythologies, all myths, all founders of religions, and the very religions themselves ... await their exposed resurrection."

Social Control: The "Radio Project"

Here, then, were some potent theories of social control. The great possibilities of this Frankfurt School media work were probably the major contributing factor in the support given the I.S.R. by the bastions of the Establishment, after the Institute transferred its operations to America in 1934.

In 1937, the Rockefeller Foundation began funding research into the social effects of new forms of mass media, particularly radio. Before World War I, radio had been a hobbyist's toy, with only 125,000 receiving sets in the entire U.S.; twenty years later, it had become the primary mode of entertainment in the country; out of 32 million American families in 1937, 27.5 million had radios — a larger percentage than had telephones, automobiles, plumbing, or electricity! Yet, almost no systematic research had been done up to this point. The Rockefeller Foundation enlisted several universities, and headquartered this network at the School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University. Named the Office of Radio Research, it was popularly known as "the Radio Project."

The director of the Project was Paul Lazersfeld, the foster son of Austrian Marxist economist Rudolph Hilferding, and a long-time collaborator of the I.S.R. from the early 1930's. Under Lazersfeld was Frank Stanton, a recent Ph.D. in industrial psychology from Ohio State, who had just been made research director of Columbia Broadcasting System—a grand title but a lowly position. After World War II, Stanton became president of the CBS News Division, and ultimately president of CBS at the height of the TV network's power; he also became Chairman of the Board of the RAND Corporation, and a member of President Lyndon Johnson's "kitchen cabinet." Among the Project's researchers were Herta Herzog, who married Lazersfeld and became the first director of research for the Voice of America; and Hazel Gaudet, who became one of the nation's leading political pollsters. Theodor Adorno was named chief of the Project's music section.

Despite the official gloss, the activities of the Radio Project make it clear that its purpose was to test empirically the Adorno-Benjamin thesis that the net effect of the mass media could be to atomize and increase lability—what people would later call "brainwashing."

Soap Operas and the Invasion from Mars

The first studies were promising. Herta Herzog produced "On Borrowed Experiences," the first comprehensive research on soap operas. The "serial radio drama" format was first used in 1929, on the inspiration of the old, cliff-hanger "Perils of Pauline" film serial. Because these little radio plays were highly melodramatic, they became popularly identified with Italian grand opera; because they were often sponsored by soap manufacturers, they ended up with the generic name, "soap opera."

Until Herzog's work, it was thought that the immense popularity of this format was largely with women of the lowest socioeconomic status who, in the restricted circumstances of their lives, needed a helpful escape to exotic places and romantic situations. A typical article from that period by two University of Chicago psychologists, "The Radio Day-Time Serial: Symbol Analysis" published in the Genetic Psychology Monographs, solemnly emphasized the positive, claiming that the soaps "function very much like the folk tale, expressing the hopes and fears of its female audience, and on the whole contribute to the integration of their lives into the world in which they live."

Herzog found that there was, in fact, no correlation to socioeconomic status. What is more, there was surprisingly little correlation to content. The key factor — as Adorno and Benjamin's theories suggested it would be — was the form itself of the serial; women were being effectively addicted to the format, not so much to be entertained or to escape, but to "find out what happens next week." In fact, Herzog found, you could almost double the listenership of a radio play by dividing it into segments.

Modern readers will immediately recognize that this was not a lesson lost on the entertainment industry. Nowadays, the serial format has spread to children's programming and high-budget prime time shows. The most widely watched shows in the history of television, remain the "Who Killed JR?" installment of Dallas, and the final episode of M*A*S*H, both of which were premised on a "what happens next?" format. Even feature films, like the Star Wars and Back to the Future trilogies, are now produced as serials, in order to lock in a viewership for the later installments. The humble daytime soap also retains its addictive qualities in the current age: 70% of all American women over eighteen now watch at least two of these shows each day, and there is a fast-growing viewership among men and college students of both sexes.

The Radio Project's next major study was an investigation into the effects of Orson Welles' Halloween 1938 radioplay based on H.G. Wells' War of the Worlds. Six million people heard the broadcast realistically describing a Martian invasion force landing in rural New Jersey. Despite repeated and clear statements that the show was fictional, approximately 25% of the listeners thought it was real, some panicking outright. The Radio Project researchers found that a majority of the people who panicked did not think that men from Mars had invaded; they actually thought that the Germans had invaded.

It happened this way. The listeners had been psychologically pre-conditioned by radio reports from the Munich crisis earlier that year. During that crisis, CBS's man in Europe, Edward R. Murrow, hit upon the idea of breaking into regular programming to present short news bulletins. For the first time in broadcasting, news was presented not in longer analytical pieces, but in short clips—what we now call "audio bites." At the height of the crisis, these flashes got so numerous, that, in the words of Murrow's producer Fred Friendly, "news bulletins were interrupting news bulletins." As the listeners thought that the world was moving to the brink of war, CBS ratings rose dramatically. When Welles did his fictional broadcast later, after the crisis had receded, he used this news bulletin technique to give things verisimilitude: he started the broadcast by faking a standard dance-music program, which kept getting interrupted by increasingly terrifying "on the scene reports" from New Jersey. Listeners who panicked, reacted not to content, but to format; they heard "We interrupt this program for an emergency bulletin," and "invasion," and immediately concluded that Hitler had invaded. The soap opera technique, transposed to the news, had worked on a vast and unexpected scale.

Little Annie and the "Wagnerian Dream" of TV

In 1939, one of the numbers of the quarterly Journal of Applied Psychology was handed over to Adorno and the Radio Project to publish some of their findings. Their conclusion was that Americans had, over the last twenty years, become "radio-minded," and that their listening had become so fragmented that repetition of format was the key to popularity. The play list determined the "hits"—a truth well known to organized crime, both then and now—and repetition could make any form of music or any performer, even a classical music performer, a "star." As long as a familiar form or context was retained, almost any content would become acceptable. "Not only are hit songs, stars, and soap operas cyclically recurrent and rigidly invariable types," said Adorno, summarizing this material a few years later, "but the specific content of the entertainment itself is derived from them and only appears to change. The details are interchangeable."

The crowning achievement of the Radio Project was "Little Annie," officially titled the Stanton-Lazersfeld Program Analyzer. Radio Project research had shown that all previous methods of preview polling were ineffectual. Up to that point, a preview audience listened to a show or watched a film, and then was asked general questions: did you like the show? what did you think of so-and-so's performance? The Radio Project realized that this method did not take into account the test audience's atomized perception of the subject, and demanded that they make a rational analysis of what was intended to be an irrational experience. So, the Project created a device in which each test audience member was supplied with a type of rheostat on which he could register the intensity of his likes or dislikes on a moment-to-moment basis. By comparing the individual graphs produced by the device, the operators could determine, not if the audience liked the whole show — which was irrelevant—but, which situations or characters produced a positive, if momentary, feeling state.

Little Annie transformed radio, film, and ultimately television programming. CBS still maintains program analyzer facilities in Hollywood and New York; it is said that results correlate 85% to ratings. Other networks and film studios have similar operations. This kind of analysis is responsible for the uncanny feeling you get when, seeing a new film or TV show, you think you have seen it all before. You have, many times. If a program analyzer indicates that, for instance, audiences were particularly titilated by a short scene in a World War II drama showing a certain type of actor kissing a certain type of actress, then that scene format will be worked into dozens of screenplays—transposed to the Middle Ages, to outer space, etc., etc.

The Radio Project also realized that television had the potential to intensify all of the effects that they had studied. TV technology had been around for some years, and had been exhibited at the 1936 World's Fair in New York, but the only person to attempt serious utilization of the medium had been Adolf Hitler. The Nazis broadcast events from the 1936 Olympic Games "live" to communal viewing rooms around Germany; they were trying to expand on their great success in using radio to Nazify all aspects of German culture. Further plans for German TV development were sidetracked by war preparations.

Adorno understood this potential perfectly, writing in 1944:

Television aims at the synthesis of radio and film, and is held up only because the interested parties have not yet reached agreement, but its consequences will be quite enormous and promise to intensify the impoverishment of aesthetic matter so drastically, that by tomorrow the thinly veiled identity of all industrial culture products can come triumphantly out in the open, derisively fulfilling the Wagnerian dream of the Gesamtkunstwerk—the fusion of all the arts in one work.

The obvious point is this: the profoundly irrational forms of modern entertainment—the stupid and eroticized content of most TV and films, the fact that your local Classical music radio station programs Stravinsky next to Mozart—don't have to be that way. They were designed to be that way. The design was so successful, that today, no one even questions the reasons or the origins.

III. Creating "Public Opinion": The "Authoritarian Personality" Bogeyman and the OSS

The efforts of the Radio Project conspirators to manipulate the population, spawned the modern pseudoscience of public opinion polling, in order to gain greater control over the methods they were developing.

Today, public opinion polls, like the television news, have been completely integrated into our society. A "scientific survey" of what people are said to think about an issue can be produced in less than twenty-four hours. Some campaigns for high political office are completely shaped by polls; in fact, many politicians try to create issues which are themselves meaningless, but which they know will look good in the polls, purely for the purpose of enhancing their image as "popular." Important policy decisions are made, even before the actual vote of the citizenry or the legislature, by poll results. Newspapers will occasionally write pious editorials calling on people to think for themselves, even as the newspaper's business agent sends a check to the local polling organization.

The idea of "public opinion" is not new, of course. Plato spoke against it in his Republic over two millenia ago; Alexis de Tocqueville wrote at length of its influence over America in the early nineteenth century. But, nobody thought to measure public opinion before the twentieth century, and nobody before the 1930's thought to use those measurements for decision-making.

It is useful to pause and reflect on the whole concept. The belief that public opinion can be a determinant of truth is philosophically insane. It precludes the idea of the rational individual mind. Every individual mind contains the divine spark of reason, and is thus capable of scientific discovery, and understanding the discoveries of others. The individual mind is one of the few things that cannot, therefore, be "averaged." Consider: at the moment of creative discovery, it is possible, if not probable, that the scientist making the discovery is the only person to hold that opinion about nature, whereas everyone else has a different opinion, or no opinion. One can only imagine what a "scientifically-conducted survey" on Kepler's model of the solar system would have been, shortly after he published the Harmony of the World: 2% for, 48% against, 50% no opinion.

These psychoanalytic survey techniques became standard, not only for the Frankfurt School, but also throughout American social science departments, particularly after the I.S.R. arrived in the United States. The methodology was the basis of the research piece for which the Frankfurt School is most well known, the "authoritarian personality" project. In 1942, I.S.R. director Max Horkheimer made contact with the American Jewish Committee, which asked him to set up a Department of Scientific Research within its organization. The American Jewish Committee also provided a large grant to study anti-Semitism in the American population. "Our aim," wrote Horkheimer in the introduction to the study, "is not merely to describe prejudice, but to explain it in order to help in its eradication.... Eradication means reeducation scientifically planned on the basis of understanding scientifically arrived at."

The A-S Scale

Ultimately, five volumes were produced for this study over the course of the late 1940's; the most important was the last, The Authoritarian Personality, by Adorno, with the help of three Berkeley, California social psychologists.

In the 1930's Erich Fromm had devised a questionnaire to be used to analyze German workers pychoanalytically as "authoritarian," "revolutionary" or "ambivalent." The heart of Adorno's study was, once again, Fromm's psychoanalytic scale, but with the positive end changed from a "revolutionary personality," to a "democratic personality," in order to make things more palatable for a postwar audience.

Nine personality traits were tested and measured, including:

  • conventionalism—rigid adherence to conventional, middle-class values
  • authoritarian aggression—the tendency to be on the look-out for, to condemn, reject and punish, people who violate conventional values
  • projectivity—the disposition to believethat wild and dangerous things go on in the world
  • sex—exaggerated concern with sexual goings-on.

From these measurements were constructed several scales: the E Scale (ethnocentrism), the PEC Scale (poltical and economic conservatism), the A-S Scale (anti-Semitism), and the F Scale (fascism). Using Rensis Lickerts's methodology of weighting results, the authors were able to tease together an empirical definition of what Adorno called "a new anthropological type," the authoritarian personality. The legerdemain here, as in all psychoanalytic survey work, is the assumption of a Weberian "type." Once the type has been statistically determined, all behavior can be explained; if an anti-Semitic personality does not act in an anti-Semitic way, then he or she has an ulterior motive for the act, or is being discontinuous. The idea that a human mind is capable of transformation, is ignored.

The results of this very study can be interpreted in diametrically different ways. One could say that the study proved that the population of the U.S. was generally conservative, did not want to abandon a capitalist economy, believed in a strong family and that sexual promiscuity should be punished, thought that the postwar world was a dangerous place, and was still suspicious of Jews (and Blacks, Roman Catholics, Orientals, etc. — unfortunately true, but correctable in a social context of economic growth and cultural optimism). On the other hand, one could take the same results and prove that anti-Jewish pogroms and Nuremburg rallies were simmering just under the surface, waiting for a new Hitler to ignite them. Which of the two interpretations you accept is a political, not a scientific, decision. Horkheimer and Adorno firmly believed that all religions, Judaism included, were "the opiate of the masses." Their goal was not the protection of Jews from prejudice, but the creation of a definition of authoritarianism and anti-Semitism which could be exploited to force the "scientifically planned reeducation" of Americans and Europeans away from the principles of Judeo-Christian civilization, which the Frankfurt School despised. In their theoretical writings of this period, Horkheimer and Adorno pushed the thesis to its most paranoid: just as capitalism was inherently fascistic, the philosophy of Christianity itself is the source of anti-Semitism. As Horkheimer and Adorno jointly wrote in their 1947 "Elements of Anti-Semitism":

 

Christ, the spirit become flesh, is the deified sorcerer. Man's self-reflection in the absolute, the humanization of God by Christ, is the proton pseudos [original falsehood]. Progress beyond Judaism is coupled with the assumption that the man Jesus has become God. The reflective aspect of Christianity, the intellectualization of magic, is the root of evil.

At the same time, Horkheimer could write in a more-popularized article titled "Anti-Semitism: A Social Disease," that "at present, the only country where there does not seem to be any kind of anti-Semitism is Russia"[!].

This self-serving attempt to maximize paranoia was further aided by Hannah Arendt, who popularized the authoritarian personality research in her widely-read Origins of Totalitarianism. Arendt also added the famous rhetorical flourish about the "banality of evil" in her later Eichmann in Jerusalem: even a simple, shopkeeper-type like Eichmann can turn into a Nazi beast under the right psychological circumstances—every Gentile is suspect, psychoanalytically.

It is Arendt's extreme version of the authoritarian personality thesis which is the operant philosophy of today's Cult Awareness Network (CAN), a group which works with the U.S. Justice Department and the Anti-Defamation League of the B'nai B'rith, among others. Using standard Frankfurt School method, CAN identifies political and religious groups which are its political enemies, then re-labels them as a "cult," in order to justify operations against them.

The Public Opinion Explosion

Despite its unprovable central thesis of "psychoanalytic types," the interpretive survey methodology of the Frankfurt School became dominant in the social sciences, and essentially remains so today. In fact, the adoption of these new, supposedly scientific techniques in the 1930's brought about an explosion in public-opinion survey use, much of it funded by Madison Avenue. The major pollsters of today—A.C. Neilsen, George Gallup, Elmo Roper—started in the mid-1930's, and began using the I.S.R. methods, especially given the success of the Stanton-Lazersfeld Program Analyzer. By 1936, polling activity had become sufficiently widespread to justify a trade association, the American Academy of Public Opinion Research at Princeton, headed by Lazersfeld; at the same time, the University of Chicago created the National Opinion Research Center. In 1940, the Office of Radio Research was turned into the Bureau of Applied Social Research, a division of Columbia University, with the indefatigable Lazersfeld as director.

After World War II, Lazersfeld especially pioneered the use of surveys to psychoanalyze American voting behavior, and by the 1952 Presidential election, Madison Avenue advertising agencies were firmly in control of Dwight Eisenhower's campaign, utilizing Lazersfeld's work. Nineteen fifty-two was also the first election under the influence of television, which, as Adorno had predicted eight years earlier, had grown to incredible influence in a very short time. Batten, Barton, Durstine & Osborne — the fabled "BBD&O" ad agency—designed Ike's campaign appearances entirely for the TV cameras, and as carefully as Hitler's Nuremberg rallies; one-minute "spot" advertisements were pioneered to cater to the survey-determined needs of the voters.

This snowball has not stopped rolling since. The entire development of television and advertising in the 1950's and 1960's was pioneered by men and women who were trained in the Frankfurt School's techniques of mass alienation. Frank Stanton went directly from the Radio Project to become the single most-important leader of modern television. Stanton's chief rival in the formative period of TV was NBC's Sylvester "Pat" Weaver; after a Ph.D. in "listening behavior," Weaver worked with the Program Analyzer in the late 1930's, before becoming a Young & Rubicam vice-president, then NBC's director of programming, and ultimately the network's president. Stanton and Weaver's stories are typical.

Today, the men and women who run the networks, the ad agencies, and the polling organizations, even if they have never heard of Theodor Adorno, firmly believe in Adorno's theory that the media can, and should, turn all they touch into "football." Coverage of the 1991 Gulf War should make that clear.

The technique of mass media and advertising developed by the Frankfurt School now effectively controls American political campaigning. Campaigns are no longer based on political programs, but actually on alienation. Petty gripes and irrational fears are identified by psychoanalytic survey, to be transmogrified into "issues" to be catered to; the "Willy Horton" ads of the 1988 Presidential campaign, and the "flag-burning amendment," are but two recent examples. Issues that will determine the future of our civilization, are scrupulously reduced to photo opportunities and audio bites—like Ed Murrow's original 1930's radio reports—where the dramatic effect is maximized, and the idea content is zero.

Who Is the Enemy?

Part of the influence of the authoritarian personality hoax in our own day also derives from the fact that, incredibly, the Frankfurt School and its theories were officially accepted by the U.S. government during World War II, and these Cominternists were responsible for determining who were America's wartime, and postwar, enemies. In 1942, the Office of Strategic Services, America's hastily-constructed espionage and covert operations unit, asked former Harvard president James Baxter to form a Research and Analysis (R&A) Branch under the group's Intelligence Division. By 1944, the R&A Branch had collected such a large and prestigeous group of emigré scholars that H. Stuart Hughes, then a young Ph.D., said that working for it was "a second graduate education" at government expense. The Central European Section was headed by historian Carl Schorske; under him, in the all-important Germany/Austria Section, was Franz Neumann, as section chief, with Herbert Marcuse, Paul Baran, and Otto Kirchheimer, all I.S.R. veterans. Leo Lowenthal headed the German-language section of the Office of War Information; Sophie Marcuse, Marcuse's wife, worked at the Office of Naval Intelligence. Also at the R&A Branch were: Siegfried Kracauer, Adorno's old Kant instructor, now a film theorist; Norman O. Brown, who would become famous in the 1960's by combining Marcuse's hedonism theory with Wilhelm Reich's orgone therapy to popularize "polymorphous perversity"; Barrington Moore, Jr., later a philosophy professor who would co-author a book with Marcuse; Gregory Bateson, the husband of anthropologist Margaret Mead (who wrote for the Frankfurt School's journal), and Arthur Schlesinger, the historian who joined the Kennedy Administration. Marcuse's first assignment was to head a team to identify both those who would be tried as war criminals after the war, and also those who were potential leaders of postwar Germany. In 1944, Marcuse, Neumann, and Kirchheimer wrote the Denazification Guide, which was later issued to officers of the U.S. Armed Forces occupying Germany, to help them identify and suppress pro-Nazi behaviors. After the armistice, the R&A Branch sent representatives to work as intelligence liaisons with the various occupying powers; Marcuse was assigned the U.S. Zone, Kirchheimer the French, and Barrington Moore the Soviet. In the summer of 1945, Neumann left to become chief of research for the Nuremburg Tribunal. Marcuse remained in and around U.S. intelligence into the early 1950's, rising to the chief of the Central European Branch of the State Department's Office of Intelligence Research, an office formally charged with "planning and implementing a program of positive-intelligence research ... to meet the intelligence requirements of the Central Intelligence Agency and other authorized agencies." During his tenure as a U.S. government official, Marcuse supported the division of Germany into East and West, noting that this would prevent an alliance between the newly liberated left-wing parties and the old, conservative industrial and business layers. In 1949, he produced a 532-page report, "The Potentials of World Communism" (declassified only in 1978), which suggested that the Marshall Plan economic stabilization of Europe would limit the recruitment potential of Western Europe's Communist Parties to acceptable levels, causing a period of hostile co-existence with the Soviet Union, marked by confrontation only in faraway places like Latin America and Indochina—in all, a surprisingly accurate forecast. Marcuse left the State Department with a Rockefeller Foundation grant to work with the various Soviet Studies departments which were set up at many of America's top universities after the war, largely by R&A Branch veterans.

At the same time, Max Horkheimer was doing even greater damage. As part of the denazification of Germany suggested by the R&A Branch, U.S. High Commissioner for Germany John J. McCloy, using personal discretionary funds, brought Horkheimer back to Germany to reform the German university system. In fact, McCloy asked President Truman and Congress to pass a bill granting Horkheimer, who had become a naturalized American, dual citizenship; thus, for a brief period, Horkheimer was the only person in the world to hold both German and U.S. citizenship. In Germany, Horkheimer began the spadework for the full-blown revival of the Frankfurt School in that nation in the late 1950's, including the training of a whole new generation of anti-Western civilization scholars like Hans-Georg Gadamer and Jürgen Habermas, who would have such destructive influence in 1960's Germany. In a period of American history when some individuals were being hounded into unemployment and suicide for the faintest aroma of leftism, Frankfurt School veterans—all with superb Comintern credentials — led what can only be called charmed lives. America had, to an incredible extent, handed the determination of who were the nation's enemies, over to the nation's own worst enemies.

IV. The Aristotelian Eros: Marcuse and the CIA's Drug Counterculture

In 1989, Hans-Georg Gadamer, a protégé of Martin Heidegger and the last of the original Frankfurt School generation, was asked to provide an appreciation of his own work for the German newspaper, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. He wrote,

 

One has to conceive of Aristotle's ethics as a true fulfillment of the Socratic challenge, which Plato had placed at the center of his dialogues on the Socratic question of the good.... Plato described the idea of the good ... as the ultimate and highest idea, which is supposedly the highest principle of being for the universe, the state, and the human soul. Against this Aristotle opposed a decisive critique, under the famous formula, "Plato is my friend, but the truth is my friend even more." He denied that one could consider the idea of the good as a universal principle of being, which is supposed to hold in the same way for theoretical knowledge as for practical knowledge and human activity.

This statement not only succinctly states the underlying philosophy of the Frankfurt School, it also suggests an inflection point around which we can order much of the philosophical combat of the last two millenia. In the simplest terms, the Aristotelian correction of Plato sunders physics from metaphysics, relegating the Good to a mere object of speculation about which "our knowledge remains only a hypothesis," in the words of Wilhelm Dilthey, the Frankfurt School's favorite philosopher. Our knowledge of the "real world," as Dilthey, Nietzsche, and other precursors of the Frankfurt School were wont to emphasize, becomes erotic, in the broadest sense of that term, as object fixation. The universe becomes a collection of things which each operate on the basis of their own natures (that is, genetically), and through interaction between themselves (that is, mechanistically). Science becomes the deduction of the appropriate categories of these natures and interactions. Since the human mind is merely a sensorium, waiting for the Newtonian apple to jar it into deduction, humanity's relationship to the world (and vice versa) becomes an erotic attachment to objects. The comprehension of the universal—the mind's seeking to be the living image of the living God—is therefore illusory. That universal either does not exist, or it exists incomprehensibly as a deus ex machina; that is, the Divine exists as a superaddition to the physical universe — God is really Zeus, flinging thunderbolts into the world from some outside location. (Or, perhaps more appropriately: God is really Cupid, letting loose golden arrows to make objects attract, and leaden arrows to make objects repel.) The key to the entire Frankfurt School program, from originator Lukacs on, is the "liberation" of Aristotelian eros, to make individual feeling states psychologically primary. When the I.S.R. leaders arrived in the United States in the mid-1930's, they exulted that here was a place which had no adequate philosophical defenses against their brand of Kulturpessimismus [cultural pessimism]. However, although the Frankfurt School made major inroads in American intellectual life before World War II, that influence was largely confined to academia and to radio; and radio, although important, did not yet have the overwhelming influence on social life that it would acquire during the war. Furthermore, America's mobilization for the war, and the victory against fascism, sidetracked the Frankfurt School schedule; America in 1945 was almost sublimely optimistic, with a population firmly convinced that a mobilized republic, backed by science and technology, could do just about anything. The fifteen years after the war, however, saw the domination of family life by the radio and television shaped by the Frankfurt School, in a period of political erosion in which the great positive potential of America degenerated to a purely negative posture against the real and, oftentimes manipulated, threat of the Soviet Union. At the same time, hundreds of thousands of the young generation—the so-called baby boomers—were entering college and being exposed to the Frankfurt School's poison, either directly or indirectly. It is illustrative, that by 1960, sociology had become the most popular course of study in American universities. Indeed, when one looks at the first stirrings of the student rebellion at the beginning of the 1960's, like the speeches of the Berkeley Free Speech Movement or the Port Huron Statement which founded the Students for a Democratic Society, one is struck with how devoid of actual content these discussions were. There is much anxiety about being made to conform to the system—"I am a human being; do not fold, spindle, or mutilate" went an early Berkeley slogan—but it is clear that the "problems" cited derive much more from required sociology textbooks, than from the real needs of the society.

The CIA's Psychedelic Revolution

The simmering unrest on campus in 1960 might well too have passed or had a positive outcome, were it not for the traumatic decapitation of the nation through the Kennedy assassination, plus the simultaneous introduction of widespread drug use. Drugs had always been an "analytical tool" of the nineteenth century Romantics, like the French Symbolists, and were popular among the European and American Bohemian fringe well into the post-World War II period. But, in the second half of the 1950's, the CIA and allied intelligence services began extensive experimentation with the hallucinogen LSD to investigate its potential for social control. It has now been documented that millions of doses of the chemical were produced and disseminated under the aegis of the CIA's Operation MK-Ultra. LSD became the drug of choice within the agency itself, and was passed out freely to friends of the family, including a substantial number of OSS veterans. For instance, it was OSS Research and Analysis Branch veteran Gregory Bateson who "turned on" the Beat poet Allen Ginsberg to a U.S. Navy LSD experiment in Palo Alto, California. Not only Ginsberg, but novelist Ken Kesey and the original members of the Grateful Dead rock group opened the doors of perception courtesy of the Navy. The guru of the "psychedelic revolution," Timothy Leary, first heard about hallucinogens in 1957 from Life magazine (whose publisher, Henry Luce, was often given government acid, like many other opinion shapers), and began his career as a CIA contract employee; at a 1977 "reunion" of acid pioneers, Leary openly admitted, "everything I am, I owe to the foresight of the CIA." Hallucinogens have the singular effect of making the victim asocial, totally self-centered, and concerned with objects. Even the most banal objects take on the "aura" which Benjamin had talked about, and become timeless and delusionarily profound. In other words, hallucinogens instantaneously achieve a state of mind identical to that prescribed by the Frankfurt School theories. And, the popularization of these chemicals created a vast psychological lability for bringing those theories into practice. Thus, the situation at the beginning of the 1960's represented a brilliant re-entry point for the Frankfurt School, and it was fully exploited. One of the crowning ironies of the "Now Generation" of 1964 on, is that, for all its protestations of utter modernity, none of its ideas or artifacts was less than thirty years old. The political theory came completely from the Frankfurt School; Lucien Goldmann, a French radical who was a visiting professor at Columbia in 1968, was absolutely correct when he said of Herbert Marcuse in 1969 that "the student movements ... found in his works and ultimately in his works alone the theoretical formulation of their problems and aspirations [emphasis in original]." The long hair and sandals, the free love communes, the macrobiotic food, the liberated lifestyles, had been designed at the turn of the century, and thoroughly field-tested by various, Frankfurt School-connected New Age social experiments like the Ascona commune before 1920. (See box.) Even Tom Hayden's defiant "Never trust anyone over thirty," was merely a less-urbane version of Rupert Brooke's 1905, "Nobody over thirty is worth talking to." The social planners who shaped the 1960's simply relied on already-available materials.

Eros and Civilization

The founding document of the 1960's counterculture, and that which brought the Frankfurt School's "revolutionary messianism" of the 1920's into the 1960's, was Marcuse's Eros and Civilization, originally published in 1955 and funded by the Rockefeller Foundation. The document masterfully sums up the Frankfurt School ideology of Kulturpessimismus in the concept of "dimensionality." In one of the most bizarre perversions of philosophy, Marcuse claims to derive this concept from Friedrich Schiller. Schiller, whom Marcuse purposefully misidentifies as the heir of Immanuel Kant, discerned two dimensions in humanity: a sensuous instinct and an impulse toward form. Schiller advocated the harmonization of these two instincts in man in the form of a creative play instinct. For Marcuse, on the other hand, the only hope to escape the one-dimensionality of modern industrial society was to liberate the erotic side of man, the sensuous instinct, in rebellion against "technological rationality." As Marcuse would say later (1964) in his One-Dimensional Man, "A comfortable, smooth, reasonable, democratic unfreedom prevails in advanced industrial civilization, a token of technical progress." This erotic liberation he misidentifies with Schiller's "play instinct," which, rather than being erotic, is an expression of charity, the higher concept of love associated with true creativity. Marcuse's contrary theory of erotic liberation is something implicit in Sigmund Freud, but not explicitly emphasized, except for some Freudian renegades like Wilhelm Reich and, to a certain extent, Carl Jung. Every aspect of culture in the West, including reason itself, says Marcuse, acts to repress this: "The totalitarian universe of technological rationality is the latest transmutation of the idea of reason." Or: "Auschwitz continues to haunt, not the memory but the accomplishments of man—the space flights, the rockets and missiles, the pretty electronics plants...."

This erotic liberation should take the form of the "Great Refusal," a total rejection of the "capitalist" monster and all his works, including "technological" reason, and "ritual-authoritarian language." As part of the Great Refusal, mankind should develop an "aesthetic ethos," turning life into an aesthetic ritual, a "life-style" (a nonsense phrase which came into the language in the 1960's under Marcuse's influence). With Marcuse representing the point of the wedge, the 1960's were filled with obtuse intellectual justifications of contentless adolescent sexual rebellion. Eros and Civilization was reissued as an inexpensive paperback in 1961, and ran through several editions; in the preface to the 1966 edition, Marcuse added that the new slogan, "Make Love, Not War," was exactly what he was talking about: "The fight for eros is a political fight [emphasis in original]." In 1969, he noted that even the New Left's obsessive use of obscenities in its manifestoes was part of the Great Refusal, calling it "a systematic linguistic rebellion, which smashes the ideological context in which the words are employed and defined." Marcuse was aided by psychoanalyst Norman O. Brown, his OSS protege, who contributed Life Against Death in 1959, and Love's Body in 1966—calling for man to shed his reasonable, "armored" ego, and replace it with a "Dionysian body ego," that would embrace the instinctual reality of polymorphous perversity, and bring man back into "union with nature." The books of Reich, who had claimed that Nazism was caused by monogamy, were re-issued. Reich had died in an American prison, jailed for taking money on the claim that cancer could be cured by rechanneling "orgone energy." Primary education became dominated by Reich's leading follower, A.S. Neill, a Theosophical cult member of the 1930's and militant atheist, whose educational theories demanded that students be taught to rebel against teachers who are, by nature, authoritarian. Neill's book Summerhill sold 24,000 copies in 1960, rising to 100,000 in 1968, and 2 million in 1970; by 1970, it was required reading in 600 university courses, making it one of the most influential education texts of the period, and still a benchmark for recent writers on the subject. Marcuse led the way for the complete revival of the rest of the Frankfurt School theorists, re-introducing the long-forgotten Lukacs to America. Marcuse himself became the lightning rod for attacks on the counterculture, and was regularly attacked by such sources as the Soviet daily Pravda, and then-California Governor Ronald Reagan. The only critique of any merit at the time, however, was one by Pope Paul VI, who in 1969 named Marcuse (an extraordinary step, as the Vatican usually refrains from formal denunciations of living individuals), along with Freud, for their justification of "disgusting and unbridled expressions of eroticism"; and called Marcuse's theory of liberation, "the theory which opens the way for license cloaked as liberty ... an aberration of instinct." The eroticism of the counterculture meant much more than free love and a violent attack on the nuclear family. It also meant the legitimization of philosophical eros. People were trained to see themselves as objects, determined by their "natures." The importance of the individual as a person gifted with the divine spark of creativity, and capable of acting upon all human civilization, was replaced by the idea that the person is important because he or she is black, or a woman, or feels homosexual impulses. This explains the deformation of the civil rights movement into a "black power" movement, and the transformation of the legitimate issue of civil rights for women into feminism. Discussion of women's civil rights was forced into being just another "liberation cult," complete with bra-burning and other, sometimes openly Astarte-style, rituals; a review of Kate Millet's Sexual Politics (1970) and Germaine Greer's The Female Eunuch (1971), demonstrates their complete reliance on Marcuse, Fromm, Reich, and other Freudian extremists.

The Bad Trip

This popularization of life as an erotic, pessimistic ritual did not abate, but in fact deepened over the twenty years leading to today; it is the basis of the horror we see around us. The heirs of Marcuse and Adorno completely dominate the universities, teaching their own students to replace reason with "Politically Correct" ritual exercises. There are very few theoretical books on arts, letters, or language published today in the United States or Europe which do not openly acknowledge their debt to the Frankfort School.

The witchhunt on today's campuses is merely the implementation of Marcuse's concept of "repressive toleration"—"tolerance for movements from the left, but intolerance for movements from the right"—enforced by the students of the Frankfurt School, now become the professors of women's studies and Afro-American studies. The most erudite spokesman for Afro-American studies, for instance, Professor Cornell West of Princeton, publicly states that his theories are derived from Georg Lukacs. At the same time, the ugliness so carefully nurtured by the Frankfurt School pessimists, has corrupted our highest cultural endeavors. One can hardly find a performance of a Mozart opera, which has not been utterly deformed by a director who, following Benjamin and the I.S.R., wants to "liberate the erotic subtext." You cannot ask an orchestra to perform Schönberg and Beethoven on the same program, and maintain its integrity for the latter. And, when our highest culture becomes impotent, popular culture becomes openly bestial. One final image: American and European children daily watch films like Nightmare on Elm Street and Total Recall, or television shows comparable to them. A typical scene in one of these will have a figure emerge from a television set; the skin of his face will realistically peel away to reveal a hideously deformed man with razor-blade fingers, fingers which start growing to several feet in length, and—suddenly—the victim is slashed to bloody ribbons. This is not entertainment. This is the deeply paranoid hallucination of the LSD acid head. The worst of what happened in the 1960's is now daily fare. Owing to the Frankfurt School and its co-conspirators, the West is on a "bad trip" from which it is not being allowed to come down.

The principles through which Western Judeo-Christian civilization was built, are now no longer dominant in our society; they exist only as a kind of underground resistance movement. If that resistance is ultimately submerged, then the civilization will not survive—and, in our era of incurable pandemic disease and nuclear weapons, the collapse of Western civilization will very likely take the rest of the world with it to Hell.

The way out is to create a Renaissance. If that sounds grandiose, it is nonetheless what is needed. A renaissance means, to start again; to discard the evil, and inhuman, and just plain stupid, and to go back, hundreds or thousands of years, to the ideas which allow humanity to grow in freedom and goodness. Once we have identified those core beliefs, we can start to rebuild civilization.

Ultimately, a new Renaissance will rely on scientists, artists, and composers, but in the first moment, it depends on seemingly ordinary people who will defend the divine spark of reason in themselves, and tolerate no less in others. Given the successes of the Frankfurt School and its New Dark Age sponsors, these ordinary individuals, with their belief in reason and the difference between right and wrong, will be "unpopular." But, no really good idea was ever popular, in the beginning.

Source: http://tinyurl.com/lkbrg6

mercredi, 27 juillet 2011

Oswald Spengler ed il senso metapolitico del declino occidentale

 Oswald Spengler ed il senso metapolitico del declino occidentale

Luca Valentini

Ex: http://www.centrostudilaruna.it/

La crisi morale, oltre che economica e finanziaria, che attualmente attanaglia l’Italia, le farsesche vicende dell’attuale cricca di potere al governo, spesso conducono anche i più acuti osservatori a smarrire quella visione d’insieme e di lontani orizzonti che dovrebbe sempre caratterizzare una visione del mondo e della vita autenticamente tradizionale, cioè fondata e determinata su principi dall’Alto.

E’ importante tale precisazione, perché, al di là delle giuste analisi sociologico-politiche, delle doverose battaglie per il benessere del Popolo Italiano, mai si dovrebbe dimenticare che l’ampiezza della crisi va ben oltre il nostro Paese e che le radici sono ben più profonde di ciò che ai nostri occhi si manifesta, essendo il piano finanziario solamente una risultante di un processo degenerativo, che interessa, nelle sue profondità abissali, i caratteri più interni dell’intera civilizzazione occidentale, nel suo spirito, nella sua moderna involuzione, nelle imboscate e nei tradimenti che essa ha subito.

Riferirsi a Oswald Spengler ed a ciò che ha espresso nelle sue opere, particolarmente nel Il Tramonto dell’Occidente, come noi faremo sinteticamente in questo articolo, ha proprio la determinata volontà di mettere in risalto codesto piano d’osservazione, un orizzonte che va ben oltre la semplice narrazione storicistica o i lineari ed apparentemente confusi e contradditori accadimenti del quotidiano, ma che vuole riaprire una riflessione, un ragionamento all’interno della nostra comunità sull’essenzialità di un approfondimento metapolitico che è e deve essere un approfondimento sulla nostra civiltà, sulla decadenza secolare che la caratterizza, nel rapporto della Tradizione Europea – che dal nostro punto di vista è essenzialmente Tradizione elleno-romano-germanica – con la sfera del Sacro, con l’esplicitazione nell’istituzione statuale, fino alle più ramificate e secondarie sezioni dello sviluppo produttivo e sociale: “Le civiltà sono degli organismi. La storia mondiale è la loro biografia complessiva” (da Il Tramonto dell’Occidente).

Un’analisi che valorizzi e ridesti il senso nascosto, occulto, quella terza dimensione della storia che molti smarriscono, insieme con quei punti di riferimento che unici possono stabilire un preciso quanto indispensabile percorso di autoriconoscimento identitario per la nostra comunità, per chi ricerca nell’impegno politico e culturale l’Uomo Nuovo e Differenziato dalla modernità, dalla pandemia inarrestabile che conduce oramai da diversi secoli l’intero Occidente – e con esso tutto il resto del mondo – verso un baratro di cui non si riescono a vedere vie d’uscita o possibilità di risalita. Per riferirci direttamente a Oswald Spengler, si rammenti come affermasse esserci un ciclo vitale per ogni singola civiltà, quasi fosse la stessa un vero e proprio ente animico, con una precisa contezza di se stesso. In riferimento all’Occidente sarebbe esistita prima la civiltà greco-romana, sorta grazie alle migrazioni indoeuropee in Grecia e nella penisola italica, che lo stesso ha definito “apollinea”, seguita da una civiltà germanica o detta “faustiana”. Entrambe queste Kultur hanno in sé un simbolo esprimente il proprio spirito vitale: Apollo, divinità della forma e della misura, dell’equilibrio interno, spirituale ed estetico; Faust, il personaggio creato da Goethe, come aspirazione perpetua che tenta di colmare lo iato tra l’esistenza parziale e limitata dell’Uomo e le altezze metafisiche della Divinità Trascendente. L’odierna società, pertanto, è il prodotto dell’esaurimento di tale forza originaria, di tale spirito ancestrale, lo spegnimento progressivo di ogni slancio oltre l’umano, di ogni classica forma interna: “Ognuna ha la sua fanciullezza, la sua gioventù, la sua età virile e la sua senilità (da Il Tramonto dell’Occidente)”.

A tal punto, partendo proprio da questa presa di coscienza, che dovrà risultare quanto più profonda e lucidamente attiva, si può accennare a ciò può e deve essere il senso di una militanza, di un impegno politico-culturale. Nella fase finale di questo ciclo, in questa umanità parodistica, l’unica via da percorrere è quella che conduce alla fedeltà nel proprio essere, alla costruzione di una comunità di uomini e di donne, conscia delle proprie radici e fiera della propria diversità dal resto del mondo. La lotta interna per la nascita di uomo che tragga da sé la legge da osservare, che sia impassibile ed inattaccabile di fronte alla marea che tutto corrompe, un uomo che con il suo essere sia esempio e trasmissione di Tradizione, questa la via d’onore che i nostri cuori hanno il diritto di percorrere. Il nostro ed unico scopo è quello, pertanto, anche grazie a questo giornale, di mettere a disposizione di quanti possano e vogliano le nostre umili  conoscenze di studio e di ricerca tradizionali, per “fare ciò che deve essere fatto”, come Evola ci ricorda, e per rimanere fedeli all’Idea, che può essere valorosamente servita solo se da Spengler si assume la consapevolezza del mondo in cui siamo stati destinati a vivere:…civiltà crepuscolare che è – scrive su La Vita italiana Evola riferendosi agli scritti di Spengler – una civiltà delle masse, civiltà antiqualitativa, inorganica, urbanistica, livellatrice, intimamente anarchica, demagogica, antitradizionale”.

* * *

Pubblicato sul periodico d’informazione politica Il Megafono, anno 2011.

samedi, 23 juillet 2011

Carl Schmitt: Total Enemy, Total State & Total War

Total Enemy, Total State, & Total War

Carl SCHMITT

Ex: http://www.counter-currents.com/

 Translated by Simona Draghici

Editor’s Note:

The following translation from Carl Schmitt appears online for the first time in commemoration of Schmitt’s birth on July 11, 1888. The translation originally appeared in Carl Schmitt, Four Essays, 1931–1938, ed. and trans. Simona Draghici (Washington, D.C.: Plutarch Press, 1999).

I

cs.jpgIn a certain sense, there have been total wars at all times; a theory of the total war, however, presumably dates only from the time of Clausewitz who would talk of “abstract” and “absolute” wars.”[1] Later on, under the impact of the experiences of the last Great War, the formula of total war has acquired a specific meaning and a particular effectiveness. Since 1920, it has become the prevailing catchword. It was first brought out in sharp relief in the French literature, in book titles like La guerre totale. Afterwards, between 1926 and 1928, it found its way into the language of the proceedings of the disarmament committee at Geneva. In concepts such as “war potential” (potentiel de guerre), “moral disarmament” (désarmement moral) and “total disarmament” (désarmement total). The fascist doctrine of the “total state” came to it by way of the state; the association yielded the conceptual pair: total state, total war. In Germany, the publication of the Concept of the Political has since 1927 expanded the pair of totalities to a set of three: total enemy, total war, total state. Ernst Jünger’s book of 1930 Total Mobilization made the formula part of the general consciousness. Nonetheless, it was only Ludendorff’s 1936 booklet entitled Der Totale Krieg (The Total War) that lent it an irresistible force and caused its dissemination beyond all bounds.

The formula is omnipresent; it forces into view a truth whose horrors the general consciousness would rather shun. Such formulas, however, are always in danger of becoming widespread nationally and internationally and of being degraded to summary slogans, to mere gramophone records of the publicity mill. Hence some clarifications may be appropriate.

(a) A war may be total in the sense of summoning up one’s strength to the limit, and of the commitment of everything to the last reserves.[2] It may also be called total in the sense of the unsparing use of war means of annihilation. When the well-known English author J. F. C. Fuller writes in a recent article, entitled “The First of the League Wars, Its Lessons and Omens,” that the Italian campaign in Abyssinia was a modern total war, he only refers to the use of efficacious weapons (airplanes and gas), whereas looked at from another vantage point, Abyssinia in fact was not capable of waging a modern total war nor did Italy use its reserves to the limit, reach the highest intensity, and lead to an oil blockade or to the closing of the Suez Canal, because of the pressure exerted through the sanctions imposed by the League of Nations.

(b) A war may be total either on both sides or on one side only. It may also be deliberately limited, rationed and measured out, because of the geographical situation, the war technique in use, and also the predominant political principles of both sides. The typical 18th-century war, the so-called “cabinet war,” was essentially and deliberately a partial war. It rested on the clear segregation of the soldiers participating in the war from the non-participant inhabitants and non-combatants. Nevertheless, the Seven Years War of Frederick the Great was relatively total, on Prussia’s side, when compared with the other powers’ mobilization of forces. A situation, typical of Germany, showed itself readily in that case: the adversity of geographical conditions and the foreign coalitions compelled a German state to mobilize its forces to a higher degree than its more affluent and fortunate bigger neighbors.[3]

(c) The character of the war may change during the belligerent showdown. The will to fight may grow limp or it may intensify, as it happened in the 1914–1918 world war, when the war trend on the German side towards the mobilization of all the economic and industrial reserves soon forced the English side to introduce general conscription.

(d) Finally, some other methods of confrontation and trial of strength, which are not total, always develop within the totality of war. Thus for a time, everyone seeks to avoid a total war which naturally carries a total risk. In this way, after the world war, there were the so-called military reprisals (the 1923 Corfu Conflict, Japan-China in 1932), followed by the attempts at non-military, economic sanctions, according to Article 16 of the Covenant of the League of Nations (against Italy, autumn 1935), and finally, certain methods of power testing on foreign soil (Spain 1936–1937) emerged in a way that could be correctly interpreted only in close connection with the total character of modern warfare. They are intermediate and transitional forms between open war and true peace; they derive their meaning from the fact that total war looms large in the background as a possibility, and an understandable caution recommends itself in the delineation of the conflictual spaces. Likewise, it is only from this point of view that they can be grasped by the science of international law.

II

The core of the matter lies in warfare. From the nature of the total war one may grasp the character and the whole aspect of state totality; from the special character of the decisive weapons one may deduce the peculiar character and aspect of the totality of war. But it is the total enemy that gives the total war its meaning.[4]

The different services and types of warfare, land warfare, sea warfare, air warfare, they each experience the totality of war in a particular way. A corresponding world of notions and ideas piles on each of these types of warfare. The traditional notions of “levée en masse” (levy), “nation armée” (nation in arms), and “Volk in Waffen” (the people in arms) belong to land warfare.[5] Out of these notions emerged the continental doctrine of total war, essentially as a doctrine of land warfare, and that thanks mainly to Clausewitz. Sea warfare, on the other hand, has its own strategic and tactical methods and criteria; moreover, until recently, it has been first and foremost a war against the opponent’s trade and economy, whence a war against non-combatants, an economic war, which by its laws of blockade, contraband, and prizes, drew neutral trade into the hostilities, as well. Air warfare has not so far built up a similar fully-fledged and independent system of its own. There is no doctrine of air warfare yet that would correspond to the world of notions and concepts accumulated with regard to land and sea warfare. Nonetheless, as a consequence of air warfare, the overall configuration sways in the main towards a three-dimensional total war.

The “if” of a total war is beyond any doubt today. The “how” may vary. The totality is perceptible from opposite vantage points. Hence the standard type of guide and leader in a total war is necessarily different. It would be too simple an equation to accept that the soldier will step into the centre of this totality as the prevailing type in a total war to the same extent as in other kinds of wars previously.[6] If, as it has been said, total mobilization abolishes the separation of the soldier from the civilian, it may very well happen that the soldier changes into a civilian as the civilian changes into a soldier, or both may change into something new, a third alternative. In reality, it all depends on the general character of the war. A real war of religion turns the soldiers into the tools of priests or preachers. A total war that is waged on behalf of the economy becomes the tool of economic power groups. There are other forms in which the soldier himself is the typical model and the ascending expression of the character of the people. Geographical conditions, racial and social peculiarities of all kinds, are factors that determine the type of warfare waged by great nations. Even today it is unlikely that a nation could engage in all the three kinds of warfare to a degree equal to the three-dimensional total war. It is probable that the centre of gravity in the deployment of forces will always rest with one or the other of the three kinds of warfare and the doctrine of total war will draw on it.[7]

Until now the history of the European peoples has been dominated by the contrast of the English sea warfare with the Continental land warfare. It is not a matter of “traders and heroes” or that sort of thing, but rather the recognition that any of the various kinds of warfare may become total, and out of its own characteristics generate a special world of notions and ideals as its own doctrine and also relevant to international and constitutional law, particularly in the assessment of the soldier’s worth and of his position in the general body of the people. It would be a mistake to regard the English sea warfare of the last three centuries in the light of the total land warfare of Clausewitz’s theory, essentially as mere trade and economic but not total warfare, and to misinterpret it as unconnected with and markedly different from totality. It is the English sea warfare that generated the kernel of a total world view.[8]

The English sea warfare is total in its capacity for total enmity. It knows how to mobilize religious, ideological, spiritual, and moral forces as only few of the great wars in world history have done. The English sea warfare against Spain was a world-wide combat of the Germanic and Romance peoples, between Protestantism and Catholicism, Calvinism and Jesuitism, and there are few instances of such outbursts of enmity as intense and final as Cromwell’s against the Spaniards. The English war against Napoleon likewise changed from a sea war into a “crusade.” In the war against Germany between 1914 and 1918, the world-wide English propaganda knew how to whip up enormous moral and spiritual energies in the name of civilization and humanity, of democracy and freedom, against the Prussian-German “militarism.” The English mind had also proved its ability to interpret the industrial-technical upsurge of the 19th century in the terms of the English worldview. Herbert Spencer drew an extremely effective picture of history that was disseminated all over the world, in countless works of popularization, the propagandistic force of which proved its worth in the 1914–1918 World War. It was the philosophy of mankind’s progress, presented as an evolution from feudalism to trade and industry, from the political to the economic, from soldiers to industrialists, from war to peace. It portrayed the soldier essentially as Prussian-German, eo ipso “feudal reactionary,” a “medieval” figure standing in the way of progress and peace. Moreover, out of its specificity, the English sea warfare evolved a full, self-contained system of international law. It asserted itself and its own concepts held on their own against the corresponding concepts of Continental international law throughout the 19th century. There is an Anglo-Saxon concept of enemy, which in essence rejects the differentiation between combatants and non-combatants, and an Anglo-Saxon conception of war that incorporates the so-called economic war. In short, the fundamental concepts and norms of this English international law are total as such and certainly indicative of an ideology in itself total.

Finally, the English constitutional regulations turned the subordination of the soldiers to the civilians into an ideological principle and imposed it upon the Continent during the liberal 19th century. By those standards, civilization lies in the rule of the bourgeois, civilian ideal which is essentially unsoldierly. Accordingly, the constitution is always but a civil-bourgeois system in which, as Clemenceau put it, the soldier’s only raison d’être is to defend the civilian bourgeois society, while basically he is subject to civilian command. The Prussian soldier state carried on a century-long political struggle on the home front against this bourgeois constitutional ideal. It succumbed to it in the Autumn of 1918. The history of Prussian Germany’s home politics from 1848 to 1918 was a ceaseless conflict between the army and parliament, an uninterrupted battle which the government had to fight with the parliament over the structure of the army, and the army budget necessary to make ready for an unavoidable war, that were determined not by the necessities of foreign policy but rather by compromises regarding internal policy. The dictate of Versailles, which stipulated the army’s organization and its equipment to the smallest detail, in an agreement of foreign policy, was preceded by half a century of periodical agreements of internal policy between the Prussian-German soldier state and its internal policy opponents, in which all the details of the organization and the equipment of the army had been decided by the internal policy. The conflict between bourgeois society and the Prussian soldier state led to an unnatural isolation of the War Office from the power of command and to many other separations, consistently rooted in the opposition between a bourgeois constitutional ideal imported from England either directly or through France and Belgium, on the one hand, and the older constitutional ideal of the German soldiery, on the other.[9]

Today Germany has surmounted that division and achieved a close integration of its soldier force.[10] Indeed, attempts will not fail to be made to describe it as militarism, in the manner of earlier propaganda methods, and to hold Germany guilty of the advent of total war. Such questions of guilt too belong to the totality of the ideological wrangles. Le combat spirituel est aussi brutal que la bataille d’hommes (spiritual combat is as brutal as the battles of men). Nonetheless, before nations stagger into a total war once more, one must raise the question whether a total enmity truly exists among the European nations nowadays. War and enmity belong to the history of nations. But the worst misfortune only occurs wherever the enmity is generated by the war itself, as in the 1914–1918 war, and not as it would be right and sensible, namely that an older, unswayed enmity, true and total to the Day of Judgment, should led to a total war.

Translator’s Notes

Originally published in Völkerbund und Völkerrecht, vol. 4, 1937, this essay was reproduced in Posirionen und Begriffe im Kampf mit Weimar-Gent-Versailles, 1929–1939, (Hamburg, 1940), pp. 235–239.

1. General Carl von Clausewitz (1780–1831) is best known for his book Vom Kriege, never finished and published posthumously, which incidentally has been translated into English under the title On War. There are numerous versions available in print.

2. Carl Schmitt’s own political principles of “will” and “energy,” components of his qualitative concept of total state, derive from this characteristic feature of “total war”: collective determination to assume a cause considered worthwhile and unreserved commitment to its fulfillment. As a generalized rallying around and enthusiasm for a cause and a particular course of action, it is a frequent phenomenon of social psychology, yet its usually ephemeral character makes it unfit as a durable basis of any social structure. I remember the enthusiasm with which in 1982, to a man, the Argentines, for instance, rallied to the idea of going to war to free the Maldives and hurried to put it into practice, and the accompanying hatred which grew against the British. The enthusiasm cooled off quickly, but not the hatred, which lingered on. To perpetuate the enthusiasm, a plethora of other factors have to be brought in, of which, in the case of Germany at the beginning of the ’thirties, Carl Schmitt actually had not a clue.

3. The “lesson” is in keeping with the Hitlerite Frederician cult and legitimating tradition and does not claim to be historically accurate. Although a digression that seems out of place, it has a certain significance for the time it was made. In the autumn of 1936, Hitler circulated a memorandum revealing his expansionist intentions. Then in 1937, the organization of the nation to serve those intentions began, a process which coincided with the rise of the SS state. In November of the same year the German media were ordered to keep silent about the preparations for a “total war.” Bearing all that in mind, Schmitt’s short digression reads more as a warning of danger than a point of military strategy.

4 . What is interesting here is his insistence on the existential essence of the phenomenon, which is consonant with his earlier definition of the political and at the same time renders the distinction between the professional soldier and the civilian meaningless. Moreover, total enmity with its implicit elimination of the adversary excludes any prospect of a peace treaty, as the war is to go on until one of the belligerents is annihilated.

5. Das Volk in Waffen (The Nation in Arms) happens to be the title of a work on total war by Colmar von der Goltz (1843–1916), published in 1883, and which is an important stepping stone in the reflection on modern warfare that led to Ludendorff’s book.

6. At the beginning of February 1938, Adolf Hitler became commander in chief of the German armed forces, appointing General Keitel his assistant at the head of the High Command of the Armed Forces, as the War Ministry was dissolved.

7. Eventually only the Soviet Union came closest to Carl Schmitt’s expectations, while the United States waged a fully-fledged three-dimensional war, dictated by its geographical position and sustained by its vast economic and technical resources most of which remained outside the battle zone.

8. For a broader treatment of the subject-matter see Carl Schmitt’s Land und Meer, which as Land and Sea is available in an English translation (Washington, D.C.: Plutarch Press, 1997).

9. The conflict between the civil society and the military in Germany was the subject-matter of a longer essay by Carl Schmitt, published in Hamburg in 1934 under the title Staatsgefüge und Zusammenbruch des Zweites Reiches. Der Sieg des Burgers über den Soldaten (The State Structure and the Collapse of the Second Reich. The Burghers’ Victory Over the Soldiers).

 

10. Röhm, the ideological soldier, had been eliminated in 1934, at the same time as the political soldiers, the Generals von Schleicher and von Bredow. Furthermore, as already mentioned in note 6 above, the War Ministry ceased to exist at the beginning of 1938, while the Commander in Chief, Field Marshal Werner von Blomberg was removed from his post for having compromised himself by marrying a “lady with a past,” and his prospective successor, General von Fritsch was forced to resign on a trumped-up Charge of homosexuality. At the same time, sixteen other generals were retired and forty-four were transferred. Göring who had been very active in carrying out this “integration” got for it only the title of field marshal, as Hitler kept for himself the supreme military command.

 


Article printed from Counter-Currents Publishing: http://www.counter-currents.com

URL to article: http://www.counter-currents.com/2011/07/total-enemy-total-state-and-total-war/

samedi, 16 juillet 2011

Martin Heidegger en de traditie van het Westers denken

heidegger2.jpg

Martin Heidegger en de traditie van het Westers denken

door Marc. Eemans

Ex: http://marceemans.wordpress.com/

Zoals veel andere traditionele denkers uit het Westen, en hoewel hij graag verwijst naar een “hyperboreïsche” (Noordse) kijk op de “primordiale Traditie”, meent Julius Evola toch dat “het licht uit het Oosten komt: “ex Oriente lux”, daarbij menend dat de resten van deze traditie het best bewaard bleven in de Vedas en in de Avesta. Volgens hem – trouwens ook volgens veel andere traditionalistische denkers – begint de neergang van onze wereld zowat 7 of 8 eeuwen vóór onze tijdrekening, zodat we sindsdien leven in de cyklus van de “Kali-yuga” of ijzeren tijdperk, en dat àlles van langsom slechter gaat, terwijl alles wat onze Westerse beschaving kenmerkt slechts een gevolg van deze dekadentie is.

Door tenvolle bewust te worden van deze dekadentie wordt de “traditionele” mens ertoe geleid de problemen van onze tijd bewust tegemoet te treden en met kracht het onsamenhangende en nihilistische van onze wereld aan te klagen.

Vele van Evola’s geschriften behandelen dit onderwerp, zowel zijn hoofdwerk “Rivolta contra il mondo moderno” als twee bescheidener boeken “Gli uomini e le rovine”, en “Cavalcare la tigre”.

In dit laatste werk, waarin hij ondermeer diverse facetten van het Europese nihilisme behandelt, valt Evola ook het “aktief nihilisme” van Nietzsche aan en wijst ook – ons inziens op àl te oppervlakkige en onkorrekte wijze – “de impasse van het existentialisme” aan, tot wiens “ineenstorting” hij besluit.

Laten we het aan Evola over, de ongetwijfeld dekadente en onophoudelijk “gauchistische” ideeën van een Jean-Paul Sartre af te kraken, maar we verzetten ons tegen zijn bewering als zou de filosofie van een der grootste wijsgeren dezer eeuw, Martin Heidegger, dekadent zijn en niet traditionalistisch.

 

Na de snobs te hebben beschreven die het Saint-Germain-des-Prés van die dagen bevolken, vervolgt Evola: “De existentialistische wijsgeren zitten in een gelijkaardige toestand als Nietzsche: ze zijn ook “modern”, dus losgehaakt van de wereld der Traditie, ontberen elke kennis of begrip van deze wereld. Ze gebruiken de schemas van het “Westers denken”, wat zoveel betekent als profaan, abstrakt en ontworteld…”

Zonder in een wijsgerige diskussie te willen treden, wensen we toch te benadrukken, dat Evola hier getuigt van een totaal onbegrip tegenover de diepe denkwereld van Heidegger. Hij zit blijkbaar op een andere golflengte als de eenzaat, de “houthakker uit het Schwarzwald” zoals zijn leerlingen Martin Heidegger graag noemden.

Vergeten we niet dat Evola een Romein is, een Latijn dus, en zelfs al vindt hij zichzelf de “laatste der Gibellijnen” toch komt hij voor een donker, haast ondoordringbaar woud te staan, zodra hij gekonfronteerd wordt met een zo typisch “Germaans” denken als dat van Heidegger. Zeggen we vlakaf dat het absurd is, wijsgeren als Karl Jaspers en Heidegger onder hetzelfde hoedje te plaatsen als de gauchistische “filosoof” uit de kroegjes Saint-Germain. Evola zal wel niet geweten hebben, dat Heidegger in een vraaggesprek met de “Figaro littéraire”(4.11.50) verklaard had: “Sartre? Een goed schrijver, maar geen filosoof!”

 

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Overigens, zelfs als in elke korte historiek van de wijsbegeerte het werk van Heidegger wordt beschreven als een variante van het “ateïstisch existentialisme”, dan nog mag men bevestigen dat héél zijn wijsgerige “Werdegang” het “existentialistisch” etiket negeert dat men hem om reden van vulgarizatie wilde opkleven, evenzeer als het onjuist is bij hem over atheïsme te spreken: heel zijn geestelijke pelgrimstocht is verlicht door de zin voor het sakrale, wat niet hetzelfde is als religieus gevoelen, en evenmin het toetreden betekent tot eender welke religie.

Julius Evola lijkt ons wat àl te verblind door de luchtspiegeling van een “traditie” die we uiteindelijk maar kunnen aanvaarden als “mobielmakende myte” die heel wat kan verklaren over onze wereld-in-krisis, maar die niet in staat is àlles te verklaren of àlle vragen te beantwoorden. Wat ons vooral ergert is de illusie van het “ex Oriente lux” die zelfs sommige jonge traditionalisten ertoe brengt, de jongste omwenteling in Iran te begroeten als een zege van de Traditie op de “noodlottige gevolgen van de verwestelijking van dat land”, terwijl het hier toch duidelijk gaat om een omwenteling met regressief karakter.

Martin Heidegger, veel beter op de hoogte van de werkelijkheid der Westerse dekadentie dan Evola, aarzelde niet te schrijven “ik ben ervan overtuigd, dat een ommekeer maar kan geschieden vanuit het gebied waar de moderne technische wereld geboren werd. Dat kan niet door het aanvaarden van het Zen-boeddhisme of andere experimenten uit het Oosten. De ommekeer in de gedachten heeft de hulp nodig van de Europese traditie, met haar recentste aanwinsten. Gedachten worden slechts hervormd door gedachten met dezelfde oorsprong en hetzelfde doel.” (Vraaggesprek met “Der Spiegel” 3l.5.76).

Men bemerkt dat Heidegger, in tegenstelling tot Evola, zich op de Westerse traditie beroept, die voor hem niet louter een geesteskonstruktie is, een myte uit een ver Indoeuropees verleden, maar tastbare werkelijkheid, waarvan hij de stroom kan volgen vanuit de bron, bij de Griekse presokratische denkers. Weliswaar valt die tijd samen met de eerste tekenen van dekadentie – volgens Evola – en waarvan we nu de laatste stuiptrekkingen beleven Heidegger’s wijsbegeerte zou daarvan slechts een epifenomeen op het vlak van de gedachte betekenen…

Herinneren we er toch aan, dat wijsbegeerte een manier van denken is, eigen aan het Westen, dat ze in Griekenland ontstond en geen tegenhanger heeft in het Oosten – toch niet in de zin waarin ze begrepen wordt door onze metafysische traditie. Jazeker, in de Middeleeuwen hebben Arabische en Joodse denkers de Griekse wijsgerige traditie overgemaakt aan de denkers van de Westerse middeleeuwse wereld, maar zélf hebben ze slechts kommentaren geleverd op de werken der Griekse filozofen, zonder zelf nieuwe wijsgerige stelsels te scheppen. Véél later zullen Spinoza en Bergson zich in de Westerse wijsgerige traditie inwerken, er hier en daar een andere klank inbrengend.

In zijn rektorale rede besprak Heidegger de drie Indoeuropese basisfunkties, die we in de werken van Georges Dumézil uiteengezet vinden, maar hij plaatst ze in de aktuele Duitse kontekst “Arbeitsdienst – Wehrdienst – Wissensdienst”. Deze drie diensten passen niet alleen in de Duitse natie van dàn, maar in heel de Westerse traditie.

Wie zich aan één van deze diensten wijdt, zegt Heidegger tot zijn studenten, wijdt zich niet alleen aan het lot van ons Duitse vaderland, maar aan dat van gans het Westen (dit begrepen in zijn metafysische betekenis) . En Heidegger herinnert eraan, dat dit Westen op zijn grondslagen wankelt, wat noodzaakt dat eenieder zich aan zijn behoud en zijn heil toewijdt…

Wij ontlenen enkele gegevens aan het boek van Jean-Michel Palmier “Les écrits politiques de Heidegger” (Ed. L’Herne, 1968). Deze citeert Heidegger “Niemand vraagt ons of wij willen of afwijzen, op het ogenblik dat de geestelijke kracht van het Westen wegdeemstert, zijn bouwwerk wankelt, de dode schijnkultuur ineenzakt en elke energie wegzinkt in wanorde en waanzin.” Het Westen – zegt Palmier – is voor Heidegger het vertrekpunt van de Griekse wijsbegeerte.

In de mate dat wij nog steeds door deze wijsbegeerte geleid worden, identificeert de vraag naar de toekomst van het Westen zich met de vraag naar de toekomst der metafysica. Het is ook dat wat Heidegger bedoelt met de oorspronkelijke “breuk” waarmee en waardoor onze lotsbestemming aanving. En Palmier citeert: “Wij begrijpen tenvolle de schittering en de grootheid van het vertrekpunt dat breuk betekent, als we in onszelf de koelbloedigheid opbrengen, die de oude Griekse wijsheid formuleerde als “Alle Grösse steht im Sturm”.

In zijn “Cavalcare la Tigre” valt Evola het beperkte doorzicht van de existentialistische denkers tegenover de problemen  van het ogenblik aan: “Men kan moeilijk beter verwachten van mensen die, zoals alle “ernstige” extentialisten (dit integenstelling tot de nieuwe, reeds in de war geraakte generatie), professoren zijn, kamergeleerden die een leven leiden van perfekte kleinburgers. In hun konformistisch bestaan (behalve bij enkelen, met politieke opties van het liberale of kommunistische type) lijken ze nooit “verbrand” en evenmin overschrijden ze de grens van goed en kwaad. Het is vooral bij hen die in opstand komen tegen het chaotisch leven der grootsteden of bij hen die door stormen van vuur en staal, en door de verwoestingen van de totale oorlog gingen, of inde wereld der puinen gevormd werden, dat men de vereisten had kunnen verenigd vinden ter herovering van een hogere levensopvatting, en van een existentiële, wérkelijke en niet teoretische, overstijging van de problematiek der mensen-in-krisis. Men had vertrekpunten kunnen aanduiden, ook voor passende spekulatieve formuleringen…”

Het komt ons voor dat Evola, die men (zij het ten onrechte) “grijze eminentie van Mussolini” noemde, slecht geplaatst is om de existentialistische wijsgeren het verwijt “kamergeleerden” toe te sturen, als men Heidegger’s tragedie kent, sinds de opkomst van het nationaalsocialisme tot aan zijn dood: om beurten werd hij uitgekreten (door de fanaten van het Hitlerisme), en als Hitleriaan (door heel de horde van gauchisten aller schakeringen). Voegen we er het drama bij van twee zonen, krijgsgevangenen in Duitsland, en we kunnen besluiten dat de “kleinburgerlijke professor” Heidegger beslist niet gespaard werd door de oorlog.

Vatten we samen: zoals zoveel Duitsers, gehecht aan de grootheid van Duitsland, heeft hij zonder twijfel de opbloei van het nationaal-socialisme begroet als een heilzame gebeurtenis voor zijn vaderland, dat na vernedering van de nederlaag, het onrechtvaardig verdrag van Versailles en de chaos van de Weimar-republiek de ondergang tegemoet ging.

Op verzoek van zijn kollegas aan de Universiteit van Freiburg-in-Breisgau aanvaardde hij, in de lente van l933 het rektoraat, enkele maanden nadat Adolf Hitler rijkskanselier geworden was. Hij begon aan zijn opdracht met de vaste wil, in de mate van zijn mogelijkheden een apolitiek klimaat te doen heersen en dat op een ogenblik dat alle Duitse hogescholen overdreven gepolitiseerd raakten!

Zijn rektorale rede “Die Selbstbehauptung der deutschen Universität” is een echte “keure” van deze apolitieke bekommernis, maar weldra moest Heidegger het hoofd bieden aan allerlei politieke problemen, zoals de wegzending van twee fakulteitsdekens die hijzelf benoemd had, de professoren Erich Wolf en Von Möllendorf.

Geërgerd door de voortdurende inmenging van de politiek in universitaire aangelegenheden, bood Heidegger na zowat tien maand zijn ontslag aan, en werd opgevolgd door een serviele nationaal-socialist. In die (korte) periode had hij wél enkele toespraken gehouden en proklamaties gedaan die men terecht kan takseren als van nationaal-socialistische inspiratie.

We kunnen deze teksten hier niet ontleden en verwijzen terzake naar het boek van Palmier. Het ontslag van Heidegger betekent de inzet van een afbrekende kampanje tegen hem, vanwege de fanatici van het nieuwe regime geleid door Ernst Krieck en Alfred Baeumler(*), nationaalsocialistische rektoren van Heidelberg en Berlijn. Zijn kursussen werden bijgewoond door agenten van deze rektoren, die elke kritische opmerking tegen het regiem nauwkeurig noteerden.

Tenslotte werden zijn leergangen geschorst en Heidegger kende de vernedering te moeten arbeiden aan de verdedigingswerken van de Rijn en vervolgens in de Landsturm te moeten dienen. De droom van Ernst Krieck-Heidegger van de universiteit wegjagen – werd echter slechts door de gealliëerden verwezenlijkt.

Vanaf mei 1945 werd hij even ongenadig, even onrechtvaardig aangevallen, nu echter door de gauchisten.

Als échte wijsgeer liet Heidegger beide stormen onbewogen overtrekken, aan zijn vrienden de zorg overlatend hem te verdedigen. Eerst op 31 mei 1976 publiceerde “der Spiegel” een vraaggesprek dat Rudolf Augstein en Georg Wolff met Heidegger voerden, en dat zowat zijn enige zelfverdediging mag genoemd worden omtrent de korte periode van zijn rektoraat, “dat incident” zoals Jean Guitton eens schreef.

Keren we terug naar ons opzet, Heidegger te situeren binnen de Traditie, niet in die van een “primordiale traditie” maar in die van het Westers denken. Hij heeft zich als wijsgeer herbrond bij de presokratische wijsbegeerte enerzijds, en anderzijds bij de poëzie van enkele grote Duitse dichters – Holderlin vooral. Zijn filosofische aktiviteit volgt overigens het spoor van grote Duitse denkers als Meister Eckehart, Jacob Boehme, Leibniz, Kant, Schelling, Hegel, Schopenhauer en Nietzsche.

 

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Evola verweet Heidegger een typisch pessimistische wijsbegeerte te hebben opgezet, typisch – volgens hem – voor het eind van de cyklus van Kali-Yuga. Maar is juist deze pessimistische wijsbegeerte niet inherent aan de faustische traditie in de Duitse ziel?

In het boek dat Jean-Claude Riviére en zijn medewerkers aan Georges Dumézil wijdden (Ed. Copernic, 1979) vinden we enkele verhelderende zinnen in het hoofdstuk dat François-X. Dillmann, docent aan de universiteit van München, en auteur van diverse werken over de oude Germaanse beschaving, schrijft over “G. Dumézil et la religion germanique”. Hij herinnert er aan het boek van Hans Naumann “Germanischen Schicksalsglaube” (Jena, 1934) waarin deze germanist een parallel trekt tussen de pessimistische gedachte van god Odin tegen de naderende “Götterdämmerung” en de “Sorge”-filozofie, zoals Heidegger ze uiteenzette. Naumann blijft lang bij dit parallelisme stilstaan; met een perfekte kennis van zijn onderwerp, van de talloze interpretaties van Odin’s goddelijkheid en van Heidegger’s wijsbegeerte, onderstreept hij hoe diep de filosofie van de schrijver van “Holzwege” verankerd zit in de Germaanse psyche. “Verworteling” is overigens een heideggeriaans Leitmotiv. Hij is inderdaad een boer-wijsgeer, verankerd in zijn geboortegrond, wat trouwens één der redenen was, waarom hij een leerstoel aan de provinciale universiteit van Freiburg, hoofdplaats van zijn heimat, verkoos boven die welke hem in Berlijn werd aangeboden.

Uiteraard wekte deze tekst van Naumann (in 1934-35 rektor te Bonn) de toorn van rektor Krieck, die ooit tegen Heidegger deze betekenisvolle zin uitsprak “Galileeër, uw spraak heeft u verraden!”

Heidegger een Galileeër, dat is wat àl te belachelijk! Natuurlijk is het zo, dat zijn filosofie met haar vaak ingewikkelde formuleringen niet direkt binnen het bereik lag van de eerste de beste nazi, zelfs al was die toevallig rektor en één der officiële denkers van het regime.

In het “Spiegel”-vraaggesprek zei Heidegger: “Voor zover mij bekend, is al wat werkleijk essentieel en belangrijk is, maar kunnen gebeuren, doordat de mens een “Heimat” heeft en in een traditie verworteld is”. Nu kan men over de kwaliteit van deze traditie natuurlijk van mening verschillen, en vooropstellen dat die waarin de faustische Duitse psyche verankerd zit, in feite een emanatie is van de Kali-Yuga; en dan is alles gezegd…

Nee, niet alles is gezegd: in het bewuste vraaggesprek lezen we: “Al wat ik de laatste 30 jaren in mijn kursussen en seminaries vooropstelde, is niets anders geweest dan een interpretatie van de Westerse wijsbegeerte. Terugkeren naar de vertrekpunten van de geschiedenis ter gedachte, het geduld opbrengen de vraagstukken te overdenken die sinds de Griekse wijsbegeerte nog niet “uitgedacht” waren, betekent niet dat men zich van de traditie losmaakt. Maar ik stel voorop: de denkwijze van de metafysische traditie die met Nietzsche ten einde liep, is niet meer in staat de basisgegevens aan te duiden van het technisch tijdvak dat pas aangebroken is.”

En wat verder lezen we, over de taak van de wijsbegeerte en haar impakt op de ontwikkeling van een beschaving in de richting van een maatschappij die de Kali-Yuga  zou ontstijgen, deze zin: “Wij hoeven niet te wachten, tot de mens over 300 jaar eens een idee heeft; het komt erop aan, vertrekkend van basisgegevens die in de huidige tijd amper overdracht worden, vooruit te denken voor de komende eeuwen, zonder zich daarom profetische allures aan te meten. Denken is niét: niets doen, denken is – in zich – dialogeren met een, als noodlot vooropgestelde, wereld. Het komt me voor, dat het onderscheid (van metafysische oorsprong) tussen theorie en praktijk, en de voorstelling van een overdragen van de ene naar de andere, de weg afsnijdt voor een beter begrip van wat ik “denken” noem.”

En terloops laat Heidegger opmerken, dat de lessenreeks die hij in 1954 onder het thema “Wat noemt men denken?” liet verschijnen, wellicht het minst gelezene van al zijn werken is…

Nog even terug naar het Spiegel-vraaggesprek, waarin hij de rol behandelt die de wijsbegeerte zou kunnen spelen in het veranderen van de huidige wereld. Na te hebben vastgesteld dat ze geen onmiddellijk zichtbare resultaten kan hebben, vervolgt hij: “Dat geldt niet alleen voor de wijsbegeerte, maar voor al wat slechts menselijke bekommernis en menselijk streven is. Alleen een god kan ons nog redden. Onze enige mogelijkheid ligt in het voorbereiden, in gedachte en poëzie, van de bereidheid tot afwachten. Deze bereidheid voorbereiden kan wel een eerste-hulpmiddel zijn. De wereld kan niet zijn wàt zij is en hoe zij is door de mens, maar zonder de mens, kan zij gewoon niet zijn. Dat houdt mijn inziens verband met het feit dat wat men (met een term die van zeer ver komt, veel betekenissen draagt en nu versleten is) “het zijn” noemt, de mens nodig heeft voor zijn verschijnen, zijn bescherming en vormgeving…”

Sprekend over het indringen van de techniek “in opmars sinds drie eeuwen” in de moderne wereld, verwerpt Heidegger die techniek niet a priori, maar stelt voorop, dat men zich moet bevrijden van de pragmatische mentaliteit die de wereld der techniek nu beheerst. “Wie van ons zal niet erkennen dat, de een of andere dag, in Rusland of China zeer oude “denk”-tradities zullen ontwaken die er zullen toe bijdragen, voor de mens een vrije relatie met de technische wereld mogelijk te maken ?”

Heidegger zelf heeft “zeer oude denk-tradities” die ooit eens uit Rusland of China zouden kunnen komen, niet afgewacht om over zin en essentie van de techniek te mediteren en te filosoferen. Dit vooral vertrekkend van Ernst Jünger’s boek “Der Arbeiter” (l932). Moesten we zélf gaan mediteren over zin en essentie van de techniek, dan zou ons dit uiteraard te ver voeren.

Wij zouden kunnen doorgaan met alles te citeren wat Heidegger aan de “Spiegel”-ondervragers zegt, net zoals we zouden kunnen verwijzen naar al wat hij geschreven heeft, vooral in de laatste dertig jaren, waarin heel zijn ontwikkeling, heel zijn poëtische zoektocht getuigt van een bestendige bezorgdheid om het sakrale doorheen de diepste menselijke autenticiteit.

Voor wie lezen kàn, heeft Heidegger – doorheen een ander taalgebruik, en zonder de omweg langs het Oosten en de “Primordiale Traditie” – dezelfde bekommernis als Julius Evola omtrent de noodzakelijke regeneratie van onze wereld. Beiden hebben gedacht en gewerkt afzijdig van de politiek der politikasters en haar kompromissen. Zonder dat ze elkaar écht kenden (daarbij denken we aan de miskenning van Heidegger’s gedachte door Evola, en de vermoedelijk volledige onkunde van Heidegger omtrent Evola’s werk) hebben ze elkaar ontmoet, daar waar wijzelf hen wilden ontmoeten op een weg die de onze is en die, – hopen we toch – geen “Holzweg” zal zijn, geen weg die nergens heen voert.

Marc. EEMANS

(*) Het fanatisme waarmee de nationaalsocialistische rektoren Ernst Krieck en Alfred Baeumler zich tegen Martin Heidegger keerden zou wel eens kunnen verklaard worden door hun neofietenijver. Beide heren kwamen in die periode (l933-34) toch vrij recent uit het konservatief-revolutionaire kamp overgestapt naar het nationaal-socialisme. In de ogen van vele oudgediende nationaal-socialisten hadden ze nog alles te bewijzen…

In Armin Mohler’s werk “Die konservative Revolution in Deutschland” vindt men in het overzicht van de veelvuldige stromingen en auteurs ook een hoofdstuk “Uberläufer zum Nationalsozialismus”. Mohler behandelt hier exemplair slechts twee auteurs die volgens hem de meest typische “gevallen” zijn: Alfred Baeumler en Ernst Krieck. (N.v.d.r.)

vendredi, 15 juillet 2011

Herman Wirth en de Indo-Europese voorgeschiedenis

Herman Wirth en de Indo-Europese voorgeschiedenis

door Marc. EEMANS

Ex: http://marceemans.wordpress.com/

herman-wirth.jpgToen het Derde Rijk ineengestort was hebben heel wat gezellen van het eerste uur gepoogd zich – met min of meer sukses – als slachtoffers van het nationaal-socialisme voor te doen. Anderzijds had de regelrechte nazi-jacht die de overwinnaars ontketenden tot gevolg dat een aantal persoonlijkheden die tot de konservatieve revolutie behoorden en vanaf het begin duidelijk afstand hadden genomen van Hitler, toch werden verdacht, vervolgd en soms zelfs gedood.

Dat was onder meer het geval met de jurist Carl Schmitt, de schrijvers Ernst en Georg Jünger en Ernst von Salomon, de wijsgeren Martin Heidegger en Hermann von Keyserling, Rudolf von Sebottendorf, een der meest eminente leden der Thule-Gesellschaft, of nog de geleerden Friedrich Hielscher en Herman Wirth.

 

Ernst Jünger bracht de oorlog door te Parijs, als Duits officier. Hij had kennis van het tegen Hitler gerichte komplot van 20 juli 1944, maar was een van de weinige, zoniet de enige samenzweerder die werd gespaard. Hoe Heidegger vervolgd werd door de fanatici van het regime hebben wij hier reeds beschreven (zie: Martin Heidegger en de traditie van het Westers denken, in TK&S afl. 12, november 1980, pag. 150/11-20). Met opmerkelijke waardigheid en een stoïcisme dat dat der Oudheid evenaart, verdroeg hij zowel deze vervolging als, na 1945, die door linksen van allerlei pluimage.

Men kent Ernst von Salomons boek Der Fragebogen (1951), waarin hij de soms lachwekkende, maar altijd hatelijke aard van de “denazifikatie-riten” aanklaagt. In feite trad von Salomon nooit tot het nationaal-socialisme toe, dat hij – net als o.m. Julius Evola – zijn demagogische en plebeïsche aard verweet. Zijn vriend uit de dagen van de Brigade Ehrhardt, Hartmut Plaas, werd in 1944 omgebracht in het KZ Ravensbrück.

Datzelfde misprijzen vinden we bij Hermann von Keyserling, stichter van de School der Wijsheid, die echter toch, na de anarchie van de Weimar-republiek, de opkomst van het nationaal-socialisme begroette als een zegen voor Duitsland, maar zich dan weer plots uit alle politieke aktiviteit terugtrekt.

Rudolf von Sebottendorf kreeg last met de nazi-autoriteiten na de publikatie van zijn boek Bevor Hitler kam: het werd meteen verboden en bijna alle beschikbare eksemplaren vernietigd. Maar ook na 1945 blééf het door de Geallieerden verboden, zodat dit boek, dat voor de genesis van het nationaal-socialisme van kapitaal belang is, omzeggens onvindbaar werd, vermits het nooit heruitgegeven of vertaald werd. (1) De schrijver zelf verliet Duitsland en verdronk in 1945 in de Bosporus, in geheimzinnige omstandigheden.

Een geheimzinnig personage is ook Friedrich Hielscher. Men kent zijn naam doorgaans nog enkel omdat hij Wolfram Sievers, sekretaris-generaal van het wetenschappelijk instituut Ahnenerbe bijstond, toen die op 2 juni 1948 als “oorlogsmisdadiger” in Landsberg werd opgehangen. Hielscher zélf werd door de denazificeerders niet verontrust. Men beweerde dat hij lid zou zijn geweest van de Thule-Gesellschaft, maar in de ledenlijst van dit genootschap (opgesteld door Rudolf von Sebottendorf en door René Alleau gepubliceerd in zijn Hitler et les sociétés secrètes, Grasset, Parijs, 1969) vinden we zijn naam niet terug.

Ernst Jünger, die hem goed moet hebben gekend, noteert in zijn Parijs’ dagboek op 14 oktober 1943 “Hielscher bevestigde het vermoeden – dat ik al lang koesterde – dat hij een Kerk zou gesticht hebben. De dogmatiek is hij al voorbij en in de liturgie is hij ver gevorderd. Hij heeft mij een reeks gezangen getoond en een cyclus feesten, het heidens jaar, die een ganse ordening godheden, kleuren, dieren, spijzen, edelstenen, planten … omvat.” De konfrontatie Hielscher-Sievers, tijdens diens laatste ogenblikken, lijkt de thesis “Hielscher, kerkstichter” te bevestigen, als men tenminste geloof mag hechten aan hen die Wolfram Sievers’ martelgang beschreven. Jean-Claude Frère schrijft in zijn boek Nazisme et sociétés secrètes (Grasset, Parijs, 1974): “Toen Sievers zijn vonnis vernam, vroeg hij in zijn laatste ogenblikken te worden bijgestaan door Hielscher. Dit werd hem toegestaan; en toen kon men, aan de voet van de galg, het verbazend, krankzinnig schouwspel beleven van twee mannen die een onbekende ritus voltrokken, onbegrijpelijke formules spraken, en alle aanwezigen – tot de beul toe – zenuwachtig maakten. Tenslotte drukte Hielscher Sievers tegen zich aan, de veroordeelde trad achteruit, boog voor zijn meester en leverde zich dan, onbewogen, aan de beul over.”

In het spoor van de studie der geschiedenis van onze voorouders zullen we straks Herman Wirth ontmoeten, maar blijven we nog even bij Friedrich Hielscher stilstaan. Hij werd geboren in 1902, studeerde rechten en bewoog zich in de jaren twintig in zgn. nationaalrevolutionaire kringen, op een behoorlijke afstand van het nationaal-socialisme. Hij schreef diverse boeken, waaronder Das Reich (1931) en raakte bevriend met Sievers, die hem het werk leerde kennen van Herman Wirth, wiens leerlingen ze beide werden. Hun wegen liepen echter weldra sterk uiteen: terwijl Sievers het nationaal-socialisme vervoegde ging Hielscher in de oppositie. Das Reich werd verboden en hij kreeg bij herhaling last met de nazi-autoriteiten. Hij werd de ‘ideoloog’ van een verzetsgroep die men best als Widerstandsgruppe Hielscher kan aanduiden. Toch bleef hij met Sievers bevriend, werkte aan de rand van het Ahnenerbe met hem mee en zou hem zelfs in zijn verzetsaktiviteiten hebben betrokken – wat hij tevergeefs, om Sievers van de strop te redden, voor het Nürnbergtribunaal trachtte te bewijzen.

Carl Schmitt werd er door zijn tegenstanders van beticht te hebben meegewerkt aan het opstellen van wetten, ten tijde van het Derde Rijk: ongetwijfeld deed hij dat ook. Vanaf 1935 werd hij echter de schietschijf van een aantal aan het nazi-regime onderworpen juristen en een aanval tegen hem in het officiële SS-blad Das schwarze Korps bracht hem ertoe zich volledig terug te trekken uit het openbare leven. Na 1945 hield een geallieerde onderzoekskommissie zich met hem bezig, klasseerde de aantijgingen “zonder gevolg” en rehabiliteerde hem.

Alvorens we nu de idee en het werk van de protohistoricus Herman Wirth behandelen, schetsen we eerst zijn levensloop. Herman Wirth Roeper Bosch, Nederlander, werd in 1885 te Utrecht geboren, als zoon van een turnleraar. Hij studeerde Germaanse filologie, volkskunde, geschiedenis en muziekwetenschap aan de universiteiten van Utrecht, Leipzig en Bazel. In 1910 doktoreert hij op de thesis De ondergang van het Nederlandse Volkslied, die een jaar later in Den Haag als boek verscheen. In 1909 was hij al tot lektor benoemd aan de universiteit van Berlijn, voor het vakgebied Nederlandse filologie.

Hij meldt zich in 1914 als oorlogsvrijwilliger in het Pruissische leger en wordt kort daarop verbindingsofficier te Brussel. Hij onderhield de kontakten met de groep Jong Vlaanderen, die de motor was van het aktivisme, en nam ook aktief deel aan de proklamatie van de Raad van Vlaanderen in 1917 en de kortstondige Vlaamse zelfstandigheid , die in 1918 met de nederlaag van het Duitse keizerrijk ter ziele ging (2). Intussen was hij, in 1916, aan de Berlijnse universiteit tot professor benoemd.

ln 1920 probeerde Wirth in Nederland onder de benaming Dietse Trekvogels een jeugdbeweging van de grond te krijgen, naar het model van de Wandervogel in Duitsland en de Blauwvoeterie in Vlaanderen. In 1923 vestigt hij zich dan in Marburg an der Lahn, als zelfstandig ethnograaf en begint met zijn diepgaand onderzoek naar de Europese pre historie. In 1925 werd hij lid van de  N.S.D.A.P., maar in juli 1926 stapt hij er weer uit. In 1928 laat hij bij Diederichs in Jena zijn bekend werk Der Aufgang der Menschheit verschijnen. In die periode behoorden Friedrich Hielscher en Wolfram Sievers tot zijn trouwste leerlingen. Net ais Wirth zelf werkten ze, op diverse vlakken, aan Ahnenerbe mee, ook al was alleen Sievers een partijman. Wirth was trouwens een van de oprichters van Ahnenerbe en moet er één der invloedrijke leden van zijn geweest, vermits hem meteen de sektie Studie van voorhistorisch schrift en symbolen werd toevertrouwd. In 1935 en 1936 was hij vele maanden op studiereis in Skandinavië. In 1938 brak hij met Ahnenerbe, wei onder de dubbele druk van de vakhistorici, die hem voor een dilettant hielden, en van de nazi•ideologen die hem hoogst kwalijk namen dat hij niet ophield te proklameren dat elke Führerkultus historisch gezien een vervalverschijnsel is…

De eerste bekende anti-Wirth brochure was van de hand van Prof. Dr. Paul Hambruch en droeg de alleszins niet dubbelzinnige titel: Die Irrtumer und Phantasien des Prof. Dr. Herman Wirth/Marburg, Verfasser von “Der Aufgang der Menschheit” und “Was heisst deutsch”. Dit denunciërende geschrift werd dan nog uitgerekend door het Deutscher Polizeiverlag uitgegeven (Lübeck, 1931). De latere Berlijnse n.s.-rektor Alfred Baeumler, bekend o.m. om zijn even perfide als doldrieste aanvallen tegen Heidegger, volgde weldra met het boekje Was bedeutet Herman Wirth für die Wissenschaft? (1932).

ln datzelfde jaar volgde van de geoloog Prof. Dr. Fritz Wiegers Herman Wirth und die deutsche Wissenschaft, waarin Wirth openlijk van dilettantisme werd aangeklaagd: “De geschriften van deze ethnoloog vormen slechts een weefsel van valse besluiten, van onbewezen beweringen en van ontkenningen van wetenschappelijke evidenties” … En verder: “De ‘ontdekkingen’ van Wirth zijn niets meer dan de fantazieën van een door de religieuze gedachte geobsedeerde geest”. In 1934 verscheen dan van Rudolf Glaser een brochure die Herman Wirth kategorisch verwierp, ditmaal niet in naam van de wetenschap, maar in naam van het nationaal-socialisme: Wer ist Herman Wirth? Volkstümliche Aufsatze über die Forschungen Herman Wirth’s von Rudolf Glaser. In de bibliografie vindt men al 62 pro- en contra-Wirth geschriften.

Natuurlijk verschenen er ook artikels en werken die van sympathie en belangstelling getuigden, maar de (tegen)partij had een veel grotere invloed, vooral toen Prof. Dr. Wiegers het argument hanteerde dat Wirth nog in 1932 relaties onderhield met de vrijmetselarij en Bolko Freiherr von Richthofen, de voorzitter van de Beroepsvereniging der Duitse Prehistorici, de aandacht trok op Wirth’s vriendschappelijke betrekkingen met bepaalde Joden… In een brief aan Prof. Hans F.K. Günther schreef Richthofen dat hij “niet begreep waarom men Wirth zou moeten ontzien omwille van taktische en humanitaire redenen” en op 16 januari 1934 liet hij aan Ministerialrat Sunkel weten: “Herr Wirth weiss genau, dass ihm führend besonders kiimpferische Nationalsozialisten gegenüberstehen. Mit Heil Hitler und deutschem Gruss, Ihr ergebenster gez. B. Frhr. v. Richthofen”.

Ook voor de grote kampagne tegen zijn ideeën en zijn persoon moet Herman Wirth binnen Ahnenerbe wel aanstoot gegeven hebben, door zijn onderzoekingen naar een oerkultuur en een oerreligie, die op een heel andere man-vrouw-relatie steunde, als hoogste godheid een “Almoeder” zou gekend hebben en eerder “demokratisch” van inslag was, in de zin van de latere IJslandse demokratie dan.

Wirth verdedigde de stelling dat de overheersend mannelijke trekken in de late kultuur, met hun overwaardering van het militaire leiderschap, typische dekadentieverschijnselen waren uit een periode van kulturele laagkonjunktuur zoals de tijd van de grote volksverhuizingen en de Vikingerperiode. De pogingen van het nationaal-socialisme om precies met deze periodes terug aan te knopen waren hem dan ook een politieke gruwel én kulturele nonsens.

In zijn studie Die Frage der Frauenberge – eine europäische Gegenwartsfrage (1972) komt Herman Wirth nog eens terug op zijn oude thesis: “De Vrouwenberg bij Cappel, nabij Marburg, is een van de meer dan honderd vrouwenbergen, maagden-, jonkvrouwen- enz. – bergen, -burgen, -stenen van het Duitse taalgebied en volksgebied. Wat hun ontstaan en hun bloeitijd betreft behoren deze Vrouwenbergen tot een bepaalde grote periode van het Avondland, gaande van de periode der grote stenen graven en de rotstekeningen in de Jongsteentijd tot bij het begin van de Volksverhuizingen. Over de geschiedenis en de betekenis van deze “Vrouwenbergen” is niets bekend. Dat er niets over geweten is, dat men niet eens geprobeerd heeft op het vraagstuk van de “Vrouwenbergen” enige vat te krijgen, heeft een tweeledige reden. De eerste reden is van psychologische aard: in een nog altijd mannelijk-ideologisch gericht wetenschapssysteem kan het probleem van een blijkbaar verheven plaats van de vrouw op religieus, kultureel en sociaal vlak geen geschiedkundige betekenis en belangrijkheid worden toegekend. En de tweede reden was dat de “Vrouwenbergen” tot de zgn. voorgeschiedenis behoren, d.w.z. dat er over dit onderwerp geen historische bronnen, geen schriftelijke overlevering (inskripties, berichten) bestaat. Dat er daarover toch een schriftelijke overlevering bestond en bestaat, niet in letterschrift maar in symboolschrift, daarvan hadden en hebben de totnogtoe bevoegde wetenschappen tot op de dag van vandaag geen idee: de prehistorici niet, maar evenmin de volkskundigen, de germanisten, de godsdiensthistorici, de mythologen enz.”

oera_linda.jpgZijn vriend Dr. Joachim Weitzäcker schrijft: “Na Herman Wirth’s “verwijdering” uit Ahnenerbe, dat hij gesticht had (3), verloor hij in 1938 zijn leerstoel aan de Berlijnse universiteit, omwille van zijn op gewetensbezwaren gegrondveste oppositie en zijn eis tot vrij onderzoek. Hij moest terug naar Marburg en kreeg verbod om nog onderricht te geven, te publiceren en in het openbaar te spreken. Tenslotte leverde de wet van het stilzwijgen zijn naam aan de vergetelheid over…”

Maar Wirth was niét helemaal vergeten: in 1945 namen de Amerikanen zijn bibliotheek en zijn omvangrijke dokumentatie in beslag; hij bleef aan dezelfde verbodsbepalingen onderworpen als tijdens de laatste zeven jaren van het Hitlerregime.

Zonder dokumentatie en bijna zonder bestaansmiddelen, herbegon hij, bijgestaan door zijn echtgenote Margarete Schmitt, en enkele vrienden, met bewonderswaardige moed aan zijn levenswerk. In 1960 verscheen in Wenen Um den Ursinn des Menschseins. Hij stichtte de Europaische Sammlung für religionsgeschichte en, in 1979 begon hij – 94 jaar jong! – in de ruïnes van een oud slot te Lichtenberg nabij Kusel, met de installatie van een museum en van archieven, die al zijn geschriften en zijn verzamelingen zou herbergen.

De allerlaatste jaren, haast volledig verlamd, werkte hij onverdroten verder, geholpen door enkele trouwe vrienden, en in leven gehouden met wat schaarse subsidies. Begin van dit jaar is hij er overleden.

Laat ons nu (noodgedwongen oppervlakkig) onderzoeken, wat Herman Wirth’s werk betekent. In zijn paleo-epigrafische opzoekingen, die de historische rekonstruktie van een oerreligie beogen, waagt Wirth zich in feite erg ver in de voorhistorie. In zijn opvatting zouden de Indo-europeërs slechts de vertegenwoordigers zijn van een erg late, hoogstens protohistorische periode.

Inderdaad, al wat de voorstanders van de “primordiale traditie”, waarvan René Guénon en Julius Evola de meest eminente vertegenwoordigers zijn, als positief d.i. kontroleerbaar kunnen bevestigen, gaat niet verder achteruit dan de eerste geschriften, waarmede volgens hen in feite de geschiedenis begint. Al de rest is slechts gissing, die op – weliswaar konvergerende – tradities steunt … doch het blijven tradities, om niet het woord ‘legenden’ te gebruiken. De meeste van Wirth’s werken moeten ook tot deze konjekturale wetenschap gerekend worden, en al zijn opsommingen van tekens en symbolen, waarvan hij de uitleg geeft, steunen (althans volgens zijn criticus Fritz Wiegers) slechts op vaak vernunftige interpretaties, die niet of moeilijk kontroleerbaar zijn. Dat er naast het “letterschrift” ook een koherent “symboolschrift” bestaat, word t intussen minder betwist dan ten tijde van Wirth’s eerste werken: het probleem ligt op het vlak van de duiding.

Vermelden we terloops dat de klassieke prehistorici wantrouwig staan tegenover elke subjektieve interpretatie. Ze doen opgravingen, ontdekken fossielen of voorwerpen van aile aard, klasseren ze en situeren ze meestal naar gelang de vindplaats. Uit hun ontdekkingen kunnen we afleiden, dat in deze of gene periode de Homo sapiens die of deze stap zette in de langzame opgang der mensheid naar wat we prozaisch “beschaving” noemen. Zo spreekt men over lager-, midden-, en lioger-paleoliticum, mesoliticum, neoliticum, bronstijdperk en ijzertijdperk, mét hun onderverdelingen, die ais “beschavingen” bestempeld worden, en waarvan de recentste die van Hallstatt en die van La Tène zijn. Om die periodes te dateren gebruikt men heden de radio-carbonmethode. Intussen ontdekken de prehistorici aanwijzingen omtrent de religie, de technologie, de begrafenisriten, zonder de eerste kunstuitingen te vergeten.

Onder de resten van een tamelijk geëvolueerde beschaving vermelden we de rotstekeningen van Altamira en Lascaux, die volgens de klassieke prehistorici uit het laag-neoliticum stammen (zowat tussen 35.000 en 10.000 v.o.j.). Vermits ze in een geografische ruimte liggen die zich ver van Noord-Europa bevindt, konden ze noch Wirth, noch de geleerden van Ahnenerbe interesseren, vervuld ais ze waren van die Indo-europese beschaving, waarvan de oudste sporen niet vroeger te situeren zijn dan in het 5de of 4de milennium vóór onze tijdrekening. Eerder zou men van het 3de of zelfs het 2de milennium moeten spreken, wat onze Europese primordiale traditie wei érg dicht bij ons legt. Werkt een kenner van de Indo-europese traditie ais Georges Dumézil trouwens niet bij voorkeur op geschreven bronnen? En nu weten we, dat het schrift van tamelijk recente datum is.

De klassieke prehistorici struikelen nog over raadsels, zoals die van de megalithen. Ze stellen hun bestaan vast, wagen een interpretatie, maar trekken geen besluiten: dat laten ze liever over aan geleerden als Wirth, die ze voor het overige wantrouwen. En wat raadsels ais Atlantis of het verloren kontinent Mu betreft, verkiezen ze er niet aan te raken en laten gissingen omtrent die vraagstukken over aan mensen die ze ais specialisten van “science-fiction” beschouwen.

Wij moeten toegeven dat de klassieke prehistorici al wat wij onze “primordiale Traditie” noemen, ignoreren; het vertrekpunt van deze benaming en van de vraagstukken die er verband mee houden, vindt men in een werk van de Duitse taalkundige Franz Bopp Vergleichende Grammatik des Sanskrit, Zend, Griechischen, Lateinischen, Lithauischen, Gotischen und Deutschen, dat uit de jaren 1833-52 stamt. Het vraagstuk van de Indo-europeërs breidde zich vlug uit van de taalkunde naar het probleem van het woongebied der volkeren die Indo-europese talen spraken en schreven, zonder dat de geleerden het eens konden worden over het vertrekpunt en de datering van deze verspreiding. Het zou interessant zijn dit probleem te bestuderen: men zou dan vaststellen dat op dit vlak de grootste verwarring heerst. Wat zeker is: overal waar de Indo-europeërs zich vestigden, overvleugelden ze de bevolking die al in dat gebied woonde, en onderwierpen ze hen (de Dravida’s in Indië b.v.).

Overal, zowel in Europa ais in Azië, vormden ze de twee overheersende kasten, die de geestelijken en die der strijders of ridders.

Om naar Herman Wirth te rug te keren, stellen we vast dat hij, al zat hij dan min of meer in de lijn van Bachofen, de theoreticus van het matriarchaat, toch niet afkerig was van de Odinistische mythologie, die hij uit de graffiti op de rotswanden van Noord-Europa meende te mogen afleiden en die hij poogde in te voegen in zijn konstrukties omtrent een matriarchale godsdienst. Ook de runen horen daar ergens bij, zodat men in zijn theorieën een soort mythisch-godsdienstig synkretisme mag zien, waarvan het “Mutter Erde”-begrip het sluitstuk is. Het is onbetwistbaar (de klassieke prehistorie bévestigt het ons) dat er in het Atlantisch Europa van het derde millenium een “megalitische” godsdienst bestond, met aanbidden van een vruchtbaarheidsgodin, die tegelijk de begrafenis-riten voorzat. Maar even zeker is dat er sinds het neoliticum (wellicht zelfs sinds het paleolitieum) een verering van de vrouwelijke godheid bestond: dit wordt bevestigd door talrijke beelden, als de “Venus” van Savignano (Italië), Gargarino (USSR) en Willendorff (Oostenrijk); of door de vrouwenkoppen van Dolmi Vestaniee (Tsjeehoslovakije) en Brassempuy (Frankrijk), wat ons zéker tot zowat 30.000 jaren vóór onze tijdrekening terugvoert.

Wirth’s onderzoeken waren vooral op Noord-Europa gericht, zoals zijn reizen uit 1935-36 aantonen. Wij moeten er, om met de klassieke prehistorici te spreken, uit besluiten dat zijn onderzoek vooral het zogenaamd mesoliticum betrof, dat aanvangt rond 10.000 v66r onze jaartelling en zich uitstrekt over het neoliticum en de twee metaaltijdperken, tot de eerste eeuwen van onze jaartelling, voor de kerstening van Noord-Europa.

Volgens de primordiale Traditie moet er echter, vóór die tijd, een ander, veel zachter klimaat geheerst hebben, toen Groenland en Spitzbergen groene en vruchtbare gebieden waren , (de naam Groenland wijst er op!). Hoe dit tijdperk situeren ? Laat ons het antwoord afwachten van de geologen, de prehistorici of de historici van de primordiale Traditie. Immers, in welke periode van het Pleistoceen de groene velden van het aloude Ultima Thule situeren ? Wie weet gaat het om een vrij recente periode, uit het zesde tot derde milennium vóór onze jaartelling, en die men in de geologie de Atlantische periode noemt. Toen was het legendarische Mu-gebied allang, rond 12.500 of 12.000 jaar voor onze jaartelling, in de golven verdwenen (4). Waarschijnlijk verdween, tijdens dezelfde natuurramp, Atlantis, dat andere hypothetische land .

Wat er ook van zij, doorheen heel zijn lange loopbaan heeft Wirth niet opgehouden, zijn studies over Europa’s voorgeschiedenis voort te zetten, daarbij vooral de aandacht vestigend op de paleo-epigrafie.

In zijn speurtocht naar al wat de voorhistorische Moeder Aarde-kultus kan bevestigen, heeft hij het onmetelijk belang onderstreept van de pre-Indo-europese beschaving voor het kultureelleven én de religie in Europa. Het magisch-religieuze leven in die periode hield hem voortdurend bezig, en hij bewees dat vóór de stroom Indogermaanse veroveraars, die over heel de antieke wereld van de Atlantische oceaan tot het Nabije- en Verre-Oosten neerstortte, er hier reeds mensen leefden die zich even zeer als de nieuwkomers om geestelijke zaken bekommerden.

Mogelijk zijn Wirth’s werken getekend door een zeker dilettantisme, maar loopt niet iedereen die zich in de kronkelingen van ons oudste verleden waagt, dit risiko ? Hoeveel bewonderaars van dat geheimzinnig verleden goochelen niet met min of meer fantaisistische gevolgtrekkingen en benaderingen, zich tegelijk als “gezaghebbend” voordoend ? Zij weten, wat u, de lezer, niet weet; zij zijn ingewijd en u bent het niet. Zij halen hun ‘wetenschap’, rechtstreeks of onrechtstreeks, bij een of ndere Tibetaanse monnik, of bij een of andere, min of meer geheimzinnige Goeroe, die de sleutel tot een eeuwenoud mysterie bezit…

Laat ons maar toegeven: hoeveel pretentieuze domheden vinden we niet onder de dekmantel van wat onze vrienden van de Traditie, de ‘Primordiale Traditie’ noemen ? René Guénon en Julius Evola hebben zich veel moeite getroost, de kwakzalvers van de – zogezegd – traditionele wetenschappen te ontmaskeren. Desondanks lopen ze nog rond en staan ze voortdurend klaar, u om het even welke valse ‘revelatie’ of welk produkt van hun op hol geslagen verbeelding ook aan te smeren …

Moeten we Herman Wirth bij de kwakzalvers van de Traditie onderbrengen ? Wij zijn overtuigd van niet, maar wél dienen we met omzichtigheid de resultaten van zijn onderzoekingen te beschouwen.

Zo heeft hij zich vér in de zogenaamde Ura Linda-kroniek gewaagd. Is ze een vervalsing, een louter literaire fantasie in de aard van de “Ossian-liederen” ? Is het een laattijdige kompilatie van een mondelinge traditie, ais de “Kalewala” ? De vraag blijft gesteld.

Vergeten we anderzijds ni et dat hij zolang hij persona grata was bij Ahnenerbe, ais groot geleerde op het vlak van de prehistorie werd beschouwd; en dat hij na zijn ongenade, zelfs het recht verbeurde les te geven en in het openbaar te spreken.

Jean Beelen schreef: “De onmetelijke verdienste van Prof. Wirth ligt erin, de oerperiode van het geschrift en de symboliek te hebben dóórgelicht en te hebben bewezen dat de mensen uit die tijd een kosmisch aanvoelen hadden dat aan de basis lag van een volkse godsdienst”. Dat is al héél wat en zo moeten we wei rekening houd en met al wat hij deed, en al wat hij schreef, zelfs al blijven we vrij te redetwisten over zijn – onbetwistbaar belangrijke – aanbreng inzake de voorgeschiedenis van de Westerse wereld.

Marc. EEMANS

(Vert. Roeland Raes)
(1) Het boek van Sebottendorf is niet te verwarren met dat van Dietrich Bronder dat eveneens de titel “Bevor Hitler kam” draagt (Hans Pfeiffer-Verlag, Hannover, 1964). Het essay van R.H. Phelps “Before Hitler came”. Thule Society and German Order” (in het Journal of Modern History, 1963) is géén vertaling maar een zelfstandige studie.
(2) Over Herman Wirth en het aktivisme, over Herman Wirth en het Vlaams-nationalisme, is het laatste woord nog niet gezegd. Willemsen en Elias vermelden hem even in de rand. Heel wat meer gegevens vindt men in een studie van Dr. Lammert Buning over Wirth, verschenen in Wetenschappelijke Tijdingen, 3/74.
(3) In feite medegesticht, samen met Hermann Reischle, Heinrich Himmler, Adolf Babel, Georg Ebrecht, Erwin Metzner en Richard Hintmann.
(4) Zie James Churchward: “Mu, le continent perdu.”

mercredi, 13 juillet 2011

Heidi Brühl (1966): Hundert Mann und ein Befehl

 

Heidi Brühl - 1966

Hundert Mann und ein Befehl

00:05 Publié dans Militaria, Musique | Lien permanent | Commentaires (0) | Tags : allemagne, musique, militaria | |  del.icio.us | | Digg! Digg |  Facebook

samedi, 09 juillet 2011

Presseschau - Juli 2011 (1)

presse_crieur-0c2cd.jpg

Presseschau

Juli 2011 (1)

AUßENPOLITISCHES

Kommunikation für Dissidenten
US-Regierung konstruiert Schattennetzwerke
http://www.spiegel.de/netzwelt/netzpolitik/0,1518,768116,00.html

Spanien
Franco, das Heer und die Guardia Civil sind die neuen Helden
http://www.zeit.de/politik/ausland/2011-06/spanien-franco-historiker-streit

Wahlen: Portugal wird konservativ
http://www.focus.de/politik/weitere-meldungen/wahlen-portugal-wird-konservativ_aid_634476.html

Portugals bittere Wahl
http://www.welt.de/print/die_welt/politik/article13416368/Portugals-bittere-Wahl.html

Wahlen in Portugal
Geister an der Urne
http://www.sueddeutsche.de/politik/wahlen-in-portugal-geister-an-der-urne-1.1104514

Italien
"Die Demokratie kommt von unten"
Alte Männer ohne Prostata ruinieren das Land, meint der Starkomiker Beppe Grillo. Der Polit-Aktivist lässt sich gerne einen Populisten nennen
http://www.taz.de/1/archiv/digitaz/artikel/?ressort=me&dig=2011%2F06%2F04%2Fa0214&cHash=cd7c786557

Türkei-Wahl
Erfolg für Kurden, Niederlage für Kommunisten
http://www.redglobe.de/europa/tuerkei/4526-erfolg-fuer-kurden-niederlage-fuer-kommunisten

Russia
South Ossetian president's bodyguards killed in Russia
http://en.rian.ru/russia/20110520/164132350.html

„Gott sei Dank brauchen wir Russland nicht“
Georgiens Außenminister im Interview, über russischen Terror und die Westorientierung seines Landes.
http://diepresse.com/home/wirtschaft/international/668437/Gott-sei-Dank-brauchen-wir-Russland-nicht

Erneut wegen Kurilen: Japan und Russland vor Rückfall in alte Zeiten
http://de.rian.ru/russia/20110513/259107956.html

Vor dem grossen Aufbruch
Japan steht vor einer überfälligen politisch-kulturellen Erneuerung – die Zeit drängt
http://www.nzz.ch/nachrichten/kultur/aktuell/vor_dem_grossen_aufbruch_1.10716290.html

Macht und Mission
Die neuen Kriege werden gängiger Bestandteil von Außenpolitik – und werfen dringliche Fragen zum Völkerrecht auf
http://www.heise.de/tp/artikel/34/34977/1.html

(die taz glaubt offenbar an ein „arabisches 68“. Herrlich naiv…)
"Heirat und Kinderkriegen reichen nicht"
Arabellion. Geschlechterrollen verändern sich auch in Nordafrika - deswegen sind Frauen aus den dortigen Aufständen nicht wegzudenken. Ein Gespräch mit dem Islamwissenschaftler Reinhard Schulze
http://www.taz.de/1/archiv/digitaz/artikel/?ressort=ku&dig=2011%2F06%2F01%2Fa0156&cHash=8016806621

Ägypten
Vodafone: Mubarak-Helfer mit Revolutions-Anstrich
http://www.sueddeutsche.de/digital/aegypten-vodafone-freiheitsvideo-sorgt-fuer-wut-und-spott-1.1104844

Ägypten
Eliten im Gefängnis
Die verlassenen Yachten des Mubarak-Klüngels
http://www.welt.de/politik/ausland/article13413669/Die-verlassenen-Yachten-des-Mubarak-Kluengels.html

"Was nach Ghaddafi kommt, ist völlig offen"
Libyens Machthaber wird sich nicht halten können. Keiner weiß, was von den Rebellen zu erwarten ist. Ein Gespräch mit Udo Steinbach
http://www.ag-friedensforschung.de/regionen/Libyen/steinbach.html

(Die Koran-Stelle möchte man übrigens mal sehen, die explizit aussagt, dass Frauen nicht Autofahren dürfen… Daß sie es nicht können, ist eine andere Sache ;-))
Kampf gegen Fatwa
Fünf Autofahrerinnen in Saudi-Arabien festgenommen
http://www.welt.de/politik/ausland/article13457462/Fuenf-Autofahrerinnen-in-Saudi-Arabien-festgenommen.html

Melbourne
Schwulen-Bar darf Frauen Zutritt verbieten
http://www.spiegel.de/panorama/0,1518,767839,00.html

Nigeria-Trainerin Uche ist eine homophobe Schleiferin
http://www.welt.de/sport/fussball/frauen-wm-2011/article13455512/Nigeria-Trainerin-Uche-ist-eine-homophobe-Schleiferin.html
http://www.taz.de/1/sport/wm-2011-tribuene/artikel/1/lesben-raus/

„Unfassbar zynisch“: Die Heimat der indigenen Penan in Malaysia ist bedroht
http://www.blauenarzisse.de/index.php/aktuelles/2598-unfassbar-zynisch-die-heimat-der-indigenen-penan-in-malaysia-ist-bedroht-

Zwei Soldaten bei Häftlingsrevolte in Venezuela getötet
http://de.nachrichten.yahoo.com/zwei-soldaten-bei-h%C3%A4ftlingsrevolte-venezuela-get%C3%B6tet-060021721.html

Streit um dänische Grenzkontrollen verschärft sich
http://www.focus.de/politik/ausland/grenze-streit-um-daenische-grenzkontrollen-verschaerft-sich_aid_635103.html

Neue OZ: Kommentar zu Dänemark / Deutschland / Grenze
http://www.finanznachrichten.de/nachrichten-2011-06/20475107-neue-oz-kommentar-zu-daenemark-deutschland-grenze-007.htm

Dänemark taugt nicht mehr zur linken Utopie
http://www.welt.de/print/die_welt/politik/article13438901/Daenemark-taugt-nicht-mehr-zur-linken-Utopie.html

Riesiges Denkmal für Alexander den Großen in Skopje/Mazedonien enthüllt
http://www.pelagon.de/?p=3024
http://www.n-tv.de/panorama/Mazedonien-aergert-Athen-article3630631.html

Anonymous und LulzSec
Hacker erklären Regierungen den Krieg
http://www.tagesspiegel.de/politik/hacker-erklaeren-regierungen-den-krieg/4309798.html

(Terrorhysterie)
Flughafen in USA Kontrolle: Frau (95) muss Windel ausziehen
http://www.abendzeitung-muenchen.de/inhalt.flughafen-in-usa-kontrolle:-frau-95-muss-windel-ausziehen.2cab5061-af56-484c-97a8-cf78ec2b2dd4.html

(reichlich schräger youtube-Kanal)
Alien Terrorist ? NATO im Krieg: Nordafrika, Naher Osten
Geopolitischer Essay ueber: White Dragon betritt Weltbuehne; - Freimaurersymbolik erläutert von Freimaurern ( Albert Pyke u. Albert Mackey); - die NATO, ihr Enblem und ihr Krieg in Nordafrika u. im Nahen Osten ; - ihre Wurzeln u. die Kluft zwischen Anspruch und Wirklichkeit dieser Organisation
http://www.youtube.com/user/grandmasteryeager


INNENPOLITISCHES / GESELLSCHAFT / VERGANGENHEITSPOLITIK

(oh nein…)
Wulff soll lauter werden
http://www.sueddeutsche.de/m5D38Q/67932/Wulff-soll-lauter-werde.html

(und da wurde er schon wieder lauter…)
Wulff fordert Solidarität mit Flüchtlingen
Bundespräsident sagt, es sei mehr Hilfe möglich, "als wir gegenwärtig leisten"
http://www.abendblatt.de/politik/deutschland/article1930335/Wulff-fordert-Solidaritaet-mit-Fluechtlingen.html

Angela Merkel und die neue Weltordnung
http://www.sezession.de/25217/angela-merkel-und-die-neue-weltordnung.html

Cem Özdemir . Seit 2009 ist er Bundesvorsitzender der Grünen, zusammen mit der türkeiberauschten Claudia Roth. Özdemir war der erste Türke im Bundestag (1994 bis 2002). Nach seinem Rücktritt als Bundestagsabgeordneter (Bonusmeilen-Affäre) verschwand der "bekennende Muslim" aus der Öffentlichkeit und ging 2003 in die USA als "Transatlantic Fellow" des "German Marshall Fund of the United States" - "einer Institution, die hilft, amerikanische Interessen bei uns durchzusetzen". In seiner US-Zeit soll er mehrfach Berührung mit der CIA gehabt haben. Diese US-Einbindung biete Raum für Spekulationen, meint Peter Helmes über den "buchstäblich mit allen Wassern gewaschenen" Özdemir in seiner Broschüre "Die Grünen". Ausführlich....
http://karl-heinz-heubaum.homepage.t-online.de/62wh-oez.htm

(Zu Seehofer und den „Grünen“)
Witz sorgt für Ärger
In Moskau sorgt Seehofer für Eifersuchtsszenen
http://www.abendzeitung-muenchen.de/inhalt.witz-sorgt-fuer-aerger-in-moskau-sorgt-seehofer-fuer-eifersuchtsszenen.6bb06380-519e-4118-98f0-88d31fee4b7e.html

Appell zum Papst-Boykott stößt auf Unverständnis
http://www.derwesten.de/nachrichten/politik/Appell-zum-Papst-Boykott-stoesst-auf-Unverstaendnis-id4807868.html

Wer wählt was?
http://www.bpb.de/fsd/werwaehltwas/

(es gärt auch beim Normalbürger…)
Bürgerliche Bauernschläue
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M538b5a48f41.0.html

Schwuleninvasion
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M5c096e641a9.0.html

Schulpolitik als politisches Experimentierfeld
Erbärmlich, einfach erbärmlich.
http://www.freie-waehler-frankfurt.de/artikel/index.php?id=121

(Betuliche Schönfärberei…)
Schwarze Socken und rote Rübenschweine
Ex-"Panorama"-Mitarbeiter Stefan Aust über das älteste deutsche Politmagazin, das in diesen Tagen 50 Jahre alt wird
http://www.berlinonline.de/berliner-zeitung/archiv/.bin/dump.fcgi/2011/0530/medien/0003/index.html

Stalins Mann in der „Welt“
http://www.sezession.de/25165/stalins-mann-in-der-welt.html

Hitler's first draft of the Holocaust: unique letter goes on show
http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/jun/07/hitler-holocaust-letter-show

(Die nächste Hitler-Schmonzette…)
"Transformers"-Star Megan Fox
Hitler, Spielberg und ein verbitterter Abgang
http://www.spiegel.de/panorama/leute/0,1518,769516,00.html

Garbsen
Hauptschul-Direktor fordert Polizeischutz
http://www.welt.de/newsticker/dpa_nt/infoline_nt/schlaglichter_nt/article13422325/Hauptschul-Direktor-fordert-Polizeischutz.html

Der 70. Jahrestag des „Unternehmen Barbarossa“ in den Medien
http://www.sezession.de/25393/der-70-jahrestag-des-unternehmen-barbarossa-in-den-medien.html

Zur intellektuellen Beherrschbarkeit der Geschichte
http://www.sezession.de/25412/zur-intellektuellen-beherrschbarkeit-der-geschichte.html

Geschichte als Psychogramm
http://www.sezession.de/25417/geschichte-als-psychogramm.html#more-25417

Geschichte in den Medien als „Kultur-Über-Ich“
http://www.sezession.de/25426/geschichte-in-den-medien-als-kultur-uber-ich.html#more-25426

Die Nationalprotestanten: Von der konservativen Staatsbewegung zur bekämpften Minderheit
http://www.blauenarzisse.de/index.php/gesichtet/2638-die-nationalprotestanten-von-der-konservativen-staatsbewegung-zur-bekaempften-minderheit

LINKE / KAMPF GEGEN RECHTS / ANTIFASCHISMUS

Verfassungsschutz kritisiert Akademie für politische Bildung Tutzing
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M536382eab15.0.html

(Verfassungssschutz und „Antifa“ Hand in Hand…)
Black-Metal-Festival mit braunen Schatten
Der Verfassungsschutz prüft nun alle Bands, die Ende Juni beim "Northern Lights"-Festival in Reichenthal auftreten.
http://kurier.at/nachrichten/oberoesterreich/3912381.php

Verfassungsschutz prüft Konzert in Salzburg
http://derstandard.at/1308679411942/Verfassungsschutz-prueft-Konzert-in-Salzburg

Kontroverse schon vor dem Auftritt: Neofolk-Band Blood Axis am 20. August live in Leipziger Theaterfabrik
http://www.l-iz.de/Kultur/Musik/2011/06/Theaterfabrik-Leipzig-Neofolk-Band-Blood-Axis.html

Gehört Geert Wilders in den Knast?
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M5834c959971.0.html

Arbeitsrecht
"Jawohl, mein Führer" reicht nicht für Kündigung
http://www.spiegel.de/karriere/berufsleben/0,1518,766181,00.html

Dürfen Nazis konfirmiert werden?
http://www.kirchentag.de/jetzt-2011/welt-gesellschaft/02-donnerstag/ifu-nazis.html

NPD-Spender auf Google Maps
Hier sitzt das Nazigold
http://www.taz.de/1/netz/netzgeraete/artikel/kommentarseite/1/urlaub-ohne-nazis/kommentare/1/1/
(mal auf die kritischen Leserkommentare achten. Keinesfalls findet eine Mehrheit der taz-Leser diese Aktion offenbar moralisch vertretbar. Nur einige wenige rigorose Antifanten fühlen sich im Recht…)

(Die Partei ist überall…)
Mein Sohn, der Nazi: Wie Schüler in die Fänge der NPD geraten
http://www.stern.de/tv/sterntv/mein-sohn-der-nazi-wie-schueler-in-die-faenge-der-npd-geraten-1697695.html

Berliner Parteien fordern „Kampf gegen Rechts“
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M5ae656e776b.0.html

Braune entern Ueckermünder Hafenfest
http://www.nordkurier.de/index.php?objekt=nk.nachrichten.m-v&id=838787

Grüne Steilvorlage für Linksextreme
„Die Stadt gehört dir!“
http://www.freie-waehler-frankfurt.de/artikel/index.php?id=115

(nun auch „Nazi“-Vorwürfe gegen Hilmar Hoffmann)
Hexenjagd und Erinnerungslücken
http://www.freie-waehler-frankfurt.de/artikel/index.php?id=114

(nichts dazugelernt…)
Die rostige Laterne
Lenin unser aller Lehrer
http://dierostigelaterne.wordpress.com/

Gegenmeinung
http://principiis-obsta.blogspot.com/

(ein paar Jahre alt. Dennoch: So lasse ich mir „Antifa“ gefallen. Na also, geht doch. Bloß sind die Mädels noch gar nicht richtig nackt. Es muss also offenbar noch ein paar mehr NPD-Demos geben, damit sie das Nacktsein besser üben können…)
Scheiß Nazis - Nackt gegen Rechts
Foto vom der Anti-Nazi-"Meile der Demokratie" am 20. August 2005 in Wunsiedel.
http://www.gruene-jugend.de/galerie/jahr2005/917/nackt_gegen_rechts.html

Grüne Zauberlehrlinge
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M54c4f927883.0.html

Antisemitismus-Streit in der Linkspartei: Zentralrat wirft „blindwütigen Israel-Hass“ vor
http://www.blauenarzisse.de/index.php/aktuelles/2616-antisemitismus-streit-in-der-linkspartei

Gröhe wirft „Aktion Linkstrend stoppen“ Geschichtsklitterung vor
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M5155884dcd7.0.html

Madrid erklärt „Bestreiten“ für legal !
"Der Tag, an dem in Madrid die Europäische Revolution für die Menschenrechte in Gang gesetzt wurde"
http://www.globalfire.tv/nj/11de/verfolgungen/beginn_der_menschenrechtsrevolution.htm

Denkmal für Maueropfer Peter Fechter zerstört
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M541f6cfbc42.0.html

Anti-Islam-Demonstration: Linkspartei kritisiert Polizeieinsatz
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M5c29c64b1de.0.html

Prügel für Islamkritiker in Stuttgart und Heilbronn
http://www.sezession.de/25177/prugel-fur-islamkritiker-in-stuttgart-und-heilbronn.html#more-25177
(interessante Diskussion in den Leserkommentaren!)

Polizeieinsatz am 1. Mai kostete über fünf Millionen Euro
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M53cf78aa82c.0.html

(Das Übliche: „Menschen“ demonstrieren gegen „Neonazis“. Was das für „Leute“ waren und wer randaliert hat, bleibt natürlich unerläutert…)
Frankfurt
200 Menschen protestieren gegen Neonazi-Aufmarsch
http://www.bild.de/regional/frankfurt/frankfurt-regional/400-menschen-protestieren-gegen-neonaziaufmarsch-18426086.bild.html

(Früher hieß es „Nazis raus“, heute heißt es „Nazis, bitte nicht wegreisen…“)
Zitat: „Nach dem Aufmarsch hätten Linke versucht, die Abreise von rechten Demonstranten am Ostbahnhof zu verhindern.“
http://www.dnews.de/nachrichten/regional/539052/200-menschen-protestieren-neonazi-aufmarsch.html

Gedenkfeier zum 17. Juni angegriffen
http://www.pi-news.net/2011/06/gedenkfeier-zum-17-juni-angegriffen/#more-197151

Berlin
Linksextreme überfallen NPD-Politiker
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M5d90fa2fec4.0.html

Berlin
Staatsschutz ermittelt nach Messerangriff auf dreifache Mutter
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M5745431739f.0.html

S21-Krawalle: Ermittlungen wegen versuchten Totschlags
http://www.welt.de/newsticker/dpa_nt/infoline_nt/brennpunkte_nt/article13440884/Ermittlungen-wegen-versuchten-Totschlags.html

(In Frankfurt ist die Polizei mal wieder schuld…)
Vorwürfe gegen Polizei
Zündeten Zivilbeamte Böller?
http://www.fr-online.de/frankfurt/zuendeten-zivilbeamte-boeller-/-/1472798/8606756/-/

Demo gegen Innenministerkonferenz
Polizei bestreitet Provokation
http://www.hr-online.de/website/rubriken/nachrichten/indexhessen34938.jsp?rubrik=36082&key=standard_document_41908841

(rot-rot-grün schreit mal wieder auf, um sich für seine Schläger-Klientel einzusetzen…)
Handy-Verbindungsdaten
Sachsens Polizei spähte mehrere Stadtteile aus
http://www.spiegel.de/netzwelt/netzpolitik/0,1518,770473,00.html

Aufklärung über linksextreme Aktivitäten
Umfangreiche Anfrage der FW-Fraktion
http://www.freie-waehler-frankfurt.de/artikel/index.php?id=120

WEF-Demo: Ein Traktor als heimlicher Star
http://diepresse.com/home/wirtschaft/economist/668392/WEFDemo_Ein-Traktor-als-heimlicher-Star?gal=668392&index=1&direct=&_vl_backlink=&popup=#dianav
(sehr gute Bildergalerie zur linken Physiognomik!)

EINWANDERUNG / MULTIKULTURELLE GESELLSCHAFT

deutscheopfer.de – neue Seite, neues Buch
http://www.sezession.de/25487/deutscheopfer-de-neue-seite-neues-buch.html#more-25487

Zweierlei Chaos
http://www.sezession.de/25439/zweierlei-chaos.html#more-25439

Die Totgesagten und die Totsager
http://www.sezession.de/25268/die-totgesagten-und-die-totsager.html#more-25268

Neue Deutsche, alte Loyalitäten
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M50e110f037a.0.html

Jürgen P. Fuß,
Erdogan - ein Meister der Täuschung
http://euro-synergies.hautetfort.com/archive/2011/06/10/j-p-fuss-erdogan-meister-der-tauschung.html

Erklärung des Parteivorstands (der „Linken“) zum Fall Sarrazin
http://www.klaus-ernst-mdb.de/index.php?id=41516&no_cache=1&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=71873&tx_ttnews%5BbackPid%5D=41514

Wowereit dankt Türken für Aufbau Berlins
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M538122920ff.0.html

NRW will Ausländeranteil im öffentlichen Dienst erhöhen
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M52b0a7a46ca.0.html

Böhmer fordert Chancengleichheit für Einwanderer auf dem Wohnungsmarkt
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M597a05c379f.0.html

(Multimillionäre machen auf Einwanderungshelfer…)
Jolie trifft Flüchtlinge auf Lampedusa
http://www.unhcr.de/presse/nachrichten/artikel/e9b57deeabdaa58a1970d697e12fb7b8/-b6eb0fbd6f.html

(Hier wäre ein Modell, bei dem Pitt und Jolie einen aktiven Beitrag leisten könnten. Sie könnten einfach ein paar ihrer Villen abgeben müssen…)
Menschenrechtsaktivist muß Asylanten weichen
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M54e56157e4a.0.html

(Linke für globale Grenzöffnung und dadurch globale Einkommensgleichheit)
Freiheit statt Frontex
Keine Demokratie ohne globale Bewegungsfreiheit
http://kritnet.org/2011/freiheit-statt-frontex/

Frankfurter Polizist ist jetzt Islamist
Bericht: 40-Jähriger fordert Vermummung von Frauen
http://www.heute.de/ZDFheute/inhalt/10/0,3672,8244394,00.html

Grüne will Umfeld der Grauen Wölfe "sensibilisieren"
Die rechtsextremen Grauen Wölfe wollen in Frankfurt ein "Kulturzentrum" bauen. Integrationsdezernentin Eskandari-Grünberg hält Widerstand aber für unangebracht.
http://www.welt.de/politik/deutschland/article13417865/Gruene-will-Umfeld-der-Grauen-Woelfe-sensibilisieren.html

Was wir akzeptieren
http://www.sezession.de/25360/was-wir-akzeptieren.html#more-25360

Offenbach
Schüler mit Messer bedroht
http://www.op-online.de/nachrichten/offenbach/schueler-1282942.html

Ausländergewalt in Berlin: Mann nach Autopanne niedergestochen, Prozeß zu versuchtem Ehrenmord, Antisemitische Beleidigungen
http://www.blauenarzisse.de/index.php/aktuelles/2621-auslaendergewalt-in-berlin-mann-nach-autopanne-niedergestochen-prozess-zu-versuchtem-ehrenmord-antisemitische-beleidigungen

KULTUR / UMWELT / ZEITGEIST / SONSTIGES

(Dieter Stein im Radio)
Warten auf Haider. Die Neue Rechte in Deutschland.
http://www.m945.de/podcasts/audio/warten-auf-haider-die-neue-rechte-in-deutschland-.html

Konservative „Streetart“: Chance zur Eroberung des vorpolitischen Raums?
http://www.blauenarzisse.de/index.php/anstoss/2573-konservative-streetart-chance-zur-eroberung-des-vorpolitischen-raums-oder-illegale-und-nutzlose-sachbeschaedigung

Ufos und Götter für den Endsieg
Die irrlichternden Ideen des Miguel Serrano
http://www.heise.de/tp/artikel/34/34930/1.html

Bonner Wissenschaftlerin analysiert Hitler-Filme
http://www.general-anzeiger-bonn.de/index.php?k=loka&itemid=10003&detailid=880962&bid=1109482

Warum es in der Architektur kaum Originale gibt
Die moderne Architektur beruft sich darauf, voraussetzungslos zu sein. Das ist eine Lüge! Denn Architektur an sich besteht quasi aus Referenzen.
http://www.welt.de/kultur/article13455456/Warum-es-in-der-Architektur-kaum-Originale-gibt.html

Nachkriegsfotografie
Das Narbengesicht Berlins
http://www.zeit.de/kultur/kunst/2011-04/fs-hommage-berlin-hein-gorny-collection-regard

Dämmung vs. Baukultur
http://www.bauwelt.de/cms/debatte.html?id=3087723#.TffTjVuo2Ac

Cool Bricks
Dämmungsalternative
http://www.co2olbricks.eu/

Architektur und Städtebau
Youtube-Kanal von PicturaUrbana1
http://www.youtube.com/user/PicturaUrbana1

(plemm-plemm…)
Hallstatt
Chinesen wollen österreichischen Ort kopieren
http://www.suedkurier.de/news/dpa/starline/leben/Chinesen-wollen-oesterreichischen-Ort-kopieren;art795,4945319

(noch mehr plemm-plemm…)
Dortmund
WestLB-Gebäude bald unter Denkmalschutz?
http://www.ruhrnachrichten.de/lokales/dortmund/lokalnachrichten_dortmund/WestLB-Gebaeude-bald-unter-Denkmalschutz;art930,1319748

Dachverschandelung
Wie(n) hässlich!
http://wienhaesslich.wordpress.com/

Leipzig
Stephan Balkenhol gestaltet Wagner-Denkmal
http://www.focus.de/kultur/diverses/denkmaeler-stephan-balkenhol-gestaltet-wagner-denkmal_aid_636997.html

Verhüllungszwang beim Hessischen Rundfunk
http://www.achgut.com/dadgdx/index.php/dadgd/article/verhuellungszwang_beim_hessischen_rundfunk/

Virtuelles Museum Bombenkrieg
http://www.bombenkrieg.net/

Bildvergleich Königsberg - Kaliningrad
http://www.kng750.kanet.ru/

Königsberg - bald auferstanden aus Ruinen?
Ein Architekt will Kaliningrad originalgetreu aufbauen
http://www.dradio.de/dlf/sendungen/europaheute/1485845/

Unesco-Welterbe Mont-Saint-Michel
Kampf gegen Windräder
http://www.spiegel.de/reise/europa/0,1518,744212,00.html

Berliner Historische Mitte e.V.
Förderverein zur Wiedergewinnung des alten Stadtkerns
http://www.berliner-historische-mitte.de/

Humboldt-Box: Berlins neues Monster
http://www.stern.de/kultur/kunst/humboldt-box-berlins-neues-monster-1700714.html

Umwelt & Aktiv
http://www.umweltundaktiv-versand.de/pi-733123364.htm?categoryId=0

Zum 70. Todestag von Wilhelm II. in Doorn: Die Holländer ehren „ihren Kaiser“ besser als die Deutschen
http://www.blauenarzisse.de/index.php/gesichtet/2578-zum-70-todestag-von-wilhelm-ii-in-doorn-die-hollaender-ehren-ihren-kaiser-besser-als-die-deutschen

Geheimakte Rudolf Hess - Die Wahrheit (Video)
http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-3819865090288319263#

Hannelore Kohl
Sehnsucht nach dem Ende
http://www.spiegel.de/spiegel/0,1518,767938,00.html

Lasst uns den 4. Juni vergessen
Von Ai Weiwei
http://www.perlentaucher.de/blog/208_lasst_uns_den_4._juni_vergessen

Sexuelle Freizügigkeit versus Verlust der Freiheit
http://www.welt.de/debatte/kommentare/article13407118/Sexuelle-Freizuegigkeit-versus-Verlust-der-Freiheit.html

Rollenbilder
Deutsche Frauen sind ultimative Superfrauen
http://www.welt.de/debatte/article13427171/Deutsche-Frauen-sind-ultimative-Superfrauen.html?fb_ref=artikelende&fb_source=home_oneline

Kolumne über Alles und Nichts: Frauenfußball. Oder: Warum ich kein alkoholfreies Bier trinke
http://www.blauenarzisse.de/index.php/anstoss/2603-kolumne-ueber-alles-und-nichts-frauenfussball-oder-warum-ich-kein-alkoholfreies-bier-trinke

Gesten, die der Kampf gebiert
http://www.welt.de/print/die_welt/kultur/article13449459/Gesten-die-der-Kampf-gebiert.html

Jeder dritte Schüler im Netz gemobbt
Jugendliche werden aus Rache und Spaß zu Tätern
http://www.welt.de/print/die_welt/vermischtes/article13420889/Jeder-dritte-Schueler-im-Netz-gemobbt.html

Gesichtserkennung
Wie Facebook die Gesichter seiner Nutzer scannt
http://www.derwesten.de/nachrichten/technik/Wie-Facebook-die-Gesichter-seiner-Nutzer-scannt-id4745486.html

Facebook-Partys: Alle dürfen kommen
http://www.swp.de/ulm/nachrichten/vermischtes/Facebook-Partys-Alle-duerfen-kommen;art1159092,1000729

(Zitat: „…viele kommen aus linken Bewegungen…“)
Gespräch über Hacker
"Computer schaffen eine bessere Welt"
http://www.tagesspiegel.de/medien/computer-schaffen-eine-bessere-welt/4053350.html

(etwas älter zur Diskursgesellschaft)
Was ist Wahrheit?
http://archiv.kath.de/index.php?id=187&tx_ttnews%5Btt_news%5D=2329×tamp=1265036820&cHash=c33ab14d81

Die Sehnsucht nach Immateriellem
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M5f48602d6cf.0.html

Die Kunst der Herrschaft
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M5914b84e4c6.0.html

1971: Hippie-Festival Glastonbury
Open Air und oben ohne
http://einestages.spiegel.de/static/topicalbumbackground/22907/open_air_und_oben_ohne.html

US-Wahlkampf: Kandidatin nennt Mörder als Vorbild
http://www.welt.de/print/welt_kompakt/print_politik/article13456468/US-Wahlkampf-Kandidatin-nennt-Moerder-als-Vorbild.html

USA
160 Jahre zu spät begnadigt
http://www.focus.de/panorama/vermischtes/usa-160-jahre-zu-spaet-begnadigt-_aid_641349.html

„The Tree of Life“ von Terrence Malick: Ein Film über die Wurzeln des Lebens
http://www.blauenarzisse.de/index.php/rezension/2593-the-tree-of-life-von-terrence-malick-ein-film-ueber-die-wurzeln-des-lebens

--

vendredi, 08 juillet 2011

Das Nationale

08.jpg

Das Nationale

Vor bald drei Jahrzehnten erhielt ich von Querdenker Günther Nenning, nachdem ich ihm den von mir damals herausgegebenen “Nationalrevolutionär” sowie die von “Sache des Volkes” (München/Berlin) publizierte “Neue Zeit” zugesandt hatte, folgende Zeilen: “Lieber Herr, schon lang las ich nichts so Interessantes wie Ihre mir zugesandten Blätter! Reden wir einmal?”  Was dann auch geschah.                                                                                                                                                                                Günther Nenning war nicht der einzige Systemkritiker, der den nationalrevolutionären Ideen und Programmanstößen dieser Zeit einige Sympathien abgewinnen konnte. Auch von einigen systemkritischen Bundesdeutschen  wie Rudi Dutschke, denen die deutsche Nation noch ein Anliegen zu sein schien,  kamen zustimmende Kommentare.                        

In intellektueller und politischer Hinsicht war das Nationalvolutionäre wohl der einzige ernstzunehmende Versuch von “rechts” nicht nur die Hegemonie der 68er-Ideologie  zu gefährden, sondern auch gleich das System selbst. Wie sich später herausstellen sollte, waren ja die meisten Linken wie auch ihre reaktionäre rechte Gegnerschaft  die verläßlichsten Systemerhalter, und sind es bis heute geblieben.

Die damals propagierte Nationalrevolution ist vorerst Geschichte, die Nation aber ist geblieben und steht wie eh und je im Kreuzfeuer der gleichen Gegner. Und wie damals sind es wieder, eher denn bürgerliche Rechte, in einem nationalen Sinne denkende Linke  wie der ehemalige französische Minister J. P. Chévènement oder Venezuelas Chavez, die das Existenzrecht der Nation befürworten und sie auch verteidigen. In gewisser Weise zählt auch Gadaffi dazu.                                                                                                                         

Gehen auch die französische und die venezolanische Nation nicht wie die deutsche auf das Abstammungsprinzip zurück, so verbindet man selbstverständlich da wie dort mit dem Nationalgefühl die “Sehnsucht nach Heimat und Wurzeln”, wie es Günther Nenning genannt hätte. Heißt aber auch:  nationale Souveränität, nationale Identität und Kultur als Gegengewicht zur Globalisierung.

Die Nationalrevolutionäre der 70er und 80er Jahre des vorigen Jahrhunderts hatten keineswegs einen übersteigerten, gar rassistischen Nationalismus im Kopf, sondern ganz im Sinne Herders, die Wertschätzung der eigenen Kultur wie auch die der anderen Völker, nicht zuletzt, bei Ablehnung  totalitärer Systeme, eine Gesellschaftsordnung des eigenen nationalrevolutionären Weges, also jenseits von links und rechts.                                           

In ihrer Nation hatten besonders die Deutschen als “Volk aus Völkern” (F.W. Schelling) jenen Entfaltungsraum  gefunden, der ihnen jetzt  nach und nach entrissen werden soll. Zum Schaden nicht nur des deutschen Volkes.                                                                               

Wenn nun aber das Nationale aus berechtigten anthropologischen, historischen, philosophischen und anderen Gründen weiter  konstitutives Element eines Staates oder eines Volkes bleiben soll, dann wäre es an der Zeit, ihm wieder vermehrt Aufmerksamkeit zu schenken. Einen europäischen Nationalgeist hingegen wird es – vor allem nach der Abdankung des Christentums – so lange nicht geben, so lange wirtschaftliche Grundlagen die  einzigen Sinngeber bleiben..                                                                                                   

Schon Jean Monnet, den Schöpfer eines neuen Europa, dämmerte alsbald danach,: “Wäre das noch einmal zu machen, würde ich bei der Kultur beginnen” .Und die gibt es ohne das Nationale nicht.

vendredi, 03 juin 2011

Urkultur 15: Moeller van den Bruck, conservadurismo revolucionario

URKULTUR Nº 15. MOELLER VAN DEN BRUCK: CONSERVADURISMO REVOLUCIONARIO

Ex: http://urkultur-imperium-europa.blogspot.com/ 

 

URKULTUR Nº 15.

MOELLER VAN DEN BRUCK:
CONSERVADURISMO REVOLUCIONARIO.

REVISTA ELECTRÓNICA:
Enlace con issuu.com

SUMARIO.

Editorial.
Arthur Moeller van den Bruck y la Nouvelle Droite
Sebastian J. Lorenz

Moeller van den Bruck: un rebelde conservador
Luca Leonello Rimbotti

Moeller van den Bruck: ¿un “precursor póstumo”?
Denis Goedel

Moeller y Dostoievski
Robert Steuckers

Moeller y la Kulturpessimismus de Weimar
Ferran Gallego

Moeller y los Jungkonservativen
Erik Norling

Moeller y Spengler
Ernesto Milá

Moeller y la Konservative Revolution
Keith Bullivant

Moeller van den Bruck
Alain de Benoist
 

jeudi, 02 juin 2011

Presseschau - Juni 2011 (1)

readingpaper.jpg

Presseschau

Juni 2011 (1)

Hallo,
einige Links. Bei Interesse anklicken...

###

AUßENPOLITISCHES

Bin Ladens Tod
Obama verfolgte "Geronimos" letztes Gefecht live
http://www.spiegel.de/politik/ausland/0,1518,760259,00.html

USA
In Europe, troops express relief, joy over bin Laden's death
http://www.stripes.com/news/special-reports/osama-bin-laden-1957-2011/in-europe-troops-express-relief-joy-over-bin-laden-s-death-1.142464

Eine Botschaft, die nichts sagt
Die arabischen Revolutionen haben Osama Bin Laden schon überflüssig gemacht, bevor er starb.
http://www.welt.de/print/die_welt/kultur/article13325771/Eine-Botschaft-die-nichts-sagt.html

Der Mythos von Abbottabad
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M509de013ded.0.html

Terrorismus-Experte
"Heute ähnelt al-Qaida den Nazis nach Hitlers Tod"
http://www.welt.de/politik/ausland/article13389331/Heute-aehnelt-al-Qaida-den-Nazis-nach-Hitlers-Tod.html

(Zu Merkel, Bin Laden und Pierre Vogel…)
Schmaler Spalt durch die Tabuzone
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M5cba7a5c29e.0.html

Der Fall Strauss-Kahn: In dubio pro reo
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M50decd21595.0.html

Aus Feinden wurden Freunde - Wiesbaden verabschiedet US-Panzerdivision
http://www.wiesbadener-kurier.de/10736789.htm

Farewell der Old Ironsides
1. US-Panzerdivision nimmt nach 40 Jahren Abschied von Deutschland - Bouffier und Wiesbadener OB Müller würdigen historische Rolle
http://www.nh24.de/index.php/vermischtes/22-allgemein/45157-1-us-panzerdivision-nimmt-nach-40-jahren-abschied-von-deutschland-

USA
Army to transfer just one brigade from Germany to States
http://www.stripes.com/news/europe/germany/army-to-transfer-just-one-brigade-from-germany-to-states-1.140571

Abzug statt Aufrüstung – Anstrengungen für die zivile Umnutzung der US-Militärbasen in Bayern
http://www.die-linke-bayern.de/politik/presse/detail/zurueck/meldungen/artikel/abzug-statt-aufruestung-anstrengungen-fuer-die-zivile-umnutzung-der-us-militaerbasen-in-bayern/

Verbotspolitik vertieft Spaniens Krise
Stürzt die Regierung Zapatero über den Bannspruch gegen baskische Parteien?
http://www.neues-deutschland.de/artikel/196791.verbotspolitik-vertieft-spaniens-krise.html

(naive Gutmenschen, die meinen durch Rückzug des Staates und einen „Friedenspakt“ die Macht der brutalen Drogenkartelle eindämmen zu können)
Gewalt in Mexiko: Über 100.000 demonstrieren gegen Drogenkrieg
http://www.stern.de/panorama/gewalt-in-mexiko-ueber-100000-demonstrieren-gegen-drogenkrieg-1683025.html

Zehntausende protestieren gegen Drogengewalt und Regierungskorruption
http://www.tagesspiegel.de/politik/zehntausende-protestieren-gegen-drogengewalt-und-regierungskorruption/4150138.html

(In der „Welt“ sind es schon fast 20.000 weniger Demonstranten…)
Schweigemarsch
85.000 Mexikaner demonstrieren gegen Drogenkrieg
http://www.welt.de/vermischtes/article13360268/85-000-Mexikaner-demonstrieren-gegen-Drogenkrieg.html

In Ägypten brennen wieder die Kirchen
http://www.welt.de/print/die_welt/politik/article13360519/In-Aegypten-brennen-wieder-die-Kirchen.html

(Archaische Sitten)
Iran
Blendung abgesagt
Säureopfer fühlt sich vom Iran um die Rache betrogen
http://www.welt.de/vermischtes/weltgeschehen/article13372046/Saeureopfer-fuehlt-sich-vom-Iran-um-die-Rache-betrogen.html

"Auge-um-Auge"-Vergeltung im Iran verschoben
http://www.op-online.de/nachrichten/welt/auge-um-auge-vergeltung-iran-verschoben-1243664.html

(Dekadente, kranke Sitten)
USA
Mutter spritzt ihrer achtjährigen Tochter Botox
http://www.welt.de/vermischtes/article13371190/Mutter-spritzt-ihrer-achtjaehrigen-Tochter-Botox.html

(naiv, oder?)
Proteste in Spanien
Handbuch der Überrumpelung
http://www.faz.net/artikel/C30351/proteste-in-spanien-handbuch-der-ueberrumpelung-30344906.html

Der Sparer Salazar
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M55cbef142d3.0.html

Euro
Rettungsschirm funktioniert nicht mehr
http://www.nordkurier.de/index.php?objekt=nk.nachrichten.m-v&id=818344

(besser doch: Ein Sozi warnt, oder?...)
Europarat warnt vor fremdenfeindlichen Parteien
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M5dec2d6e924.0.html

(Ein Kommentar…)
Grenzen müssen offen bleiben
http://www.augsburger-allgemeine.de/meinung/Kommentare/Grenzen-muessen-offen-bleiben-id15063956.html

(Ein Gegenkommentar…)
Swahili ist nicht Europäisch
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M528feee6725.0.html

Hollandisiert die Schweiz?
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M564727eb50b.0.html

KriegsendeRussland feiert Jahrestag mit großer Parade
http://www.focus.de/politik/ausland/kriegsende-russland-feiert-jahrestag-mit-grosser-parade_aid_625644.html

Südafrika
Alles läuft rückwärts
http://www.berlinonline.de/berliner-zeitung/archiv/.bin/dump.fcgi/2011/0518/horizonte/0002/index.html

Südafrika – das „Wunder“ am Kap
http://www.sezession.de/24839/sudafrika-das-wunder-am-kap.html

(Extrem: Gaddafi hatte fliegende Kampfboote! Schließlich geht es um den Schutz der Flugverbotszone…)
Nato versenkt Gaddafis Schiffe
http://www.welt.de/print/die_welt/politik/article13385218/Nato-versenkt-Gaddafis-Schiffe.html

(Zu Libyen)
Das Janusgesicht westlicher Moral
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M5cceead73ee.0.html

Syriens Präsident darf nicht mehr in die EU reisen
http://www.morgenpost.de/printarchiv/politik/article1649762/Syriens-Praesident-darf-nicht-mehr-in-die-EU-reisen.html

Berlusconi macht Anti-Zigeuner-Wahlkampf
http://www.zeit.de/politik/ausland/2011-05/berlusconi-mailand-zigeuner

INNENPOLITISCHES / GESELLSCHAFT / VERGANGENHEITSPOLITIK

SPD hat erstmals seit 100 Jahren weniger als 500.000 Mitglieder
http://www.derwesten.de/nachrichten/SPD-hat-erstmals-seit-100-Jahren-weniger-als-500-000-Mitglieder-id4701255.html

SPD umwirbt alte SED-Mitglieder
http://www.mz-web.de/servlet/ContentServer?pagename=ksta/page&atype=ksArtikel&aid=1306320802124&openMenu=1013083806188&calledPageId=1013083806188&listid=1018881578522

Jugendgewalt: Typische Szenen in U-Bahnen, vor Diskotheken und auf dem Fußballplatz
http://www.blauenarzisse.de/index.php/gesichtet/2495-jugendgewalt-typische-szenen-in-u-bahnen-vor-diskotheken-und-auf-dem-fussballplatz

Reichstag hißt dauerhaft Europafahne
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M579c0122c65.0.html

Die wahren Herren im Reichstag: Bundestag entfernt die Nationalfarben für EU-Flagge
http://www.blauenarzisse.de/index.php/gesichtet/2517-die-wahren-herren-im-reichstag-bundestag-entfernt-die-nationalfarben-fuer-eu-flagge

(Vorgabe der Internationalen Energiebehörde. Planwirtschaft lässt grüßen…)
Luxemburg
Ausbau des Tanklagers sorgt für Irritationen
http://www.volksfreund.de/nachrichten/region/konz/aktuell/Heute-in-der-Konzer-Zeitung-Ausbau-des-Tanklagers-sorgt-fuer-Irritationen;art8100,2768157

Evangelischer Kirchenpräsident:
Tanzverbot unnötig
http://www.welt.de/print/welt_kompakt/vermischtes/article13369242/Tanzverbot-unnoetig.html

Die neuen Heimatvertriebenen
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M539846af25c.0.html

CDU fordert Überprüfung kommunistischer Straßennamen
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M54c4fd00869.0.html

(„Grüne“ freuen sich…)
Gericht verurteilt Demjanjuk zu fünf Jahren Haft
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M59f914794fe.0.html

Nazi-Täter Demjanjuk lebt jetzt im Oberland
http://newsticker.sueddeutsche.de/list/id/1157888

Unternehmen Barbarossa: Kellerhoffs Präventivschlag in der „Welt“
http://www.sezession.de/24830/unternehmen-barbarossa-kellerhoffs-praventivschlag-in-der-welt.html

Zum 100. Geburtstag: Buch zerstört Mythos Luise Rinser
http://www.fnp.de/fnp/nachrichten/kultur/zum-100-geburtstag-buch-zerstoert-mythos-luise-rinser_rmn01.c.8860517.de.html

Schlussstrich und Zeitgeist
(Der Leiter des Dresdner Hannah-Arendt-Instituts für Totalitarismusforschung, das einst dazu gegründet worden war, DDR-Geschichte aufzuarbeiten, ist nun nach Jahren der vorsichtigen "Ausgewogenheit" gegenüber den verschiedenen Totalitarismen völlig auf Zeitgeist umgeschwenkt.
Zitat:
"Heydemann: Ja, bisher galten zwei Drittel unserer Arbeit der DDR. Nun hat sich aber in der Forschung eine gewisse Sättigung eingestellt: Die Strukturen der SED-Herrschaft liegen weitgehend offen, auch in der Alltags- und Sozialgeschichte sehe ich kaum noch Lücken. Was bringt uns etwa eine Dissertation zum Widerstand der Friseurzunft in Schwerin?
ZEIT: Welchen Schwerpunkt setzen Sie nun?
Heydemann: Ohne die DDR-Forschung komplett aufzugeben, habe ich einen Richtungswechsel veranlasst – hin zur NS-Geschichte. In den neuen Ländern ist vieles unerforscht, denn vor 1989 war hier die Historiografie der SED auf Randaspekte der nationalsozialistischen Herrschaft fixiert; und danach hatte die DDR-»Aufarbeitung« Vorrang, vor allem rund um das Reizthema Stasi. Nun haben wir also einen neuen Schwerpunkt gebildet: Nationalsozialismus in Sachsen. Erstmals wird in einem Ost-Bundesland die NS-Geschichte von Grund auf erforscht.")
http://www.zeit.de/2011/18/S-Heydemann

(„Die Linke“ in Hessen versucht in alter taktischer Manier von sich abzulenken, indem die nächste Baustelle der „Vergangenheitsbewältigung“ ausgehoben werden soll…)
Nationalsozialisten
Ein brauner Schatten über dem Landtag
http://www.faz.net/s/Rub5785324EF29440359B02AF69CB1BB8CC/Doc~ED91B527876964F97AFE4FD756D251227~ATpl~Ecommon~Scontent.html

Aufarbeitung der NS-Vergangenheit
Landtag soll Verdrängen beenden
http://www.fr-online.de/rhein-main/landtag-soll-verdraengen-beenden/-/1472796/8412814/-/

Literatur: Listen der von den Nazis geraubten Bücher im Internet
http://www.morgenpost.de/printarchiv/kultur/article1653537/Literatur-Listen-der-von-den-Nazis-geraubten-Buecher-im-Internet.html

(Resultat: Geschichtsvergessenheit)
Westerwelle gedenkt Eroberern Königsberg
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M597e7f687dd.0.html
(für die nach der Eroberung Verhungerten, Vergewaltigten und Ermordeten hat er offenbar keinen Kranz über…)

(Wieder mal ein Narrenstück aus dem BRD-Tollhaus…)
Keltenmuseum Glauberg
Wachmann leugnete Holocaust
http://www.welt.de/print/welt_kompakt/frankfurt/article13366840/Wachmann-leugnete-Holocaust.html
Neonazis im Keltenmuseum
Holocaust-Leugnung im Museum
http://www.fr-online.de/rhein-main/holocaust-leugnung-im-museum/-/1472796/8435906/-/
Neonazi-Skandal. Frau Ministerin, wie konnte DAS passieren?
http://www.bild.de/regional/frankfurt/neofaschismus/ministerin-eva-kuehne-hoermann-17770630.bild.html

Glauberg-NPD-Skandal: „Das kann uns die Existenz kosten”
Gedener Sicherheitsfirma verärgert über Land Hessen – Warnung vor Bauernopfer
http://weilburger-nachrichten.de/2011/05/20/glauberg-npd-skandal-das-kann-uns-die-existenz-kosten-gedener-sicherheitsfirma-veraergert-ueber-land-hessen-warnung-vor-bauernopfer/

Glauberg
Nach Wachmänner-Skandal neue Leitung im Keltenmuseum
http://www.faz.net/s/Rub8D05117E1AC946F5BB438374CCC294CC/Doc~ED8C879D19743489F9E7A043258594473~ATpl~Ecommon~Scontent.html

(Ein Fall von 2008 aus der Museumspädagogik, bislang noch kaum publizistisch beachtet…)
Der Fall Ulfhednar und die Folgen
http://chronico.de/erleben/menschenorte/0000489/

Dies führte zur Aachener Erklärung des „Living History network“
http://www.living-history-network.de/index.html
http://www.living-history-network.de/html/hintergrund.html

Schöner Spruch:
“Historische Korrektheit schulden wir allen - unseren Vorfahren als auch unseren Nachkommen, damit unser Kulturerbe nicht verloren geht”
Projekt Mittelalter
http://www.dammer.info/html/uber_uns.html

LINKE / KAMPF GEGEN RECHTS / ANTIFASCHISMUS

10 Jahre „Online-Enzyklopädie“ Wikipedia
Kein Grund zum Feiern!
http://www.buerger-in-wut.de/cms/?d=blog&s=91

Danquarts Porträt über Joschka Fischer
Von betonter Distanz
http://www.taz.de/1/leben/medien/artikel/1/von-betonter-distanz/

Kleine Reihe zu den größten Fehlern der Konservativen: (I) Die Feigheit. Oder: Was spricht für den konfrontativen Weg?
http://www.blauenarzisse.de/index.php/anstoss/2562-kleine-reihe-zu-den-groessten-fehlern-der-konservativen-i-die-feigheit-oder-was-spricht-fuer-den-konfrontativen-weg

(Immerhin lassen die Linksparteien doch ihre Masken fallen. Es ist ihnen also bewusst und völlig egal, dass sie Leuten Geldern geben die erklärte Verfassungsfeinde sind, solange diese die Schmutzarbeit erledigen helfen…)
Berliner Senat will gegen Extremismusklausel vorgehen
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M51cfc4b872e.0.html

Polizei stellt Strafanzeige gegen Abgeordnete der Linkspartei
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M544abffe853.0.html

Jelpke wirft Bundesregierung Verharmlosung rechtsextremer Gewalt vor
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M5b8a52a0359.0.html

Der einsame, kurze Marsch der rassistischen „Bürgerbewegung Pro NRW“ in Köln
http://www.scharf-links.de/46.0.html?&tx_ttnews[tt_news]=16171&tx_ttnews[backPid]=3&cHash=45af9e1f9a

Ausschreitungen in Köln bleiben aus
2000 Bürger stellen sich 300 "Pro NRW-lern" in den Weg
http://www.rp-online.de/panorama/deutschland/2000-Buerger-stellen-sich-300-Pro-NRW-lern-in-den-Weg_aid_995506.html

(Jetzt bilden bereits 2000 teils zugereiste Antifanten eine ganze Stadt, nämlich „Köln“…)
Köln stellt sich gegen Rechts
http://www.ksta.de/html/artikel/1304632873815.shtml

Porträt Judith Wolter, Fraktionschefin Pro Köln
„Wir sind gegen Überfremdung“
http://www.tagesspiegel.de/meinung/wir-sind-gegen-ueberfremdung/4145260.html

Videos von „Autonomen Nationalisten“…
Rise up Autonomous Nationalists
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WGD3m9o5jnM&feature=watch_response_rev
We are United
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=haET3lJZQkQ&feature=related
Autonome Nationalisten Tribute
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YjCedaRNxTA&feature=mfu_in_order&list=UL
Aktionsvideo der AN-OS
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Ms90gsdR_M&feature=related

SOR-SMC -  Farbenblind - Song gegen Rassismus
http://www.schule-ohne-rassismus.org/songgegenrassismus.98.html

(na also, es passt zusammen, was zusammengehören soll…)
Kannibale Jan O.: Kontakt zur rechten Szene
http://www.op-online.de/nachrichten/deutschland/kannibale-okontakte-rechten-szene-zr-1239353.html

Augsteins Freitag
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M545e7ff0fa6.0.html

Bücherfest UmGeblättert – Ausladung in Magdeburg
http://www.sezession.de/24541/bucherfest-umgeblattert-ausladung-in-magdeburg.html

Waren/Müritz
Geplanter Filmabend wurde zum Flop
http://www.npd-mv.de/index.php?com=news&view=article&id=2329&mid=7

NPD-Parteitag: Stadt Northeim muß Bußgeld zahlen
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M5d3fdd66cb8.0.html

BAG: NPD-Engagement ist auch im öffentlichen Dienst nicht ohne weiteres ein Kündigungsgrund
http://blog.beck.de/2011/05/13/bag-npd-engagement-ist-auch-im-oeffentlichen-dienst-nicht-ohne-weiteres-ein-kuendigungsgrund

NPD muss 2,5 Millionen Euro Strafe an Bundestag zahlen
http://www.morgenpost.de/printarchiv/politik/article1649750/NPD-muss-2-5-Millionen-Euro-Strafe-an-Bundestag-zahlen.html

Der sympathische Anarchist Max L. und das allseitig wirksame Entertainment
http://www.sezession.de/24553/der-sympathische-anarchist-max-l-und-das-allseitig-wirksame-entertainment.html#more-24553

Autobrandstiftungen als Mutprobe
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M539fe12933f.0.html

Anschlag auf Berliner S-Bahn
Polizei hält Bekennerschreiben für authentisch
http://www.focus.de/panorama/vermischtes/anschlag-auf-berliner-s-bahn-polizei-haelt-bekennerschreiben-fuer-authentisch_aid_630328.html

Walpurgisnacht: Punker greifen Schwangere an
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M5d2374881a0.0.html

Frankfurt: Polizei findet Spreng- und Brandsätze bei Linksextremisten
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M55e22202c66.0.html
http://www.hr-online.de/website/rubriken/nachrichten/indexhessen34938.jsp?rubrik=36082&key=standard_document_41624451

(altkommunistisch oder bloß russlandapologetisch?)
http://derunbequeme.blogspot.com/

EINWANDERUNG / MULTIKULTURELLE GESELLSCHAFT

Dschihad-Slapstick und Alarmismus
http://www.sezession.de/24628/dschihad-slapstick-und-alarmismus.html#more-24628

Der Bürgerkrieg von Athen
http://www.sezession.de/24766/der-burgerkrieg-von-athen.html#more-24766

Migrationsdebatte
Bayerns SPD-Chef – Sarrazin "nicht mehr ganz dicht"
http://www.welt.de/politik/deutschland/article13341099/Bayerns-SPD-Chef-Sarrazin-nicht-mehr-ganz-dicht.html

Umstrittene Lesung Sarrazin macht sich selbst zum SPD-Partisan
http://www.derwesten.de/staedte/ostvest/Sarrazin-macht-sich-selbst-zum-SPD-Partisan-id4610872.html

(auf gutem Weg in die Diktatur…)
Bundesintegrationsrat fordert Ausweitung des Volksverhetzungsparagraphen
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M52adcb2799a.0.html

Wir machen uns ein neues Volk - Teil II
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M5cf61af0f38.0.html

Statistisches Bundesamt
Mehr Zuwanderer kommen nach Deutschland
http://www.deutsche-handwerks-zeitung.de/news/News-Mehr-Zuwanderer-kommen-nach-Deutschland_6217041.html

FPÖ-Europaabgeordneter Obermayr: EU-Parlament beschließt völlig abstruse Schutzbestimmungen für Asylwerber!
http://www.ots.at/presseaussendung/OTS_20110407_OTS0172/fpoe-europaabgeordneter-obermayr-eu-parlament-beschliesst-voellig-abstruse-schutzbestimmungen-fuer-asylwerber

SPD-Migrantenquote
Spitze des Fortschritts, ganz dicht am Abgrund
http://www.faz.net/s/Rub594835B672714A1DB1A121534F010EE1/Doc~EFAE7313CDFAB4034A487334D86C1537A~ATpl~Ecommon~Scontent.html

SPD Aachen beschließt Migrantenquote von 20 Prozent
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M544d2893a2a.0.html

Grüne kritisieren mehrsprachige Hinweisschilder in Duisburg
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M5f391a4c924.0.html

Jugendgewalt im „Spiegel“ – Analyse einer Vertuschung (Teil 1)
http://www.sezession.de/24592/jugendgewalt-im-spiegel-analyse-einer-vertuschung-teil-1.html

Fälle verschweigen, Fälle beschönigen – „Spiegel“-Analyse (Teil 2)
http://www.sezession.de/24604/falle-verschweigen-falle-beschonigen-spiegel-analyse-teil-2.html

Das Interview mit Dieter Graumann
„Der Islam ist heute ein wichtiger Teil von Deutschland“
http://www.bild.de/politik/2011/juden/islam-ist-wichtiger-bestandteil-von-deutschland-16759218.bild.html

»Bürgerliche Sarrazin-Gemeinde wähnt sich geistig enteignet«
Gespräch u Mit Patrick Bahners. Über eine paranoide Islamkritik, die Arbeitsweise einer Zeitungsredaktion und die Überzeugungen eines Konservativen
http://www.jungewelt.de/2011/05-07/001.php

Satire:
Umfrage zum Integrationstest (was nicht gesendet wurde)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vcAN-Efb57I

(gaga. Man dachte erst an einen verspäteten April-Scherz…)
Würzburg hißt Halbmond
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M5ef5975aa41.0.html

Würzburg reduziert türkische Fahnen
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M5d1a524741e.0.html

Regierungsfraktionen fordern mehr Engangement für Zigeuner
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M515790a0bc7.0.html

Mal wieder ein Tag der Kapitulation
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M5a6799bd667.0.html

Leben im westdeutschen Problemviertel
Wie zählt man Türken in Bonn?
Bad Godesberg galt als Vorzeigeviertel in Bonn - und erlebt derzeit eine umgekehrte Gentrifizierung. Einwohner wie Samir könnten davon einen Track rappen.
http://www.taz.de/1/leben/alltag/artikel/1/wie-zaehlt-man-tuerken-in-bonn/
(Die Leserkommentare sind bei der taz natürlich deutlich eher auf „bunt“ eingestellt…)

Frankfurt verbietet Totengebet für Bin Laden
http://www.op-online.de/nachrichten/frankfurt-rhein-main/totengebet-binladen-frankfurt-1229789.html

(Das zunehmende Problem der unteren Fußballligen...)
Amateurverein muß nach Rassismusverdacht Kreisliga verlassen
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M5d0a257e424.0.html

Essen: Neue Einheit soll Gewalt libanesischer Jugendlicher eindämmen
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M516c59e9396.0.html

(Etwas älter, aber dennoch aktuell..)
Der Verbrecher-Clan Miri steigt bei der Rockerbande Mongols ein
Neue Achse des Bösen in Bremen
Drogengeschäfte sollen ausgebaut werden
http://www.bild.de/regional/bremen/bremen-regional/verbrecher-caln-miri-baut-drogen-geschaefte-mit-rockerbande-mongols-aus-14346982.bild.html

Ausschreitungen bei Kurden-Versammlung in Ludwigshafen
(Im „Trierischen Volkfsfreund“ erfährt der Leser mal wieder nichts zu den Hintergründen. Es ist nur von „zwei Gruppen Jugendlicher“ die Rede…)
http://www.volksfreund.de/nachrichten/region/rheinlandpfalz/rheinland/Rheinland-Pfalz-und-Saarland-Ausschreitungen-bei-Kurden-Versammlung-in-Ludwigshafen;art158726,2789596
(Immerhin die SWR-Nachrichten geben die Information heraus, worum es ging…)
http://www.swr.de/nachrichten/rp/-/id=1682/did=8072482/pv=video/nid=1682/h4qg92/

Brauner Mob "Scheiß Ausländer!" Dann prügeln sie los
http://www.abendzeitung-muenchen.de/inhalt.brauner-mob-scheiss-auslaender-dann-pruegeln-sie-los.1a4de020-c430-47f2-ae4c-1256864fe3d2.html

Zwei Tote bei Bandenkrieg in Antwerpen
http://www.kleinezeitung.at/nachrichten/chronik/2733433/zwei-tote-bei-bandenkrieg-antwerpen.story

Hanau-Großauheim
Geldbörse geraubt
http://www.osthessen-news.de/beitrag_A.php?id=1197390

(In der „Frankfurter Rundschau“ ist der Täter mal wieder nur  ein „Mann“…)
Hanau
Taxifahrer ausgeraubt
http://www.fr-online.de/rhein-main/hanau/taxifahrer-ausgeraubt/-/1472866/8424360/-/

(…doch hier wird die Herkunft dem Leser verraten…)
Taxifahrer ausgeraubt
http://www.osthessen-news.de/beitrag_A.php?id=1197490

Mann mit roter College-Jacke gesucht - Offenbach
http://www.presseportal.de/polizeipresse/pm/43561/2040682/polizeipraesidium_suedosthessen_offenbach

Ausländerkriminalität: Neue Alltagsfälle aus Aachen, Krefeld, Offenbach und Mainz
http://www.blauenarzisse.de/index.php/aktuelles/2535-auslaenderkriminalitaet-neue-alltagsfaelle-aus-aachen-krefeld-offenbach-und-mainz

Messerstecherei in Wiesbaden: Opfer außer Lebensgefahr - von Tätern keine Spur
http://www.wiesbadener-tagblatt.de/nachrichten/polizei/10771380.htm

(Genaue Täterangaben werden in allen Medien verschwiegen…)
Gewaltattacke löst Entsetzen in Kiel aus
Jugendliche schlagen mit Eisenkette auf Flaschensammler ein. Zwei der Täter in Haft
http://www.abendblatt.de/region/norddeutschland/article1898662/Gewaltattacke-loest-Entsetzen-in-Kiel-aus.html

Türkische Hochzeitsgäste attackieren Polizei
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M5bf0643cd9d.0.html

KULTUR / UMWELT / ZEITGEIST / SONSTIGES

Frankfurter Altstadt
Was ist zeitgemäßes Bauen?
Eine Antwort von Hans Kollhoff
http://www.faz.net/s/Rub117C535CDF414415BB243B181B8B60AE/Doc~E60CFCD0D488B4105BD8B5145F890B62B~ATpl~Ecommon~Scontent.html

Stadtplanung
Umbaute Leere in Berlins Mitte
http://www.tagesspiegel.de/berlin/umbaute-leere-in-berlins-mitte/4043614.html

Wohntrends
Marketingschlager Stadthaus
http://www.faz.net/s/Rub8E0FC0CD826A4ACA80504FD9153A70F2/Doc~E2A4D63C2FB734D3797BD39155BDF63F3~ATpl~Ecommon~Scontent.html

Spendenaktion
Der schiefe Turm von Bad Frankenhausen
http://der-schiefe-turm.de/

Supermarkt statt Barock-Denkmal
In Altenburg soll ein Teil der historischen Substanz für Neubauten weichen
http://www.dradio.de/dkultur/sendungen/fazit/1467995/
http://www.mdr.de/thueringen/ost-thueringen/8646915.html

(Kirchensterben…)
Wettringen
St. Josefshaus
Kapelle steht vor dem Abriss
http://www.muensterschezeitung.de/lokales/wettringen/Kapelle-steht-vor-dem-Abriss;art92050,1287828
http://www.muensterschezeitung.de/lokales/neuenkirchen/Die-Kirche-am-St-Josefshaus-ist-keine-Kirche-mehr%3Bart997,519706
http://www.borkenerzeitung.de/lokales/kreis_steinfurt/wettringen/1550156_Der_Abriss_der_Josefshaus_Kapelle_naht.html

Eine bemerkenswerte und gut kommentierte Zusammenstellung historischer Aufnahmen aus New York City
http://www.cyburbia.org/forums/showthread.php?t=12383

(Ob´s wirklich schlechter aussieht als manches westliche Stadtbild, darüber kann man noch diskutieren…)
Architektur in Nordkorea
Von Pjöngjang lernen heißt Bauen lernen
http://www.welt.de/kultur/article13388675/Von-Pjoengjang-lernen-heisst-Bauen-lernen.html

(älter, aber interessant…)
Fehlt nur noch Alexander
Da die Beschwörung einer Geschichte, die so doch nur Konstrukt ist. Dort der Versuch, vorhandenes Erbe gegen neues Investorenglück zu tauschen. Über Stadtlandschaften und nationale Mythen am Balkan – am Beispiel von Skopje und Sofia.
http://diepresse.com/home/spectrum/zeichenderzeit/523223/Fehlt-nur-noch-Alexander

Hier nochmals ein Video zum Stadtumbau „Skopje 2014“
http://www.digitalurban.org/2010/02/skopje-2014-visualisation.html

Schwuler Theologe über Lehrverbot
"Konservativer für die Karriere"
http://www.taz.de/1/leben/alltag/artikel/1/konservativer-fuer-die-karriere/

Euro-Synergies
Robert Steuckers: Answers given to the Scandinavian Group "Oskorei"
http://euro-synergies.hautetfort.com/archive/2011/05/09/oskorei.html

Auf ein Kölsch mit Carlo Clemens
http://pickelhaube.wordpress.com/2011/05/19/auf-ein-kolsch-mit-carlo-clemens/

Ende der Diskussion
http://www.sezession.de/24921/ende-der-diskussion.html#more-24921

Iris Piers im Gespräch über Gegenreaktionen zum Punk und kulturellen Niedergang: „Die Schönheit ist für viele Menschen ein Rückzugsort“
http://www.blauenarzisse.de/index.php/aktuelles/2492-iris-piers-im-gespraech-ueber-gegenreaktionen-zum-punk-und-kulturellen-niedergang-die-schoenheit-ist-fuer-viele-menschen-ein-rueckzugsort

Langhans bei Burschenschaft
Rechts wie links
http://www.spiegel.de/unispiegel/wunderbar/0,1518,763556,00.html

Denkerkollektive
Die neue Schule von Paris
http://www.faz.net/s/RubBE163169B4324E24BA92AAEB5BDEF0DA/Doc~E62579117CB1C456CB0FBA94910B543E2~ATpl~Ecommon~Scontent.html

(„Ein Geist, der stets verneint…“)
Die New Yorker Jahre
Der nackte Bürger Ai Weiwei
http://www.faz.net/s/Rub4521147CD87A4D9390DA8578416FA2EC/Doc~E65565582A07743C2BA6E2D83B0D8382B~ATpl~Ecommon~Scontent.html

Cannes
Lars von Trier nach Hitler-Äußerungen ausgeschlossen
http://www.focus.de/panorama/vermischtes/cannes-lars-von-trier-nach-hitler-aeusserungen-ausgeschlossen_aid_629184.html

Lars von Trier sieht Fehler ein - Kopfschütteln in Dänemark
http://www.abendblatt.de/kultur-live/article1895622/Lars-von-Trier-sieht-Fehler-ein-Kopfschuetteln-in-Daenemark.html

Filmfestival Cannes: Lars von Trier
Von Nachtfaltern zerfressen
http://www.sueddeutsche.de/kultur/filmfestival-cannes-lars-von-trier-bilder-von-nachtfaltern-zerfressen-1.1099218

Liebe und Poesie als Überlebensrezept
Das Lagerdrama "Mitten im Sturm" schildert das Schicksal der Schriftstellerin Ewgenia Ginzburg
http://www.24pr.de/article/Liebe+und+Poesie+als+Ueberlebensrezept/113983.htm

Leben und Überleben im sibirischen Gulag
Drama: "Mitten im Sturm" von Marleen Gorris erzählt bewegend, aber brav die berühmten Memoiren der Evgenia Ginzburg.
http://www.badische-zeitung.de/kino-neustarts/leben-und-ueberleben-im-sibirischen-gulag--44913358.html

(hochverschuldetes Privatfernsehen)
ProSiebenSat1 auf Rekordkurs - 9Live am Ende (AF)
http://www.swissinfo.ch/ger/news/newsticker/wirtschaft/ProSiebenSat1_auf_Rekordkurs_-_9Live_am_Ende_%28AF%29.html?cid=30162878

Universität muß historische Sammlung an jüdische Organisation abtreten
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M5144fa13f3e.0.html

Taboo Snapshots: Neonacizm in The USA
http://xaxor.com/other/7788--taboo-snapshots-neonacizm-in-the-usa-.html

Ehre, Freiheit, Vaterland – Klischee und Traditionalismus in der Country-Musik
http://www.blauenarzisse.de/index.php/gesichtet/2525-ehre-freiheit-vaterland-klischee-und-traditionalismus-in-der-country-musik

Yoga
Im Namen des Meisters
http://www.spiegel.de/spiegel/0,1518,759931,00.html

Düstere Wolken überm Schunkelparadies
Eine Studie prophezeit dem öffentlich-rechtlichen Fernsehen keine ermutigende Zukunft: Junge Zuschauer werden auch im Alter nicht auf ARD und ZDF schalten.
http://www.badische-zeitung.de/ratgeber/computermedien/duestere-wolken-ueberm-schunkelparadies--45362307.html

"Fangen Sie nicht mit dem Web 3.0 an!"
http://faz-community.faz.net/blogs/deus/archive/2011/05/09/fangen-sie-nicht-mit-3-0-an.aspx

Gedanken zu Telepolis
http://www.heise.de/tp/artikel/34/34816/1.html

„Advokat der Kinder“
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M5caac893345.0.html

Ehe und Freundschaft verlängern das Leben
http://www.welt.de/gesundheit/article13361620/Ehe-und-Freundschaft-verlaengern-das-Leben.html

Der Nichtgebrauch der Lüste
Über Asexualität als Lebensform
http://www.nzz.ch/nachrichten/kultur/literatur_und_kunst/der_nichtgebrauch_der_lueste_1.10651150.html

Realitätsschock für Feministen
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M5bd5ef64215.0.html

Ernährung
Neue Verpackung gegen Lebensmittelverschwendung
http://www.n-tv.de/ticker/Ernaehrung/Neue-Verpackung-gegen-Lebensmittelverschwendung-article3352946.html

20 Millionen Tonnen Essen landen im Müll
Ministerin Aigner fordert Umdenken bei Nahrung
http://www.tagesspiegel.de/wirtschaft/20-millionen-tonnen-essen-landen-im-muell-ministerin-aigner-fordert-umdenken-bei-nahrung/4181330.html

Verrohung
Michelstadt: Kinder schlagen Schulraum kurz und klein
http://www.morgenweb.de/region/rhein_neckar_ticker/Mannheimer_Morgen/22520_Michelstadt:_Kinder_schlagen_Schulraum_kurz_und_klein_.html

Philippinen
Korallenriff zerstört wegen Boxkampfs im Fernsehen
http://nachrichten.rp-online.de/panorama/korallenriff-zerstoert-wegen-boxkampfs-im-fernsehen-1.1228228
http://latina-press.com/news/87368-panama-kohlefrachter-zerstoert-korallenriff-auf-den-philippinen/

Landlust: Gegentrend ins Grüne
http://www.jungefreiheit.de/Single-News-Display-mit-Komm.154+M5e2499f394d.0.html

Esskultur
Tatar und Tataren
http://www.journal-frankfurt.de/?src=gastro_news_einzel&id=13139&newsletter_id=472

(Ein Redner, wie er in Deutschland vermutlich noch fehlt…;-))
Black US Patriot Don't Take No Shit off Muslims - Telling it it like is!
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7jCaZpp_QQg

Savigny: The Volksgeist & Law

friedrich_karl_von_savigny.jpg

Savigny: The Volksgeist & Law

Andrew Hamilton

Ex: http://www.counter-currents.com/

Before they addressed themselves to the impractical task of changing men by changing laws, the justices might have pondered the words of Savigny, who wrote, ‘Law is no more made by lawyers than language by grammarians. Law is the natural moral product of a people . . . the persistent customs of a nation, springing organically from its past and present. Even statute law lives in the general consensus of the people.’” –Wilmot Robertson, The Dispossessed Majority (1981)

The concept of the Volksgeist, or “the spirit of the Volk,” was developed by German philosopher Johann Gottfried von Herder (1744–1803). The application of Herder’s theory to law was made by German jurist and legal historian Friedrich Karl von Savigny (1779–1861).

Herder’s Volksgeist is a manifestation of the people; it animates the nation. Every Volk is, as an empirical matter, different from every other Volk, each nationality characterized by its own unique spirit. Every people possesses its own cultural traits shaped by ancestral history and the experience of a specific physical environment, and mentally constructs its social life through language, law, literature, religion, the arts, customs, and folklore inherited from earlier generations. The Volk, in other words, is the family writ large.

Laws, too, must be adapted to the spirit of each nation, for rules applied to one nation are not valid for another. The only legitimate governments are those that develop naturally among particular nations and reflect, in their differences from other polities, the cultures of the people they govern.

Law is the unique creation of a race, a people, a Volk. Like language or values, it is the result of collective human action and reason over generations, not the result of human design. Language and law were never consciously invented at a specific moment in time. Rather, they represent slow accumulations, organic emanations of discrete peoples.

To cite but one example, European law and values and Jewish law and values are as different as night and day. In adopting torture, assassination, criminalization of free speech, thought, and association, genocide, and the abolition of formal restraints on tyranny, whites overnight lost half a millennium or more of slow, painful moral and legal progress.

Descendant of Landed Nobility

Savigny was the descendant of a distinguished Huguenot family from Lorraine, in France, which moved to Germany in 1730 to escape Catholic intolerance. The family derived its name from the Castle of Savigny in the valley of the Moselle River; its members retained their German allegiance upon the transfer of Lorraine to France.

Savigny was born in Frankfurt, the son of a Lutheran father and a Calvinist mother. Orphaned at thirteen, without parents or siblings, the boy was raised by his father’s best friend, a prominent German attorney and government official who, from the age of 15, plunged Savigny and his own son “into a terrible course [of education], comprising the science of law, natural law, international law, Roman law, and German law”—an experience Savigny’s chroniclers compare to John Stuart Mill’s über-rigorous schooling.

Graduating from the University of Marburg in 1800, Savigny took up teaching at the same institution. Among his students were the brothers Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, the later philologists and mythologists famous for Grimm’s Fairy Tales. Savigny eventually secured a position for Jacob at the University of Berlin, and the two maintained a correspondence. Jacob Grimm dedicated his masterwork, Deutsche Grammatik, one of the most important works  of German philology ever written, to Savigny.

Savigny married into the famous Brentano family. One of his wife’s nephews, pacifist economist Ludwig Brentano, won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1927. Savigny’s brother-in-law was the writer Clemens Brentano, and his sister-in-law was Bettina von Arnim, correspondent of Goethe and wife of romantic poet and novelist Achim von Arnim. Through his in-laws Savigny came into close contact with the Heidelberg group of Romantic writers. Savigny’s son, Karl Friedrich von Savigny (1814–1875), was a prominent Prussian diplomat and politician.

In 1810 Savigny became Professor of Roman Law at Prussia’s newly-formed University of Berlin at the request of Wilhelm von Humboldt. There he helped found the institution, served as its first Rector, and organized the law faculty. He also taught the Crown Prince, subsequently King Frederick William IV of Prussia.

Savigny’s highly influential legal works include The Law of Possession (Das Recht des Besitzes) (1803), History of Roman Law in the Middle Ages (Geschichte des römischen Rechts im Mittelalter), 6 vols. (1815–1831), in which he traced the history of Roman law from the breakup of the empire until the beginning of the 12th century and showed how it lived on in local customs, towns, ecclesiastical doctrines, and school teachings until its reemergence in the Renaissance, System of Modern Roman Law (System des heutigen römischen Rechts), 8 vols. (1840–1849), an uncompleted work on the contemporary Roman law of Europe, Miscellaneous Writings (Vermischte Schriften), 5 vols. (1850), and The Law of Contracts (Das Obligationenrecht), 2 vols. (1851–53).

As Jewish law professor Milton R. Konvitz noted:

His massive work on Roman law in the Middle Ages became the source of subjects for countless historical monographs. His students, and their students in turn, dominated historical and legal scholarship and teaching for several generations, and he was universally acknowledged as one of the most influential thinkers and scholars of the nineteenth century.

Civil Law and Common Law

Historically, there has been a disjunction between the civil law systems of continental Europe and the common law systems characteristic of England and the English-settled countries.

Civil law is based upon Roman law, which was first codified in the Twelve Tables in 450 B.C. Codification was completed in 535 A.D. in the Corpus Juris Civilis, the culminating work of Roman legal scholarship.

After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Roman law persisted as part of Germanic law, the customary law of the ancient Germans (codified in the 5th–9th centuries A.D.), and canon law, the law of the Roman Catholic Church courts. It also remained the law of the Eastern Roman Empire, centered in modern-day Turkey, until its collapse in 1453.

The revival of classical studies during the Renaissance led to the resurrection of Roman law, as the Corpus Juris Civilis became the model for most of the legal systems of continental Europe.

The civil law system of the continent was thus a mixture of Roman law and local customary law. As a committee of legal historians observed in 1914:

The story of Western Continental Law is made up, in the last analysis, of two great movements, racial and intellectual. One is the Germanic migrations, planting a solid growth of Germanic custom everywhere, from Danzig to Sicily, from London to Vienna. The other is the posthumous power of Roman law, forever resisting, struggling, and coalescing with the other.

The importance of Roman law, Savigny wrote, is that “by reason of its high state of cultivation” it serves as a pattern for modern jurists. The importance of the local or customary law is that “it is directly and popularly connected with us.” Examination of the historical modifications of the two systems demonstrates how both Roman law and local law varied under the stress of actual needs and the application of legal theory.

Eventually, a single European civil code may replace existing national codes, and Savigny figures in current discussions about this. Here, for example, is Belgian law professor, former Advocate General of the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg, and general editor of a series of casebooks on the Common law of Europe Walter van Gerven writing for the European Commission:

The opposition between von Savigny and Thibaut [see below], regarded as an opposition between law, seen as a product of history, and law, seen as a product of reason, is somehow reflected in the opposition nowadays between those who believe that cultural differences between Member States and legal mentalities are such that no codification at European level is possible, at least not for the time being, and those who believe that codification has to come about without further delay. (p. 9)

To help overcome this difficulty, it has been suggested by some that Savigny’s historical school of law should be reconstituted on a pan-European level. (E.g., Reinhard Zimmerman, “Savigny’s Vermächtnis, Rechtsgeschichte, Rechtsvergleichung und die Begdindung einer Europäischen Rechtswissenschaft” ["Savigny's Legacy, Legal History, Unification of Law and Preconditions for European Legal Sciences"], Juristische Blätter [1998], 273.)

As an aside, it is instructive to briefly touch upon the Pan-European method behind this endeavor as described by van Gerven:

Work that is already underway should be continued on an even larger scale with “the aim of finding a European common core of legal principles and rules” and starting with the modest task of “mark(ing) out areas of agreement and disagreement, to construct a European legal lingua franca that has concepts large enough to embrace legal institutions which are functionally comparable, to develop a truly common law literature and the beginnings of a European law school curriculum.” (p. 29)

The author continues: “That this is not an easy matter appears from the literature on [European] Community law which now flourishes abundantly in any one Member State, but unfortunately very often in a closed national, or one language, circuit without reference to literature published in other Member States or other languages.” (p. 29n)

This shows how even the largest European institutions, with ample access to multilingual personnel, extensive translations, and continuous cross-border contacts and cooperation are still stymied by deeply entrenched intra-European cultural differences—particularly linguistic balkanization.

The situation is comparable but far worse for white racialists with their meager resources, inability to communicate in multiple languages, and lack of international contacts. Indeed, when racialists try to establish even one-off personal connections they are often hounded mercilessly by Jewish organizations, communist street thugs, pliant politicians and journalists, and police agencies determined to strangle white unity in the cradle. Victims of such actions have included Francis Parker Yockey, George Lincoln Rockwell, William Pierce, Tom and John Metzger, David Irving, and many others.

Unfortunately, any new Pan-European laws promulgated by existing elites will be deeply inimical to white racial survival and fundamental human rights.

The Origin of Germany’s Codification Controversy

There have been many modern codifications of civil law principles, the most famous and influential of which is the Code Napoléon (1804) of France, which strongly shaped the civil law systems of continental Europe and Latin America.

Louisiana is the only US civil law state, its law based upon French and Spanish codes and ultimately Roman law as opposed to English common law. Similarly, in Canada, French Quebec is the only province that operates under a dual system, with civil matters being governed by continental-style civil law and criminal matters by common law. The legal system of white South Africa was based upon Roman-Dutch civil law, and Scotland is considered a mixed law system.

In addition to the Code Napoléon, the major modern civil codes in effect when the German codification controversy flared were the Prussian Landrecht (Allgemeines Landrecht für die Preussischen Staaten, 1794) and the Austrian General Civil Code (Allgemeines bürgerliches Gesetzbuch, or ABGB, 1811). Today national civil codes are prevalent almost everywhere in continental Europe.

The primary difference between common law and civil code systems is ideological.

Common law is based upon precedent and gradual change, balancing tradition and reason.

The codes generally reflect the radical, utopian hyper-rationalism of the French Revolution. The French sought to abolish all prior law and replace it with new, all-encompassing norms in codified form. History was deemed irrelevant to the formulation, interpretation, and application of the French code; law ought to originate abstractly in the human mind (pure reason). A frequently repeated maxim of the legal radicals was, “I know nothing of the civil law; I know only the Code Napoléon.”

Theoretically the codes, complete, coherent, and clear, reduced all law to written form. Since lawmaking power was lodged solely in the legislature, judges could not look outside of the code for guidance. Their duty was to mechanically apply the law as set forth in the code.

Under the Holy Roman Empire there had been more than 300 German states. Between 1806 and 1815, the conqueror Napoleon organized them into the Confederation of the Rhine. Following his defeat, the Congress of Vienna (1814–15) created the German Confederation, consisting of 39 states, the most powerful of which were Prussia and the Austrian Empire. Each German state had its own system of laws which changed as you crossed the border, greatly hampering economic and political coordination.

In 1814, A. F. J. Thibault, professor of Roman Law at the University of Heidelberg, a former student of Immanuel Kant’s at the University of Königsberg and, like Savigny, a German of French Huguenot descent, proposed a unified German civil code on the French model to remedy the chaos of existing law. He set forth his proposals in a pamphlet, About the Necessity of a Common Civil Law for Germany (Über die Nothwendigkeit eines allgemeinen bürgerlichen Rechts für Deutschland).

Interestingly, though desirous of enacting a uniform system of laws for the German states, Thibault opposed political unification. As part of his proposed rationalistic reconstruction, he favored discarding Roman law, “the work of a nation which was very unlike us, and from the period of the lowest decline of the same.”

Opposing a French-style code for Germany, Savigny characterized the rationalistic legal mentality as one of “infinite arrogance” and “shallow philosophy.” Law, he maintained, could not be abstractly originated by a handful of individuals at a specified moment in time, but is organically created by the people of a nation as an expression of its Volksgeist. It is a grave error to try to consciously construct an ideal, all-encompassing legal code, to which everyone is compelled to submit. He believed that intellectuals lacked the ability to construct humane, workable legal systems in such a manner.

The Volksgeist and Law

Savigny set forth his views in an epochal pamphlet, Vom Beruf unserer Zeit für Gesetzgebung und Rechtswissenschaft (1814, 2nd rev. ed. 1828) (Eng. trans., Frederick Charles von Savigny, Of the Vocation of Our Age for Legislation and Jurisprudence, Abraham Hayward trans. [London: Littlewood, 1831]) and in an introductory article to the Journal of Historical Jurisprudence (Zeitschrift für geschichtliche Rechtswissenschaft), which he co-founded. From 1815 to 1850 it served as the organ of the historical school of jurisprudence.

The German Romanticism of the early 19th century had a strong influence on Savigny’s philosophy of law. As John Henry Merryman notes:

Savigny and his followers—influenced by Kant, Hegel, and German Romanticism—opposed this [codification] effort . . . Proponents of what came to be known as the “historical school,” these scholars maintained that it would be wrong for Germany to attempt to devise a [French-style] civil code . . . In their view, the law of a people was a historically determined organic product of that people’s development, an expression of the Volksgeist. Consequently, a thorough study of the existing German law and of its historical development was a necessary prelude to codification. Since the Roman civil law as interpreted by the medieval Italian scholars had been formally received in Germany some centuries before, a thorough historical study of German law had to include Roman law and old Germanic law as well as more recent elements of the contemporary German legal system. Under the influence of Savigny and the historical school, many German scholars turned their energies to the intensive study of legal history.

. . . The result would be a reconstruction of the German legal system according to its inherent principles and features.

Savigny considered law to be an emanation of a people’s spiritual and historical experience. It “is first developed by custom and popular acceptance, next by judicial decisions—everywhere, therefore, by internal silently operating powers, not by the arbitrary will of the law-giver.” The essential prerequisite was a deep and far-reaching appreciation of the genius of a particular Volk; the prescriptive content of the law must accord with the Volksgeist.

For Savigny, German law was an expression of the Volksgeist of the German people. Law is only properly understood in the light of past and present history, and reflects the inner convictions of Volk psychology and shared moral values. The Volksgeist, constantly changing and evolving as the German people changed and evolved, drove the slow evolution of law over the course of history. Savigny believed that the Volk of every land had a similar effect on each nation’s law.

Legal institutions and values, like music, art, or language, are an indigenous expression of the culture. Savigny, like Herder, thought that there was “an organic connection of law with the being and character of the people. . . . Law grows with the growth, and strengthens with the strength of the people, and finally dies away as the nation loses its nationality.”

Again like Herder, the Volksgeist is best understood through careful examination of historical data. That is why Savigny is considered a pillar of the historical school of jurisprudence. Time and again he traced the natural history of law, its organic growth as a living thing, and indicated the processes by which it adjusted to the needs of successive generations.

Although law initially manifests through custom, as social activity and rules grow more complex a specialist body of lawyers emerges. The lawyers who formulate law for an advanced culture seve as the representatives of the Volksgeist. Combining historical knowledge of law with a conceptual, systematic understanding of how rules interrelate with one another and with the whole, jurists separate what still has validity from that which is lifeless “and only belongs to history,” arriving thereby at a “living customary law.”

Thanks in large part to Savigny’s immense influence on 19th century German law and legal scholarship, Germany proved more resistant to the influence of the French Revolution than any other civil law nation in Europe. The German jurist decisively won the codification debate, and a new German Civil Code did not emerge until 1900. When it did, its historical orientation was in marked contrast to the revolutionary and rationalistic character of the Code Napoléon. As Merryman explains:

The German Civil Code of 1896 [Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch or BGB, effective 1900] is the opposite of revolutionary. It was not intended to abolish prior law and substitute a new legal system; on the contrary, the idea was to codify those principles of German law that would emerge from careful historical study of the German legal system. Instead of trying to discover true principles of law from man’s nature, as the French did . . . the Germans sought to find fundamental principles of German law by scientific study of the data of German law: the existing German legal system in historical context.

The Volksgeist Abroad

No one who has studied the works of Nobel Prize-winning Austrian economist and philosopher Friedrich Hayek will fail to notice the parallels between his thought and Herder’s and Savigny’s. In the case of Herder to cite but one example, there are precise parallels concerning the belief in the evolution, as opposed to the conscious invention or construction, of human languages. Though Hayek did not articulate a racial or ethnic basis for his evolutionary theory, he may be profitably read as if he had by anyone who recognizes that racial universalism is incorrect and unworkable.

It is not apparent that Hayek ever read Herder, but he was familiar with Savigny. (It is too little appreciated that Hayek received a doctorate in law from the University of Vienna.) Savigny’s theories of law are in accord with Hayek’s belief that social phenomena such as language, law, the family, morality, the free market, etc., objectively are (and normatively ought to be) the “results of human action but not of human design.” To attempt conscious, rationalistic constructions in such areas of life is an error characteristic of the totalitarian mind.

Hayek traced the influence of Edmund Burke upon the German historical school, and, in the reverse direction, “In the social sciences it was through Savigny’s follower Sir Henry Maine that the evolutionary approach re-entered the English tradition.”

Indeed, the common law of the United Kingdom and the English-settled white countries was itself an unconscious expression of the Volksgeist principle. The conservative tendency of the common law stood in marked contrast to the revolutionary ideology from which the continental codes emerged.

James Coolidge Carter, a distinguished New York attorney and opponent of 19th-century American codification, was a legal theorist in the Savigny-Maine mold. He succinctly summarized the common law method as follows:

It is agreed that the true rule must somehow be found [note he says found, not made]. Judge and advocates, all together, engage in the search. Cases more or less nearly approaching the one in controversy are adduced. Analogies are referred to. The customs and habits of men are appealed to. Principles already settled as fundamental are invoked and run out to their consequences; and finally a rule is deduced which is declared to be the one which the existing law requires to be applied to the case.

Another textbook example of the Volksgeist principle in action is Scandinavia, whose legal development has been described as follows:

Legal attitudes and legislative practices among the Nordic peoples have been very similar, and highly democratic, since early times. These concepts remained largely uninfluenced by Roman law, which spread over most of the Continent. Rather, ancient tribal laws evolved pragmatically and were passed down through generations by word of mouth. When these laws were codified, starting about 1100, they were found to be common regarding principles, differing only with particular local conditions. (Norman E. Holly, “Legal and Legislative Co-operation in the Scandinavian States,” American Bar Association Journal, November 1963, p. 1089.)

Conclusion

In his civil law casebook (1994), John Henry Merryman asked (but did not answer) the question: “Does a nation have only one Volksgeist or do ethnically diverse nations have a Volksgeist for each cultural group?”

In multiracial ex-white nations, the dominant Volk, the Jews, freely express their Volksgeist through Jewish and general law, but other groups are limited by the will of the rulers. This is true even of currently favored groups like Muslims, with their Sharia law.

But oppressed whites no longer have a Volksgeist. Culture distortion simultaneously destroys both the collective life of the people and its law, which is supplanted by a rigid, racist legal positivism characteristic of contemporary totalitarian regimes.

But if we eventually regain our freedom and independence, Savigny’s Volksgeist should inform our reacquisition of law. The applicability to a racialist jurisprudence of a view of law as organically evolved over time out of the consciousness or spirit of a people is obvious.

Because biological race consists of a system of nested hierarchies, law may be adapted to any appropriate level of specificity or generality circumstances call for. At present, a higher level of racial generality than was characteristic of the old European nationalisms appears most suitable to the needs of what is ultimately likely to be a greatly diminished, ingathered population.